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Full text of "South Australia in 1887: A Handbook for the Adelaide Jubilee International ..."

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SOUTH AU8TEALIA IN 1887. 



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A HANDBOOK 



ADELAIDE 

JUBILEE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 

"WITH 

INTRODUCTION BY SIR SAMUEL DAVENPORT, K.C.M.a., LL.D. 



COMPIIiEX) BY H. J. SOOTT. 



BY AUTHORITY: E. SPILLER, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, NORTH -TERRACE. 



1887. 

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ROYAL COMMISSION FOR SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



ADELAIDE 



1887. 



Sir W. C. F. Robinson, G.C.M.G. 

Sir John W. Downer, K.C.M.G. 

6%tcvitibt €ommi%mnn: 
Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G., LL.D. 

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Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G. 
Sir R. D. Ross, K.B., M.P. 
Sir J. W. Downer, K.C.M.G. 
Hon. D. Murray, M.L.C. 
Hon. J. G. Ramsay, M.L.C. 
Hon. J. H. Angas, M.L.C. 
Hon. A. Catt, M.P. 
Hon. J. C. Bray, M.P. 
Hon. J. H. Howe, M.P. 
Hon. L. L. Furner, M.P. 
Hon. Dr. Coekburn, MP. 
Hon. Jenkin Coles, M.P. ■ 
Hon. C. C. Kingston, M.P. 



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Thos. Hardy, Esq. 

^*iminx(t €ommifimnn: 
H. J. Scott, Esq. 

Septimus V. Pizey, Esq. 



Hon. J. C. F. Johnson, M.P. 

Hon. T. Playford, M.P. 

E. T. Smith, Esq., M.P. 

W. E. Mattinson, Esq., M.P. 

T. Scherk, Esq., M.P. 

H. C. E. Muecke, Esq., J.P. 

D. Bower, Esq., J.P. 

A. Adamson, Esq., J.P. 

A. A. Kirkpatrick, Esq., J.P. 

W. A. Robinson, Esq., J.P. 

H. J. Scott, Esq. 

T. Hack, Esq. 

A. S. Clark, Esq. 



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The Royal Commissioners for South Australia at the Adelaide 
Jubilee International Exhibition, 1887, having requested me 
to compile and edit a handbook showing the progress of the 
colony after fifty years existence, I have endeavored to obtain 
the most accurate information from those in a responsible 
position and best qualified to supply reliable statements con- 
cerning '* South Australia as it is," after a life of fifty years. 

At no period has it been my intention to make this hand- 
book an historical record, because at previous exhibitions an 
exhaustive history of the colony, from the points of view of the 
different writers, has been ably placed before the public; but 
the object now is to present to readers the position of South 
Australia at this day. 

I desire here to tender my thanks to the officers of the 

different departments concerned for the valuable help they 

have rendered, also to other gentlemen connected with the 

products and manufactures of the colony, and to my colleague, 

Mr. S. V. Pizey, for their able assistance. 

H. J. SCOTT. 
Fernleigh Cottage^ 

Norwood, 

South Australia. 



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CONTENTS. 

Paob 

List of Commissioners 3 

Preface .. .. .. 5 

Plan •, ., .. .. ..8 

The Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition . • . . . . 9 

Introduction .. 13 

Comparative Statistics for the last Fifty Tears 17 

Form of GoTemment » .. 1$ 

Administration of Justice 19 

The Aborigines of South Australia . . • • • 21 

Occupation and Disposal of Land • 25 

Survey Department ., 2S 

The Real Property Act 34 

The Expeiimental Farm and Agricultural College^ Bofleworihy . . 35 

Stock .' ,. 87 

The Woods and Forests Department • . . . . • r. 39 

Government Geologist's Department .. •• .. •• .. 4^ 

WaterSupply 63 

Adelaide Waterworks 00 

Adelaide Sewers and Sewage Farm^ . . 66 

The River Murray • . . 71 

Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia : South Austxalian Branch 74 

TheEailways 81 

Main Roads , . . . , . , 82 

Marine Board . . .. .. • .. 83 

Municipal Institutions • ., •• .. .. .. 86 

Public Library .. ... ,,. 90 

Beading Boom 90 

Museum .... . • ... . • . . 91 

ArtGallery ; 91 

Institutes « ••. 91 

Schools of Painting and Design . . • • 92 

Boyal Society of South Australia ..... .. •• .. 92 

The University ,. 95 

Public Education «. .. 94 

Newspapers • ., .. .. 97 

Post Office and Telegraph— 

Post Office 99 

Electric Telegraph . . 102 

The Observatory 106 



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8 CONTENTS. 

Paok. 
Beligioui Denominatioiui — 

Church of England 112 

Collegiate School of St. Peter 112 

Wedeyan Methodist Chinch •• 113 

Prince Alfred College 114 

Presbyterian Church of South Australia 114 

South Australian Baptist Association • • . 115 

The New Church (Swedenhorgian) 116 

Unitarian Church .. •• •• •• •• •• ,,116 

Free Presbyterian Church ..• .. • 117 

Society of Friends ..- .. .. • .• 117 

Bible Christian Church., • .. .. .• ..•• .. 118 
Christian Churches • • . . . • • . . . • . ..119' 

United Free Church of South Australia 119 

Gennan Eyangelical Lutheran Church 119 

Methodist New Connexion Church . . • • . . . . . 120 

The Welsh Free Chureh 120 

Church of Christ 120 

Boman Catholic .. .. 120a 

Congregational •• .. .. 120b 

Charitable Institutions 122 

Central and Local Boards of Health 124 

The Marriage Laws .. .. • ..126 

South Australian Military Forces 128 

The Police Force 133 

Botanic Garden and its Progress . . . . . . 137 

Natural Products .. 148 

Manufacturing .. .. ..■ .. .. •• .. 164 

Northern Territory ... ,. 174 

South Australian Exhibits- 
Main Building .. .. .. ... .. 189 

Eastern Annexe .. • .. .. .. .. .. .. 211 

Concert Hall and Art Gallery • 240,256 

Basement .• •• 241 

Northern Annexe . • . , . . . • 246 

Agricultural Implement Hall .. 249 

Outside .. ,. ,, ... .. 249 

Machinery Hall .. .. ., 250 

Armament Hall .. .. • .. •• .. ,• . .. 250 

Northern Territory Court 252 

Index to Catalogue .. «. ... 257 

Listof Officers .. .. .. 281 

FroiBOten and Guarantors- . . . . . . , . . . , , 281 



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THE ADELAIDE JUBILEE INTERNATIONAL 
EXHIBITION, 1887. 

The history of nations for many centuries back contains a record 
of Exhibitions, whether they are called " International'* or merely 
" fairs," yet the fact remains that the enterprise of merchants, the 
glory of individuals, and the curiosity of the populace have all 
tended to one grand result, that of inciting artisans and skilled 
workers by comparison to greater exertions to endeavor to produce 
something better than that of their fellows. Hence it has been 
considered fitting that the jubilee of our colony should be 
celebrated by an Exhibition of Arts and Industries, showing not 
only what we in this colony have done during the last fifty years, 
but by inviting comparison with the skilled products of other 
countries show to our artisans what may be accomplished in the 
future. 

Going back to ancient history, we find that some five hundred 
years before the birth of our Lord, " Ahasuerus showed the riches of 
his glorious kingdom and the honor of his excellent majesty for 
many days." From thence through the centuries when Imperial 
Rome gathered together the spoils of war and the triumphs of 
peace, and when Rome had fallen and Venice was queen city of 
the seas, exhibitions were held illustrative of the arts and 
industries of that merchant city. The fairs which in the middle 
ages were held on the continent of Europe, notably at Leipzig, may 
well be likened to the great exhibitions, as they attracted from all 
parts, merchants showing cunningly wrought armour, richly 
designed silks, gold and silver embroidery and jewellery, and as 
evidence of their utility it may be mentioned that the fair of Nijni 
Novgorod has been held in Russia for the last three hundred 
years, and at the present day an iron structure comprising 2,500 
shops affords accommodation for the annual gathering of merchants 
from the East, but it was reserved to the master mind of the 
great Napoleon to realize the advantages likely to accrue to a 
country by bringing the manufacturers into comparison and 
instituting the system of jurors and awards, for we read that in 
1798, Napoleon, as first consul, invited the recipients of the " gold 



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10 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

medal " at the Paris Exhibition to a public dinner, and this is the 
first recorded recognition of the manufacturing classes as an 
important factor in the welfare of any country. For upwards of 
a century National Exhibitions have been held in every capital 
in Europe, but it was not until 1851 that the Prince Consort 
(Albert the Good) inaugurated the first of a series of International 
Exhibitions grouped under four main heads : — (1) Raw materials ; 
(2) Machinery and mechanical inventions; (3) Manufactures; (4) 
Fine arts. The happy result of that exhibition, together with the 
leaps and bounds made by art and science in designing, inventing 
and perfecting machinery to economise labor, has led to exhibitions 
being held in all parts of the known world — at Paris, Vienna, 
Moscow, Philadelphia, Florence, Athens, Sydney, and Melbourne ; 
aye, even in Japan the Buddhist temple at Ki6to was used for the 
display of a collection of the arts and industries of that newly 
awakened Empire ; whilst at Calcutta the Imperial Museum, con» 
taining statues, relics, &c., of Buddha, Vishna, Ganish, and the 
thousand and one deities of the Indian Empire were thrust aside, 
and the magnificent building in Chowringhee was filled with show 
cases containing the manufactures of the western world. 

Only last year the display of products and manufactures under 
Her Majesty's dominion was shown at the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, where the exhibits were from an empire upon which 
the sun never sets, and whose products are sufficient in themselves 
to supply all the wants of the empire, from the coldest extremity 
of the dominion in Canada to the warmest spot upon the earth in 
India and the East, That Exhibition has done more to knit 
together the component parts of the Empire into one harmonious 
whole than the united statesmanship and efibrts of the Parliaments 
of all Her Majesty's possessions. 

Our Jubilee Exhibition, therefore, is one unit in that process of 
welding commenced in 1880 after the display carried on in Mel- 
bourne and Sydney. At the private Exhibition in Adelaide of 
Mr. Joubert's, it may be mentioned that that Exhibition was 
open less than three months ; it averaged a daily attendance of 
4,878, the total of which was 276,692; and the returns from 
entrance fees was £10,439 15s. 6d. 

Our Jubilee Exhibition is inaugurated under very auspicious 
circumstances. The Government of the colony have erected the 
main building without cost to the promoters ; they have given every 
facility to exhibitors ; the customs authorities do not wrap them- 



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THE ADELAIDE JUBILEE EXHIBITION. 11 

selves in a cloak of officialism; and one and all vie with each other 
to make it a success. Its first conception was due to some of the 
members of Parliament, who, after their return from the Melbourne 
Exhibition in 1881, urged our Government to make a fitting 
celebration of our jubilee. In 1883 that expression of feeling 
found vent in a resolution to erect a proper building with 
appurtenances suitable to the occasion ; but in the following yeair 
a new Ministry came into power — they gave way to the represen-^ 
tations of the country members, who, with a very near-sighted 
policy, considered that the expenditure of nearly two hundred 
thousand pounds, as was then proposed, in the erection and manage- 
ment of a Jubilee Exhibition, would not be a benefit to the country 
at large. Their opinions for the time prevailed, and a Repealing 
Act was passed; but since then not one of the members of our 
Parliament but has regretted his want of confidence in the recupera- 
tive powers of our country, and the energy and enthusiasm of the 
prime mover in the scheme of a guaranteed exhibition, Mr. E. T. 
Smith, merits the favor of his sovereign and the gratitude of his 
fellow-citizens. 

The Exhibition buildings are situate upon the slope of a hill, 
bounded by North- terrace on the one side and Frome-road on the 
other. In the centre is the main building, designed by Withall and 
Wells, the architects, for the futiire use of the Agricultural Society, 
the Chamber of Manufactures, and a proposed Technological 
Museum, for which the first donation has already been received 
from the Indian Government as an out-come of the Calcutta Exhi- 
bition. The main building covers an area of upwards of a square 
acre, comprised in basement, main and upper floors ; the central 
hall is surrounded by a spacious gallery giving approach to the 
fine arts court, over which towers a handsome and lofty dome. 
From its summit a bird*8-eye view can be had of the country for 
twelve miles surrounding Adelaide. On right and left are annexes 
built for the accommodation of exhibits respectively from the old 
country and from the new, whilst on the north side of the building 
the grand promenade afibrds a pleasant walk for all those whose 
duties detain them inside the greater part of the day, and for our 
country cousins who prefer not to be cribbed and cabined when 
they visit the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition. 

From the terrace of the main building a splendid view of North 
Adelaide is obtained ; lying at foot is the grand promenade, with 
the Northern Territory exhibits to the right. Further on is the 



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12 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

northern annexe, which contains much that is of value in the 
manufacturing and industrial section of the Exhibition ; to the left 
is the armoury, containing the grand exhibit sent out by Her 
Majesty's Government, showing the models and actual sizes of the 
destructive engines of modern ' warfare, in the building known as 
the Armament hall. Other buildings containing instructive exhibits 
intervene, until the embodiment of science and invention is met 
with in the machinery hall, where engines and machinery, whose 
automatic power is the wonder of all visitors, can be seen in full 
operation acting as the willing servants of man. 



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INTRODUCTION. 13 



INTRODUCTION. 

(By Sir Samuel Davenport, JC,C,M,G,J 

Taking for the date of its birth that day on which its first 
Governor landed and planted the British flag on the shores at 
Glenelg, December 28th, 1836, South Australia completed its 
fiftieth year on the 28th December last; and hence our jubilee. 

South Australia was not the offshoot from another colony. It 
was' a distinct and independent individual ; not a cutting nor a 
layer, but with roots and stem and branches, it had its own 
complete and compact being. Besides, it had novelties in its 
composition. It was the exponent of a new theory of colonization 
evolved by Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Nature gave the land, 
and the sale of this was to supply the capital for the introduction 
of labor necessary to raise the wealth from it which should 
provide for its future life. 

In anticipation of the funds to be thus tdtimately acquired 
from land, a sufficient loan had been authorised by the mother 
country. 

St) at its birth, a fresh response was given to the prayer of 
the great Milton, who, in 1641, "implored that that Divine 
" Power which had built up the Britannic Empire to a glorious 
" a;nd enviable height, with all her daughter islands about her, 
"would stay us in this felicity"; and an additional illustration 
was started of Penn's theory (1680), who said "that colonies are 
" the seeds of nations, begun and nourished by the care of wise 
" and populous coimtries.** 

In 1832 there was a great want of employment in England, and 
a not inconsequent desire amongst all classes for emigration. 

In 1833 Coleridge wrote — " Colonization is an imperative duty 
" on Great Britain. God seems to hold out his fingers to us over 
" the sea ; but it must be a colonization of Hope, not, as has 
" happened, of Despair." 

Under these conditions of public opinion and national require- 
ments was it that authority was sought to establish a new colony 
in Australia ; and, much aided by the great Duke of Wellington, 
an Act of Parliament was passed in 1834 for the founding of 
South Australia. 



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14 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

The execution of the Act was placed in the charge of a Board 
■of Commissioners, whose members were Colonel Torrens, F.R.S., 
chairman; George Fife Angas, Edward Barnard, William Hutt, 
John George Shaw LeFevre, William Alexander Mackinnon, M.P., 
Samuel Mills, Jacob Montefiore, George Palmer, and John Wright, 
Esquires, with George Barnes, Esq., treasurer, and Rowland Hill, 
Esq. (afterwards Sir Rowland, author of the penny-post system), 
as secretary. 

The Groyemorship was first offered to but declined by Colonel 
Charles James Napier (afterwards Sir Charles), the hero of Scinde. 
The Surveyor-General appointed was Colonel Light, who had 
served with distinction under the Duke of Wellin^m in the 
Peninsular War. To him we owe the admirable selection of the 
site of Adelaide. 

The colony now possesses a territory of 914,730 square miles, 
or nearly tme-third of the, so-called continent of Australia. Its 
northern boundary on the Indian Seas comprises that section of 
the coast whick first made known to the world the existence even 
of Australia. This occurred in the year 1616, when the Dutch 
navigator, Zeachen, sighted the shore and called it Diemen's Land, 
after the then Dutch Governor-General at Java. That was the 
most northern portion of our present Northern Territory. 

The southern boundary of South Australia was the latest dis- 
covered of all the shores of Australia. This was the work of 
Flinders, to whom and at whose request the British Admiralty had 
given the command of the ship Investigator for exploring pur- 
poses. This occurred in 1802, shortly after Flinders and Bass had 
discovered that Tasmania was not a part of the main land of 
Australia, but an island, severed from the continent by Bass's 
Straits. 

Twenty-eight years after Flinders had mapped our southern 
coasts, Charles Sturt found the River Murray and followed it down 
from New South Wales to the junction of the Darling, and into 
South Australia— or 1 ,000 miles — to the sea. 

Flinders' revelations of the coast in Ib02-S, and Sturt's report 
on the valley of the River Murray in 1831, constituted the evidence 
upon which, in the same year in London, a few gentlemen discussed 
the propriety of founding a colony in this part of Australia. In 
1834 an Act of the Imperial Parliament authorised the work. In 
August, 1836, the first survey party arrived under command of 
Colonel Light, with whom were officers who have survived Colonel 



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INTRODUCTION. 15 

Light and are still with us, namely, the Hon. B. T. Finniss, Mr. 
Jacobs of Moorooroo, Mr. Lindsay of Encounter Bay. Ships with 
settlers and immigrants and stores arrived month by month in sue* 
cessson till, on the 28th December of the same year, the first 
GoTemor, Captain Hindmarsh, R.N., reached our shores, and, 
landing the same day at Holdfast Bay, formally took possession 
of the land in the name of the then British Sovereign, King 
William IV. 

Inland, South Australia is bounded on the west by Western 
Australia, and on the east by Victoria, New South Wales, and 
Queensland. 

On the present occasion of celebrating the fiftieth year of the 
colony, it will be appropriate to publish our debt of gratitude 
to its *' fathers and founders." Their work has ended, and they 
mostly have passed away ; we remain and reap the fruits of their 
labors. 

Probably due to the fact that so little was known of the lands 
of the colony, intending investors were at the first slow to move. 
Eventual success came through Mr. Geo. Fife Angas establishing 
the South Australian Company, whose purchases of land satisfied 
all requirements. Later on, Mr., afterwards Sir James Hurtle 
Fisher, became Resident Commissioner to the colony. 

The Act authorising the founding of the colony defined certain 
guiding^ principles. Funds for starting the colony were to come 
from the sales of the land. Revenue obtained in ordinaiy ways 
should pay for its government. The colony was not to be a 
charge on the mother country. Land was to be sold at a sufficient 
price, and therefore not under £ 1 per acre. This principle de- 
manded that settlers should be capitalists able to profitably work 
the land. Three-fourths of the payments for land were to be 
invested in bringing our labor, the rest to provide for roads and 
bridges. Thus three elements of success were to be gained — 
capital, labor, and means of general traffic. 

The settlement of population was to be regulated in groups in 
order to secure the advantages of neighboring communities. For 
this end the lands generally were to be surveyed in small blocks, 
a standard of 80 acres per section being adopted. The sales were 
to be by public auction, so that the evils of large monopolies might 
be avoided. Emigration was to be as much as possible by families. 
In the opinion of the writer these principles of action were well 
developed, as indeed the occupation of the Adelaide, plains under 



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16 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

the first surveys to this day bear witness, in the compact farms and 
grouped gardens, and frequent townships, and the network of 
roads, telegraph wires, mails, post and other conveyances, and 
advantages of concentrated dwellings, which appear on all sides. 
And so long as care was taken not to offer lands for sale until there 
was a bond fide demand for them, with a fair chance of healthful 
competition, no monopoly evil could readily have arisen. In those 
days the land fund was kept separately, and was rigidly devoted to 
the purposes the Imperial law had assigned to it. 

The practice had not till then obtained of looking on the land 
fund as ordinary revenue ; nor would that have been a legal 
appropriation. 

But if it be grateful on this occasion to recall to mind the bene- 
fits conferred on us by our "fathers and founders,*' it is equally 
incumbent on us not to overlook the long list of sturdy settlers, 
colonists of all professions and classes, officials, civilians, pas- 
toralists, and farmers, whose intelligence, energy and perse- 
verance, hardy daring and untiring labors, sterling character, and 
unflinching bravery have effected that great conquest of a savage 
land, growing meat and wool off hundreds of thousands of square 
miles recovered from the wilderness, where forests have been re- 
duced to smiling wheatficlds— marshes to garden grounds — ^hills to 
terraced fruit grounds and vineyards — and who have constructed 
cities and towns — harbors and highways — railways and metalled 
roads — telegraph and telephones, to so vast an extent, considering 
the few years and with a very limited population. 

Then need we extend our vision outside the circle of those 
officially, or as members of trading corporations, or as settlers whose 
labors have so greatly and beneficially promoted our growth over our 
life of fifty years, and now thankfuUy recognise that what of the 
healthy functioning of our social and political life is subject to, and 
can be strongly influenced for good or evil by the Imperial agencies 
acting on and with our national being, the colony has been second 
to none in the valuable services rendered to it by the Governors 
who have respectively held the high position of Her Majesty's 
representatives amongst us. 

From the hour of our colony's birth — ^less the interval of the 
174 days between that event on the 28th December, 1836, and 
the 20th June, 1837 — have the benign influences of Queen 
Queen Victoria's eventful and illustrious reign presided over our 
Imperial interests. When, on the 20th June, 1837, Her Majesty 



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INTRODUCTION, 17 

ascended the throne, this colony lay in its wildest state of nature. 
The kangaroo and emu. fed oyer the glades of the Adelaide plains, 
interspersed amongst the somewhat dense thickets of wattles, shea- 
oaks, and lofty gumtrees. Here peace and silence were imdisturbed 
except by the hunting aborigines, whose "coo-ees" in the daytime 
were heard from the hills, and the doleful cries of howling dingoes 
at night. Beyond the erection of a few tents or reedy breakwinds, 
tmd of wooden ready-made houses brought with them by the 
colonists from London, and of a few felled trees for firewood and 
other immediate wants, or for the surveyors' labors; and beyond the 
anchoring of a ship off the coast, and the hatdage of goods to and 
on shore, no impress of a civilised occupation yet marked the 
founding of a colony. Fifty years of life have passed, and the 
colony is what we this day see it, and what the subjoined statistics 
declare it to be. Fifty years of our life have passed under the reign 
■of Her gracious Majesty Queen Victoria — Queen of Great Britain 
and Ireland, Empress of India and the Colonies — whom God yet 
long preserve ! — and whose Jubilee sovereignty we now blend with 

our own. 

Comparative Statisfica for the fast Fifty Years, 

1836. 
Population 546 

1846. 

Population 26,893 

Imports £330,099 

Exports £312,838 

1856. 

Population 104,708 

Imports £1,366,529 

Exports £1,666,740 

1866. 

Population 163,452 

Imports £2,835,142 

Exports £2,858,737 

Banking Deposits £1,401,565 

1876. 

Population 225,677 

Imports £4,576,183 

Exports £4,816,170 

Banking Deposits £3,316,095 

1886. 

Population 312,439 

Imports £4,852,750 

Exports £4,489,008 

Banking Deposits £4,962,066 



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18 SOUTH. AUSTRALIA. 



FORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

The colony has responsible Government, in which the Sovereigisif 
is represented by a Governor appointed by the Crown, who has a 
power of veto in certain cases, in accordance with the first Consti- 
tution Act. 

The Parliament consists of two Houses, the Legislative Council 
and the House of Assembly, who are invested with plenary powers 
in all matters affecting South Australia. 

The twenty-four members of the Legislative Council are elected 
for a term of nine years, one-third of whom retire every three years^ 
unless in the event of a Bill for any Act having been passed by the 
House of Assembly during two previous sessions, the second and 
third readings of such Bill having been passed by an absolute 
majority of the House of Assembly, and a general election having 
taken place in the meantime, then, if such Bills are rejected by, 
or fail by reason of amendments proposed by, the Legislative 
Council to become law, the Governor has the power to dissolve 
Parliament, and thereupon members shall be selected to supply 
the vacancies, for which old members are eligible. 

Voters for the Legislative Council must be British subjects^ 
twenty-one years of age, and on the electoral roll for six months,, 
and possess a freehold of the value of fifty pounds, or a leasehold 
of twenty pounds annual value having three years to run, or with 
right of purchase, or occupy a dwelling-house of twenty-five 
pounds annual value. 

The House of Assembly is composed of fifty-two members,, 
representing twenty-six .districts, who are elected for three years, 
luless in the meantime a dissolution is effected and a change of 
Ministry occur. 

Elections are by ballot, the voting taking place between 8 a.m.. 
and 6 p.m. All voters must be British subjects, twenty-one years- 
of age, and on the electoral roll for six months. 

The Cabinet consists of six members, as foUows : — 

1. The Chief Secretary. 

2. Attorney-General. 

3. The Treasurer. 

4. Commissioner of Crown Lands. 

5. Commissioner of Public Works. 

6. Minister of Education. 



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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 19 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

Supreme Court 

Criminal. —The Criminal Law of South Australia is very similar 
to that of the mother country, being based, for the most part, on 
the English Criminal Consolidation Acts passed a few years ago. 
Th^re is no grand jury in South Australia, accused persons being 
placed upon their trial upon information laid by the Attorney- 
General. The Criminal Court, presided over by the Chief Justice 
or one of the Puisne Judges, sits every alternate month in 
Adelaide. Circuit Courts (in which civil as well as criminal cases 
are tried) are held in the Northern Districts three times, and in 
the South-Eastern Districts twice, a year. By a recent change in 
the law, the accused, and the husband or wife of the accused, may 
give evidence on oath, submitting, in such case, like other wit- 
nesses, to cross-examination. 

Civil. — Civil Sittings, presided over by the Chief Justice or one 
of the other two Judges, are held in Adelaide six times in the 
year. Civil cases are tried in the most important of the distant 
country districts at the Circuit Courts. The English Judicature 
Act has been accepted, with slight variations. 

u4ppeal. — An appeal lies from the Supreme Court to the Local 
Court of Appeals, consisting of the Governor of the province, and 
the members of the Executive Council, with the exception of the 
Attorney- General. Where the matter in dispute amounts in value 
to £500 there is also an appeal, either from the Local Court of 
Appeals, or direct from the Supreme Court, to the Judicial Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council. 

Local Courts. 
These Courts, resembling in their constitution in many respect* 
the County Courts of England, are established throughout the 
colony. They have cognizance of all personal actions where the 
damage claimed does not amount to more than £490, and they 
have jurisdiction to any amount, with the consent of the parties. 
They have also jurisdiction to try actions for ejectment where the 
value of the land does not exceed £400, also in actions for the 
recovery of small tenements. Causes in which the claim exceeds. 



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20 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

£20 are, tried before a Judge of the Supreme Court, with or 
without a jury, or before a Special Magistrate and two Justices of 
the Peace, or before a Special Magistrate and a jury. These 
Courts have power to apply equitable principles in their adminis- 
tration of the law. 

Insolvenoy, 

There is a Court of Insolvency at Adelaide, presided over by a 
Commissioner of Insolvency, who may or may not be the Special 
Magistrate presiding over the Local Court. By a recent enact- 
ment power is given to Special Magistrates of such Local Courts 
as may be proclaimed for that purpose to act as Commissioners in 
Insolvency. 

Vice Admiralty Court, 

There is a Vice Admiralty Coiirt in Adelaide, the Judge of which 
is the Chief Justice, having jurisdiction analagous to that of the 
English Court of Admiralty. 

Probate and Administration. 
The law relating to wills is the same in South Australia as in 
England, and the law and practice regulating the granting of 
probate are almost precisely similar. With respect to intestacies, 
however, the law is different from that of England. Primogeniture 
has been abolished, and the real estate of intestates, not being 
married women, is distributable on the principle applicable to 
personalty in such cases ; and the law as to the distribution of the 
real estate of married women dying intestate is assimilated, mutatis 
mutandis, to that regulating the distribution of the real estate of 
married men dying intestate. 

MatrimoniaL 
In South Australia, by what is known as the " Deceased Wife's 
Sister Act," a man is allowed to marry his deceased wife's sister, 
or the daughter of his. deceased wife's sister. 

Magistrates' Courts. 
These Courts ar€ established throughout the country, for dealing 
with minor offences, and matters with respect to which they have 
jurisdiction under the Police, Municipal Corporations, and other 
Acta. 



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THE ABORIGINES. 21 



THE ABORIGINES. 

The aboriginal population of South Australia, at the foundation 
of the colony in 1836, was estimated at 12,000. 

At the date of the last official census, 1881, a considerable 
decrease appears to have taken place in their niunber, which is 
given as — ^male, 3,198 ; females, 2,430 ; total, 5,628, exclusive of 
718 in the Northern Territory. Of these the adults healthy were 
3,777 ; sick and infirm, 959 ; children, 892. 

A large proportion of the 959 sick and infirm appears among 
the natives inhabiting the country north and east of Lake Eyre, 
where disease, chiefly syphilis, is very prevalent, even among the 
young children. 

The aborigines of the Cooper's Creek coimtry appear to be more 
nimierous and healthy, probably owing to their hunting groimds 
being better supplied with food and water, the sick and infirm 
being only 118 out of a total of 2,182. 

During the years 1881-6 there have been recorded 324 births 
and 417 deaths, decrease during the five years 93. 

The disparity in the number of the sexes, the small proportion 
of children to the total population, and the prevalence of disease, 
to which the natives appear more susceptible since the advent of 
Europeans^ show that the gradual diminution in their numbers can 
easily be accounted for. 

The protection of the aborigines is provided for by the State. 
A special department watches over their welfare and interests, con- 
sisting of a protector, who has the disbursement of the annual vote, 
£5,104, and the control and supervision (assisted by a sub-protector 
in the Far North), of the depots (about fifty in number), for the 
distribution of rations, clothing, and medical comforts. 

It is believed that the establishment of these depots in suitable 
localities, and the judicious distribution of rations, &c., tends to 
promote friendly relations between the settlers and the aborigines. 

With a view to ameliorate the condition of the natives by in- 
dustrial pursuit, as weU as moral and religious training, and thus 
render their labor more useful and profitable to themselves, five 
(5) special reserves have been set apart in the following localities^ 



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22 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

containing a total of about 670,000 acres, viz. : — Point McLeay, on 

Lake Alexandrina ; Poonindie, near Port Lincoln ; Point Pierce, 

on Yorkes Peninsula; Kopperamanna, near Lake Hope, Far 

North ; Hermansburgh, on the Finke river, Central Australia ; 

where missionary institutions have existed for several years past, 

mainly supported by voluntary contributions, and the proceeds of 

produce raised by native labor from land, stock, &c. About 

500 aborigines are instructed, cared for, and usefully employed, 

including about 120 children, who are fed, clothed, and educated at 

the mission schools. 

The financial returns from these institutions for the year 1886 

show:— £ ,. rf. 

Total voluntaiy contributions received 1 , 248 13 7 

** amount proceeds of produce raised 5,281 J 2 10 

** « wages paid to aborigines 1,833 15 7 

" estimated value of all stock, produce, buildings, 

&c., on the stations 35,840 6 10 

As an illustration of the civilising agencies kt work in these 
institutions, and their restdts in introducing a new and cheering 
phase of life amongst the aborigines, the following extracts are 
given from the report of a recent visitor to the Point McLeay 
Mission Station : — 

"The view of the settlement is very pretty. The cottages 'of 
" the natives with their white walls are situated near the shore of 
*' the lake, at stated distances, in a line for about a quarter of a 
" mile from the left of the jetty path, the line being broken by 
*'the overseer's house, workshops, and stables. The chapel, 
*' superintendent's house, reading-room, schoolroom, kitchen, and 
*' schoolmaster's house are seen in another line to the right. Here, 
"nearly thirty years ago, the Rev. Geo. Taplin camped among 
" savages, and, cut ojffi from the nearest settlement by fifteen miles 
*' of water, made a home among them, mastered their language, 
" conquered their superstitions, and, in the establishment of the 
" present mission station, made many converts to Christianity and 
*' civilisation. 

" The purity of the English spoken on the station caused us some 
^' astonishment. No ' pigeon ' English is made use of there; in fact 
" the natives, young and old, connected with the mission, ex- 
*' press themselves more clearly than the generality of Europeans. 

" We were shown over the schoolroom and found 43 children 
"in attendance including two or three of the station officers* 
*' children. 



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THE ABORIGINES. 2a 

^' The highest number of marks recorded on the examination 
""sheet was 117, obtained by the son of the superintendent; two 
""native boys stood next with 114 and 113 marks respectively. 
*' Mr. Hutley, the schoolmaster, informed us that, except in arith" 
**metic, many of the native children would pass the standard 
"** adopted in ordinary Government schools. 

" We visited several of the cottages, finding them in most in- 
" stances clean and comfortable. In one we noticed a sewing- 
'* machine, framed pictures on the walls, sideboard, and antima- 
■" cassars on the chairs ; in another a harmonium. All these articles 
"*' were procured at the expense of the occupants. There were in all 
"" €ighteen of these cottages, accommodating, at the time of our "viat, 
" about seventy natives, including women and children. Several of 
*' these buildings are named after those who paid for their erection. 
" For the information of others who may be inclined to follow their 
"* good example, it may be stated that each cottage cost £16 ; and 
"there are about forty-five natives living in ^vurleys near the 
" station, many of whom would be glad to occupy cottages if there 
"** was accommodation for them. Think of this ye dwellers in com- 
" f ortable houses, erected on lands which you and your fathers 
" took from them. Think of the miserable shelter adOPorded during 
^' the winter months by these wurleys on the cold and bleak shores 
*' of the lakes. Think of the sickness engendered thereby. Then 
^' let your pocket buttons ceas6 to do duty, and allow you to supply 
" what would be a real boon to the few remaining original owners 
** of the land of your adoption. 

" The men engaged on the station are paid at the rate of 12s. per 
" week. The most remimei-ative work to the mission is wool 
"" washing, and Mr. Taplin wishes they could command more of 
" this particular work than they have at present ; and if the station 
** coidd obtain more of the wool for washing that is annually con- 
" veyed past the station to Port Victor for ocean shipment, it 
^* wotdd not only command higher prices in the home markets, 
** but add considerably lo the mission revenue. 

" Comparatively few Adelaideans are conversant with the work 
"*' carried on at this imdenominational institution. Pound, shilling, 
" and pence men of the world may ask, what is the use of taking so 
^' much trouble on behalf of the aborigines ? What is the use of 
■** teaching the children as they are taught there ? Is it not over- 
" done ? My answer to such is, visit the station and see for your- 
^ selves ; go to the wurleys and observe the condition of the old 



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24 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

"natires, whose inborn superstitions will perhaps ever prevent 
'^ them leading any other life than that of their joint occupants of 
" the wurleys, the dogs. Then go across to the mission cottages^ 
" listen to the merry happy laughter of the children at play, after 
^' school hours ; look at their bright intelligent faces ; mark the com- 
'' fort and cleanliness of the occupants of the cottages ; and if it 
" be evening, see them reading the weekly newspaper to which 
" they individually subscribe. Visit the reading-room after work- 
"ing hours, and note the books and illustrated papers being 
" perused ; visit the chapel and watch the behaviour of the native 
" worshippers, and then if you have a heart you will come away a* 
*' we didy thanking God that there is such an association having 
" for its title, that of the 'Aborigines' Friends/ " 



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OCCUPATION AND DISPOSAL OF LAND. 25- 



OCCUPATION AND DISPOSAL OF LAND. 

The survey of land in South Australia was commenced upon the- 
arrival of Colonel Light and his party in the ship Rapid, towards- 
the end of 1836. 

The site of the city having been decided upon, together with a 
site for a port, the survey of town acres was proceeded with; also 
a line for a canal connecting the two places, it being part of 
Colonel Light's design to have vessels ultimately brought into the- 
city. 

The first land was sold in March, 1837, at auction, when, out of 
the 1,042 acre blocks contained by both North and South Adelaide - 
562 were sold for cash, whilst 437 others were either selected, or 
set apart for holders of preliminary land orders which had been 
purchased in London, entitling the holder, for the sum of £80, to- 
become possessed of one town acre, and one country section 
containing 134 acres. 

Most of the original grants of town acres bear the date 23rd- 
December, 1837, showing that holders of orders had not long to- 
wait before being placed in possession of a part of their property; 
but, owing to delays in survey matters, caused by lack of trans- 
port for camp equipage, and by disputes between those highest in 
authority, the first country sections were not ready for selection 
until May of 1838. 

Colonel Light resigned in July following, and Mr., afterwards 
Sir George Kingston, then Deputy Surveyor-General, occupied his- 
position imtil October, when he also resigned. Mr. Ormsby had 
charge of the department until March, 1839, when Captain Sturt 
was appointed Surveyor-General, but shortly after accepted another 
office; and Captain Frome, R.E., was gazetted Surveyor-General 
on October 2nd, 1839. 

Colonel Light died on October 2l8t, 1839, and was buried in 
the public square bearing his name. 

A map accompanying the third annual report of the Colonisation 
Commission ordered by the House of Commons on the 13th May, 
1889, to be printed, shows the progress of the survey at that 
time; it gives also the names of selectors, with the sections takeiL 
up. . 



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:26 SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 

The early settlers appear to have dispersed themselves from the 
<}ity as a centre, to localities where the soil offered the best 
inducements for agricultural pursuits; and, as a consequence, 
surveys had to be made upon short notice, in many places wide 
apart. Districts were marked upon maps as A, B, C, D, E, F, 
t>ut these soon gave place to the more convenient divisions of 
counties and hundreds. On June 2nd, 1842, the following nine 
<;ounties were proclaimed in the Government Gazette : Adelaide, 
Hindmarsh, Flinders, Light, Crawler, Sturt, Eyre, Stanley, Russell, 
1;he names given to them being commemorative of men intimately 
associated with the early history of the colony. In like manner, 
it has been an invariable rule up to the present time to perpetuate 
the names of governors and acting governors by naming a county 
after each one soon after His Excellency's arrival in th^ province, 
;and of South Australian notable men by naming hundreds after 
them. 

Colonel Gawler brought with him authority to combine with the 
office of Governor that of " Resident Commissioner for the sale of 
Crown Lands," a position previously held by Mr., afterwards Sir 
James Hurtle Fisher. 

In this capacity the Governor gave instructions direct to the 
Surveyor-General, and conducted a good deal of correspondence 
with the public upon matters connected with the occupation of 
Crown lands. Each Governor in succession exercised this power 
<until constitutional government was granted to South Australia ; 
•since which time Governors have had directly but little to do with 
:such matters, beyond formally placing their signatures to various 
grants and leases issued by the Crown. 

During 1839, 179,841 acres were sold, and in 1840 and 1841 
jthe survey was effected of thirty-five special surveys, consisting 
«of 4,000 acres each, in various localities outside the districts re- 
ferred to. Colonel Frome and his surveyors were assisted in this 
by a strong party of sappers and miners. 

An important feature associated with these surveys was the 
Ttriangulation commenced by Colonel Light ,upon the Adelaide 
plains, and extended by his successors for the purpose of mapping. 
*he coimtry, and connecting the detail surveys of sections, until, 
by the end of 1842, it embraced a strip of country stretching 
from Cape Jervis and the Murray mouth as far nortJi as Mount 
Bryan and Mount Remarkable. 

Ml*. Eyre's walking tour along the south coast, his explorations 



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OCCUPATION AND DISPOSAL OF LAND. 27 

^westward from the Burra to Crystal Brook, the discovery, north- 
-ward, of the lake that bears his name, his journey from Port 
Augusta to Port Lincoln, and across to Western Australia, are 
memorable circumstances which stand connected with the survey 
•department, and the opening of the interior for pastoral pursuits. 

In July, 1846, two new counties were proclaimed in the south- 
east, named respectively Grey and Robe; and by February, 1847, 
more than a dozen isolated sections were sold in them. The now 
historical boundary line between this province and Victoria was 
at this date being defined by the Imperial Government. Mr. 
Wade and his assistant, Mr. White, however, relinquished their 
*work towards the end of the year at the 123rd mile. It was 
Tesumed by others about four years later, and again abandoned on 
account of the difficulty of the work ; so that not until 1857 was 
the line completed as far as the River Murray. Colonel Frome 
held office until Februar5% 1849; and in the following July, Major, 
«ince General Sir Arthur H. Freeling, K.C.B., arrived in the 
•colony to succeed him. 

In 1851, a road was surveyed from Wellington to the Victorian 
goldfields. Land continued to be surveyed when and where it 
was needed. Year after year auction sales were regularly held. 
The trigonometrical survey was from time to time extended further 
north, north-east, and west; and, on January 9th, 1861, Mr. 
<jr. W. Goyder was gazetted Survey or- General. 



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28 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



SURVEY DEPARTMENT. 

The Survey and Land Offices have for many years occupied the 
south-eastern portion of what are now called the old Government 
buildings, at the corner of King William and Flinders streets. 

In addition to the head of the department, the staff consists of 
surveyors, who, with the requisite number of assistants, are ex- 
clusively engaged upon the sectional and road survey of lands- 
intended for settlement; a drawing staff; public land office auction 
branch ; photo-lithographic, and assaying divisions. 

The Deputy Surveyor-General undertakes the field duties, di- 
recting the surveyors as to roads, reserves, sites of towns, suburbani 
and country sections. 

The Chief Draughtsman superintends the examination of field 
diagrams, preparation of land office and other plans, and the issue 
of data of all kinds connected with survey diagrams and office 
plans. 

The Chief Clerk of the Land Office conducts the duties of that 
branch, including the exhibition of plans, sale and leasing of town, 
suburban, country, agricultural, pastoral, and mineral lands ; issue 
of gold leases, control of district council and parliamentary plans 
deposited, and affords general information to the public upon all 
subjects connected with the disposal of land. 

The Photo-lithographer photo-lithographs plans required by the 
public, parliament, and for government purposes. The chief clerk 
conducts the general correspondence ; beside which is a Receiver 
of Revenue and an accountant, the monetary transactions being 
extensive. 

Goldfields are under control of senior and junior wardens;. 
Crown lands are supervised by rangers; and vermin destruction 
parties by an inspector; all of whom are directed by, and report 
to, the Surveyor-General. 

In connection with the department is a chemical analyst, wha 
assays ores, metals, earths, rocks, water, bark, etc., that are 
discovered and submitted to him, a small charge being made for 
analyses of specimens from private lands ; those from Crown land» 
are free. 



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SURVEY DEPARTMENT. 29 

Occupation of Land,, 
(For pastoral purposes.) 
Leases of unoccupied Crown lands may be obtained upon 
application to the Surveyor-General by letter, describing locality, 
and area required. Lands so applied for are gazetted, and leases 
offered for sale at auction, the term being thirty- five years, at an 
upset price of- sot less than two shillings and sixpence per square 
mile per annum. The amount bid at auction is the rent payable 
for fourteen years in succession, after which the rent is fixed by 
valuation every seven years. The land must be stocked before the 
•end of the third year with five head of sheep, or one head of great 
cattle, or improvements effected thereon to the value of thirty 
shillings, per square mile. 

Leases now Held, » 

Leases now held, expiring by effluxion of time, will be offered 
for a term of twenty-one years, in blocks recommended by the 
Pastoral Board, and approved by the Commissioner of Crown 
Lands; in addition to which a deposit of ten per cent, is required 
to be paid on the value of improvements then on the land, which 
deposit will be held as security for the maintenance of improve- 
ments in efficient repair ; five per cent, upon such improvements 
being allowed to the purchaser against the rent when due. The 
ups^ price of leases of this class remaining unsold after auction, 
may be reduced, and the lease be again offered at Bv price not less 
than five shillings per square mile per annum. 

Annual Leases. 
Land that has been resumed from pastoral occupation for agri- 
cultural purposes, and is not required in connection therewith, may, 
if not applied for by the former lessee, who has the right of occu- 
pation upon terms similar to those' of his original lease, be offered 
at auction on lease for one year, with right of renewal from time to 
time for seven years. 

Shape and Marking Out of Pastoral Blocks. 

As a rule pastoral lands are granted in rectangular form, and 
connected with a trigonometrical station, or conspicuous natural 
feature as a starting point. The boundaries are defined by licensed 
surveyors at the expense of the lessee. 



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30 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Land Occupied for Agricultural Purposes. 
Agricultural lands are surveyed and marked on the ground prior 
to sale, in sections not exceeding five hundred acres. Plans are 
prepared, and the land advertised in the Government Gazette front 
four to six weeks prior to date of offer. Auctions are held in the- 
land office, which is open daily to the public from 10 till 3 (exclu- 
sive of luncheon time, from 1 to 2), and from 10 till 12 on* 
Saturdays ; where all information on this subject can be obtained. 

Cash Sales. 
Town and suburban lands are sold at auction for cash ; terms,, 
twenty per cent, of purchase-money payable at fall of hammer, 
and balance within one month. Also, country lands that have- 
been open for selection for a period of two years may be offered 
at auction for cash; and any that remains open after being 
so offered, may be purchased by private contract at the upset 
price. Special lots of country lands may be purchased at auction 
for manufacturing purposes, not exceeding one hundred acres ini 
extent in any one block. 

Selections on Credit 
Credit selections comprise one or more sections of land in blocks- 
up to one thousand acres, taken up under agreement, on term& 
varying according to circumstances. They may be taken up at 
auction in the first instance, or by private contract when they have 
passed the hammer. They are held under condition of either 
personal or substituted residence, under obligation to fence, culti- 
vate, plant, and to erect substantial improvements up to a certain 
value during each year ; the terms of pajrment being ten per cent, 
of the purchase-money at time of selection, ten per cent, three 
years later, and the balance in sixteen equal yearly instalments. 
The purchaser may, however, obtain his title at the expiry of ten 
years, by paying what is then due. Personal residents have prior 
rights to those applying imder substituted residence conditions. 

Leases with Right of Purchase. 
Leases of scrub lands offered at an annual rent of not less than 
ten shillings per square mile can be purchased by personal residents 
at auction — or by private contract if the land has passed — in blocks 



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SURVEY DEPARTMENT. 3^ 

not exceeding 3,200 acres, for a tenn of tventy-one years, at an* upset 
price of one pound per acre; the purchase -money to be divided, and 
paid in twenty-one equal yearly payments ; and' the purchaser to 
clear the scrub from a fortieth portion of the land every year, until 
half the entire area is available for cultivation. A lessee , having corny 
plied with the conditions of his lease, may complete the purchase 
at any time during the last ten years of his term. Scrub lands- 
that have been offered at auction, and have remained open for 
three months, may be let at the upset price, with right of purchase 
at one pound per acre, and with similar conditions as to clearing, 
etc., but the rent forms no part of the purchase-money, nor is' 
residence compulsory. 

Miscellaneous Leases. 

Lands are let under miscellaneous lease for the* purpose of trade 
and manufactures, also for pastoral and cultivation purposes, for a 
term not exceeding twenty -one years, on conditions specified at 
time of sale. The area that may be thus taken up is practically 
unlimited. 

Grazing and Cultivation Lands. 

Lands for grazing and cultivation may be let at a rental of no(? 
less than one half -penny per acre, written application being made 
to the Commissioner, by whom they are referred to a Land Board 
for decision. The leases are for a terra of twenty- one years, and 
require the lessees to reside upon the land. No person can hold 
more than one block, nor can a block contaaii< a larger area than 
20,000 acres. 

Leases of land in the south-eastern portion of the province, com- 
prised within the limits of Schedule B of the Act, are offered at 
auction at an upset price fixed according to thie quality of the land, 
for a term of fourteen years, with a right of renewal for a further term 
of fourteen years. The conditions require residence upon the land 
and that the boundaries of the block be fenced within two years 
from the date of lease. These lands, if passed at auction, may be 
obtained by private contraet under similar conditions. 

Leases of Small Blocks for Working Men. 
Working men's homestead blocks not exceeding twenty acresF, 
and situated in various localites^ may be leased at auction, at 
an upset price of sixpence an acre, or by private eontract, after 



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32 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

liaving been so offered, for a term of twenty-one years, with right 
-of renewal for a further term of twenty-one years, and with right 
of pm'chase, at a price to be fixed by valuation, at the expiration 
-of the first term, or at any time during the currency of the 
renewed term. Elesidence during nine months of the year being 
indispensable. 

Mineral Licences. 

Licences to mine for any minerals or metals except gold, may be 
•obtained upon application at the Land Office, or by letter to the 
Surveyor-General, upon payment of one pound, which entitles the 
holder to search for twelve months over an area not exceeding 
eighty acres, and to remove one ton, or by permission of the Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands, twenty tons of mineral other than 
gold for assay or analysis ; also to a lease of the land when a 
survey of the same has been approved. 

Mineral Leases. 

Mineral leases not .exceeding eighty acres are granted for a term 
of ninety-nine years, at a rental of one shilling per acre, with a 
royalty of 2 J per cent, on net profits accruing. 

Miners' Rights. 

Miners' rights, entitling the holder to search for gold on any 
Crown lands for one year, are issued on receipt of fee of five 
shillings. 

Gold Leases. 

Gold leases, not exceeding twenty acres in area, are granted for 
a term of twenty-one years, with right of renewal for a further 
term of twenty-one years, at a yearly rental of ten shillings per 
acre, under conditions specified by regulations, and in the lease. 

Miscellaneous. 

Licences are granted to cut, manufacture, and remove stone, 
timber, salt, guano, manure, seaweed, sand, loam, etc., and for the 
erection of buildings for manufacturing or other pui-poses; also for 
depasturing stock on Crown land, on application at the Land 
Office. 



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SURVEY DEPARTMENT. 33. 

The following table shows the area of the proyince, with its 
yarious subdiyisions, sold, leased, and occupied lands: — 

fExclusive of the Northern Territory,) 

Area of proyince 243,244,800 = 380,070 

dumber of ooimties, 374 contaioiiig 39,301, 120 = 61 ,408 

Number of hundred, 298 containing 21,402, 560 =: 33,441 

Area of land occupied for pastoral purposes 123,705,600 = 193,29a 

Area of land alienated 9,465,182= 14,789- 

Area of land held under miscellaneous, mineral, \ n oee ^oo — o aq^ 

and gold leases j ^,ooo,u^«> — Hjoov 

Area of land granted for Education and Uniyersity 370,000 =: 578- 

^Including the Northern Territory J 

Area of South Australia 578,361,600 = 903,690- 

Area of land alienated 9,947,552 z: 15,543 

Area of land occupied for pastoral purposes 291,464,960 =: 455,414 

Area of land held under miscelluieous, mineral, \ o^ f'f.f. . ^| i 

and gold leases in Northern Territory , . , , / ^^*^^^ - ^^% 



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84 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



THE REAL PROPERTY ACT. 

A brief notice of the Real Property Act and its author must not 
he omitted. 

The late Sir Robert Richard Torrens, the author of, and first 
Registrar-General under, the Real Property Act, was born at Cork 
in 1814, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Sir R. R. (then 
Mr.) Torrens arrived in South Australia in the early days of the 
colony, and for some years held the office of Collector of Customs; 
and it was during that time it occurred to him that the law relating 
to shipping could be applied to land. He then resolved that 
should opportunity offer, he would undertake the task of reform 
in the laws relating to the transfer and encumbrance of freehold 
and other interests in land. Subsequent appointment to the office 
of Registrar-General afforded the opportunity, the result, after 
long labor and anxious thought, being the passing, in 1858, of the 
first Real Property Act. 

Registration of title is the principle of the Act, taking the place 
of the old deed system, which was very costly, and requiring legal 
assistance in any transaction. Under the Torrens Act (as it is 
commonly called) any person of ordinary intelligence can transact 
his own business without legal aid. 

Judge Gorrie, of Fiji, in a paper relating to the registration of 
title, ordered by the House of Commons to be printed August 15th, 
1881, remarks — "I do not hesitate to say that the South Australian 
** system reduces conveyancing to the simplest possible conditions." 
Not only is the system simple, but the cost of registration is small. 

The number of transactions under the Act now exceed 301,000, 
exclusive of Certificates of Title and Land Grants, which number 
123,900. 

The Torrens system is now in force in New South Wales, 
Victoria, Western Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and Fiji, 
and will probably shortly be introduced into Canada. 



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THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM, &c. 85 



THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AND AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE, ROSEWORTHY. 

In order to bring about an improvement in the modes of agri- 
culture pursued in the colony, the Parliament, in October, 1879, 
passed the following resolution : — 

" That, in the opinion of this House, it is desirable steps should 
^* be taken to establish a School of Agriculture ; and also, as a 
** necessary appendage thereto, and within a conyenient distance 
** from the city, an Experimental Farm ; and to appoint an ex- 
" perienced and skilful Professor of Agriculture for the purpose of 
'* encouraging a more rational mode of farming than at present 
** obtains in South Australia." 

To secure the services of a thoroughly competent, practical, and 
scientific agriculturalist, the Parliament voted the liberal salary of 
£800 per annum, and the Agent-General for the colony in London 
was entrusted with the duty of selecting a gentleman possessed of 
the necessary qualifications. 

Applications for the office were invited in the leading English 
journals, and, after consulting those best qualified to give advice 
in the matter, the Agent-General selected Professor J. D. Custance, 
formerly Professor of Agriculture at the Royal Agricultural 
College, Cirencester, and afterwards Professor of Agriculture to 
the Imperial Government of Japan, to fill the office. Professor 
Custance arrived in the colony in July, 1881, and was shortly 
afterwards authorised to procure offers of sites suitable for the 
purpose required. Eventually a farm containing 828 acres, 
situated near Roseworthy, a distance of thirty-one miles from 
Adelaide, was secured at a cost of £4,518. 

In order to afford young men who desired to devote themselves 
to agricultural pursuits a course of instruction in agriculture 
and subjects connected therewith, the Parliament in 1881 approved 
of the erection of a college capable of accommodating fortj^ 
students. The college, which was erected at a cost of £9,121 
(including fittings and furniture), and of which Professor Custance 
was appointed principal, was opened on February 3rd, 1885. The 



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36 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

course of instruction included practical agriculture, chemistry, 
botany, geology, surveying, leyelling, mensuration, bookkeeping, 
entomology, and veterinary. 

In December, 1886, ten students who had completed their two 
years' course obtained their diplomas ; sixteen are attending at the 
present time. 

Farmers, in common with others, have felt the pressure of a 
succession of bad seasons, and have in consequence, notwith- 
standing the moderate fee charged — £50 per annum — ^been unable 
to afford their sons the benefits which the college holds out to 
them. It is hoped, however, that with a return of more favorable 
seasons the capacity of the college will be fully tested. Although 
the building as at present constructed presents a finished appear- 
ance, the original design provided for an additional wing, and such 
will doubtless be added when it is required. 

It is impossible to estimate the extent to which the agricultural 
industry of the colony has been benefited by the experiments 
already conducted on the farm and the teaching imparted in the 
college ; but there is reason to believe that in some parts of the 
colony, at least, a very marked improvement has taken place on 
the systems of farming hitherto pursued — that agriculturists have 
experienced the advantage of deep cultivation and a rotation of 
crops, as compared with the practice of ploughing the same land 
year after year to a depth of only three or four inches and sowing 
the same kind of grain. Beforms of all kinds are proverbially of 
slow growth, and in no department of hmnan activity more so 
than in agriculture. 

The Roseworthy Experimental Farm is composed of inferior 
land, and has a rainfall considerably less than many other parts of 
the province, but, notwithstanding these serious disadvantages, the 
yield of wheat per acre has, so Professor Custance has stated, been 
three times as great as the average of the whole colony — a fact 
which speaks volumes in favor of scientific agriculture, and which 
farmers would do well to lay to heart. 

By "The Agricultural College Endowment Act, 1886,*' pro- 
vision is made for setting apart 50,000 acres of Crown lands for 
the support of the college. 



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STOCK. 37 



STOCK. 

Fifty years since a few merino sheep were landed in the colony 
irom Germany, and from time to time small shipments were made 
from Tasmania. From this source commenced the rise and estab- 
lishment of the valuable South Australian merino flocks. Sheep 
^ere also introduced from New South Wales and Victoria, or Port 
t^hillip, as it was then called. 

As early as 1838, there were already 28,000 sheep, with an 
•export of wool of no great value; but in five years from the 
•commencement, notwithstanding the struggles and hardships of 
-our pioneers, over 250,000 sheep are recorded, with an export 
value of wool amounting to the moderate sum of £35,800. 

Enterprising colonists pushed oiit into the wild bush with their 
rflocks, braving unknown dangers, and attacks of hostile natives, 
and forming stations, and finding valuable pastures for their sheep 
and cattle, until, on the completion of the twenty-first year of the 
foundation of the colony, the sheep numbered 2,000,000, and the 
value of the wool exported amounted to over £500,000. Since 
that time vast strides have been made in the production of wool, 
and in the number and quality of the sheep, so that in the fiftieth 
year in the history of the colony, the sheep number nearly 
7,000,000, and the export of wool is equal to about £2,000,000. 

Large numbers of valuable stud sheep are exported annually to 
New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. The 
'South Australian merino is noted for the size of the carcase, and 
for the great weight of fleece, long staple, and uniform character, 
returning a high average value per sheep. The climate and 
pastures are particularly suited for the raising of sound, large- 
framed animals, which are remarkably free from many diseases to 
which sheep are subject. Scab, which is prevalent and costly in 
America and in European countries, has been unknown in the 
•colony for over sixteen years. 

But few importations of horses and homed cattle occurred in 
-the early days by sea; but large droves of cattle were soon brought 
overland, commencing in 1837, at great risk of attacks from the 
natives. Messrs. Hawdon and Charles Bonney were the pioneers 



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SS SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

who brought oyer the first drove of cattle from New South Wale* 
down the Riyer Murray, arriying in 1838 ; followed in a few 
weeks by Mr. E. J. Eyre. In the year 1839, Mr. C. Bonney 
Innought the first droye of cattle from Port Phillip through the 
then unknown country in our south-eastern district. Numerous 
other droyes followed these, and cattle stations were formed in 
outlying country ; in many instances it being found advisable to 
first stock country with cattle. The greater and more certain 
returns, however, which were obtained from sheep, had the efEect 
of preventing the herds from increasing in so great a proportion 
as had been the case with the sheep. Horse stations were also 
established, but generally in conjunction with cattle ; and at the 
present time there are about 400,000 homed cattle, and 170,000 
horses in the colony. 

Our colonists, not sparing expense, imported valuable pure-bred 
cattle, and thoroughbred and draught horses, from the most valu- 
able herds and studs of Great Britain ; and there are now in the 
colony descendants of some of the best strains of shorthorn and 
Hereford cattle. The horse stock has been enriched by selections- 
from the best blood of England; and a visit to one establishment 
alone, at Morphettville, in the neighborhood of Adelaide, will 
gratify the most ardent admirer of the horse. 

The climate is admirably adapted for producing and rearing the 
best description of horses, cattie, and sheep, with less trouble and 
ezi>ense, perhaps, than in any other part of the world. 

There are still large tracts of country in the interior, on which 
horses, cattle, and sheep will thrive, and in a few years more, 
with the improved means available for obtaining water, and the 
certain communication from the extension of railways, it may^ 
fairly be anticipated that the flocks and herds will be doubled in 
number. 

Whilst the country has been suffering from bad seasons and de- 
presaon in business, the value of exports in connection with stock 
for the year 1886 was, h(»:ses, catUe, and sheep, £144,735 ; skinSr 
hides, and tallow, £126,831 ; and 44,792,6131bs of wool, were ex- 
ported, the whole showing a very large export trade for one 
interest only in the Colony. 



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THE WOODS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENl'. 39 



THE WOODS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT. 

Of late years, from yarious causes incidental to their rise and 
prosperity, the colonies of Australasia have awakened to the 
necessity for the proper conservation of their natural forests and 
the planting of woodlands on the otherwise unwooded portions of 
the respective provinces, in order to the permanent good and well- 
being of the country. Victoria and New Zealand have each given 
birth to Acts of Parliament on the subject ; but these are now 
only being properly carried out. Queensland and New South 
Wales are agitating the matter ; but it remained for South Aus- 
tralia to have the honor of being the first Australian colony to 
establish a system of forestry in her midst. 

The originator of the scheme was Mr. Krichauff, M.P., who, in 
the session of 1871, called for a return eliciting information from 
persons resident in the different districts of the colony in regard to 
the supply, preservation, and culture of forests. The answers 
were summarised and prepared by Dr. Schomburgk, the Director 
of the Botanic Gardens. 

Subsequent to this return Mr. Krichauff introduced, and success- 
fully passed in the House of Assembly, in 1873, <' An Act to 
Encourage the Planting of Forest Trees," which provided for the 
payment by Government of two pounds per acre for eveiy acre 
planted by a landowner in certain districts of the colony, according 
to certain defined conditions. 

During the same session a ^^ Report on Forest Reserves" was 
laid on the table of the House, which had been prepared for the 
Honorable the Commissioner of Crown Lands by G. W. Goyder, 
Esq., the Surveyor-General. This report made suggestions for the 
proclamation of certain portions of the country as Forests reserves, 
and dealt exhaustively with recommendations regarding the forma- 
tion of a Department of Forests. 

In 1875, a Bill was brought in by Mr. KrichaufiP and passed, 
intituled " An Act to make provision for the appointment of a 
Forest Board, and for other purposes." In this Act certain dis- 
tricts pointed out by Mr. Goyder were defined as Forests reserves. 

During the session of 1876 a short Act was passed to amend 
certain portions of the Forest Board Act. 

In 1878 " The Forest Trees Act " was brought before the House 
of Parliament and became law during that session. This Act 
consolidated and amended all the laws then existing in the colony 



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40 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

relating to Forest Conservancy, and embraced the different matters 
provided for in all the previous Acts relating to the subject. 

The members of the then Forest Board consisted of G. W. 
Cfoyder, Esq., Surveyor-General (Chairman), the late Colonel 
Barber, the Hon. B. T. Finniss, the late Geo. McEwin, Esq., J.P., 
and Dr. Schomburgk, Director of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 

The first Conservator of Forests appointed by the Board was 
William Murray, Esq., of Glen Osmond, but he resigned his 
position after having been one year in office. 

The services of J. Ednie Brown, J.P., F.L.S., of Edinburgh, 
Scotland, were then secured. Mr. Brown arrived in the colony in 
September of 1878, and since then has held the position of Con- 
servator of Forests in the colony. 

In the year 1882 the members of the Forest Board resigned 
their positions, and as the Government of the time thought the 
interests of Forest Conservancy in the colony could be better 
carried out under a department with the Conservator of Forests 
directly responsible to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, a Bill 
to give effect to this was brought before Parliament and passed. 
This is called "The Woods and Forests Act of 1882." By this 
Act the Forest Board was abolished, and all powers and privileges 
of that body were vested in the Commissioner of Crown Lands, 
who in the Act is designated the Commissioner of Forest Lands. 

This Act is divided into six parts, relating to the following 
matters : — 

Part I. Repeal of previous Act. 

Part II. Powers of Commissioner of Forest Lands. 

Part III. Re-declaration of Forest Reserves. 

Part IV. Provisions for encouraging the planting of Forest 

Trees by private enterprise. 
Part V. Conditions under which Forest Reserves may be 

leased. 
Part VI. General Provisions, Penalties, and Legal Procedure. 
There are five schedules attached to the Act, viz, : — (1) List 
of Forest Reserves and defining their boundaries. (2) List of 
Forest Districts in which trees may be planted with the object of 
securing the Bonus under the " Encouragement of Tree Planting " 
olause. (3) Regulations under which the Bonus of £2 per acre 
for planting will be granted. (4) Form of Bonus order. (5) Form 
of Mineral Certificate. 

The Act has now been in force for five years, and has been 
found to work admirably in every respect. 



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THE WOODS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT. 41 

As a suitable adjunct to the clause in the Act for the en- 
couragement of planting on private property, Mr. Brown, in 
1881, published through the Government Printer, "A Practical 
Treatise on Tree Culture in South Australia." This work deals 
with the subject of planting and forest management in all its 
forms. It is freely illustrated, and up to date over 2,500 copies 
have been distributed free of charge. The work is now in its 
third edition, and has been in considerable request by planters in 
•all the Australasian colonies. 

During the last five years the Government has each year placed 
the sum of £300 at the disposal of the Conservator for the purpose 
of raising trees at the several State nurseries for free distribution to 
landowners in the colony. In connection with this distribution, an 
annual catalogue is issued detailing the kinds and number of trees 
available under the vote, the soils and situations suitable for each 
kind, the conditions under which the trees are given away, some 
general instructions in regard to tree planting, and other matters of 
interest to planters. Over 800 copies of this catalogue are annually 
applied for. About 260,000 plants are distributed each year in 
this way. At the end of each season, circular letters are sent to 
the recipients of the trees asking for a report as to the number alive 
and the general result. From these reports it is shown that over 
800,000 trees are alive and doing well of the number given away. 
Up to date there have been five applications for the bonus of £2 
per acre, given under the clause for the encouragement of tree 
planting ; and it is known that many more will avail themselves of 
the concession during the next few years. Altogether the encour- 
agement given to tree planting by the Government in this colony 
has been most satisfactory. 

In 1885 the Conservator began the publication from the Govern- 
ment Printing Office of an illustrated work upon ** The Forest 
Flora of South Australia." It is in Doyal folio size, and is published 
in quarterly parts, each containing five colored plates with the 
corresponding text matter. The eighth part is now in course of 
preparation, and will be issued at an early date. It is expected 
that when finished there will not be less than thirty parts. Some 
2,000 copies are published. The work has been very favorably 
commented upon by the press in all parts of the world, especially 
the illustrations, which are produced upon stone by Mr. Barrett, 
the lithographer at the Government Printing Office, Adelaide. 

At the end of each financial year — June 30th — the Conservator 
issues an " Annual Report upon State Forest Administration in 



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42 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



South Australia." This gives full details of the year's operations 
of the Woods and Forests Department. It is generally accom- 
panied by plans showing, in detail, the various plantations which 
may have been formed under his supervision during the year under 
review, as well as giving the progress which has been made in 
Forest Conservancy generally in the colony. These reports are 
freely distributed, and are instructive to those interested in 
arboriculture. 

The forest reserves and their respective areas to date are as 
follows : — 



District in which 
situated. 


Name of Forest. 


Areas at 

June 80th, 

1886. 


Grand 
Totals. 


Northern Distiiot. • 


Bundaleer Forest. .......•• 


Acres. 

22,000 

48,653 

160 

84 

19,312 

2,467 


Acres. 


(( 


Wirrahara Forest , 






Mount Bemarkable Forest 

Penwortham Forest ..•••••• 




(( 


Mount Brown Forest * 




(C 


Hall Forest 






rest Beserves in Northern District .. 
Port-road Beserre • 




Total area <^ Fo 
Central District . . 


43 

170 

540 

230 

6,977 

7,067 

6,872 

2,236 


92,676 




Gkx>lwa Besenre ...... .• 






Bftlair Bftjwrvft 






Mount Barker Besenre ......... 






Angas Beserve 






BiSey Beserve • • • . . 






Burdett Beserve 






Finniss Beserre -••••••.••••.•••• 










Total area of Fo 
Western District.. 


rest Beserves in Central District .... 
1 "Wallaroo Forest 


4,174 


23,134 






Total area of Fo 
Southern District. . 


rest Beserves in Western District. . . . 
Mount Gambler Forest 


250 
14,742 
39 
8,160 
1,020 
1,165 
6,345 
8,769 
6,960 


4,174 


« 


Mount Burr Forest ..*..., 






Mount Muirhead Flat Forest 

Glen Boy Flat Forest 




(( 


MiiTidalla Forefit 




u 


Bordertown Forest 




(( 


Cave Bange Forest 




(( 






(( 












Total area of Forest Beserves in Southern District . . 


— 


46,440 


Grand total area of 


Forest Beserves at June 30th, 1886 . . 


166,324 



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THE WOODS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT. 4a 

On the 30th June last the statement of all lands enclosed and 
devoted to the purpose of plantings and the encouragement of a 
natural growth of trees in the indigenous f orests, stood as follows : — 



Name of Forest. 


Area 
Enclosed at 
Jmne 80th, 

1885. 


Enclosed 
during 
1885-6. 


Total Area 

under opent^ 

tion, Jane 

80th, 1886. 


Bundaleer ...••.•••• 


Acres. 

3,004 

2,010 

. 250 

39 

182 

22 

38 

20 

78 

16J 

30 


Acres. 
861 
168 

6 
12 

60 


Acres. 

3,866 

2,168 

260 


Wirrabara 


Mount Gambler ••••••••...,.........• 


Mount Muirhead Plat 


39 


Mount Brown •...•••••• ••••••••• 


182 


Port-road 


27 


Kapunda .•..•••• .... •••• •••••• ...••. 


60 


Boolcunda •••••••. •••••••• ••.. • 


20 


Mount BujT t • • t • • ■ t ....•• .... 


78 


Mount Mclntyre 

Bailway Beserves 


76i 
30 




6,686J 



There are six nurseries under the department, namely, Mount 
Brown, Wirrabara, Bundaleer, Kapunda, Belair, and Mount Gam- 
bier, containing an aggregate area of thirty-three acres. These 
have been hitherto raising about 1,000,000 trees annually, but by 
the means of recent improvements it is expected that at least 
2,000,000 plants will be raised in them in the future. 

Last season the department succeeded in successfully planting 
over 500,000 young trees, but during the current year it is expected 
that the operations will result in at least 1,000,000 trees being 
added to the plantations. 

The staff of the department consists, besides the Conservator, of 
two clerks, four foresters, six nurserymen, three foremen, six cadets, 
,and thirty-five regularly employed laborers. During the planting 
season over 100 extra men are employed. 

Not the least pleasing feature in connection with the department 
is the fact that the revenue exceeds the expenditure by from one 
to three thousand pounds annually. Last year the whole expen- 
diture of the department amounted to £5,463 9s. lid., whilst the 
revenue was £8,123 Ts. lid. This year the revenue is expected to 
be close upon £10,000. 

Since 1876, £58,215 18s. 7d. has been expended upon the 
Forest Reserves, whilst the revenue received during the same period 



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44 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

from these forests amounts to £59,043 Os. 8d. Thus the whole 
works of the department have been carried out without any actual 
-expense to the country, at the same time that the approximate 
-value of the permanent improYements executed upon the reserved 
are estimated at orer £150,000. 



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GOVERNMENT GEOLOGIST'S DEPARTMENT. 45- 



GOVERNMENT GEOLOGIST'S DEPARTMENT. 

The importance of a geological department in all countries \» 
now universally recognised. To a colony sucli as South Australia, . 
yet in its infancy, this importance is increased by reason of the 
desire of the people to find out its hidden mineral wealth and its 
subterranean water supply — ^for upon both of these sources greatly 
depends the position which the colony may, in the future, occupy 
in relation to its neighbors. 

This truth was recognised by the Legislature of South Australia 
in 1882, and the necessary steps were accordingly taken to establish 
a department under the leadership of Mr. Henry Y. L. Brown,. 
F.G.S, He arrived in the colony in December, 1882, and at once 
entered upon his duties. 

The colonies of New South Wales and Victoria already had 
similar departments, and had geological surveys of the country in 
progress. It was deemed advisable that South Australia should 
follow their example, and to further this purpose, an assistant 
geologist (Mr. Harry P. Woodward, F.G.S.) was appointed, and a 
staff of surveyors formed. 

Subsequently, owing to depressed times, this project was aban*^ 
doned, the geological survey staff was disbanded, and the Govern- 
ment Geologist was obliged to conduct his duties without assistance. 
Soon after his arrival in the colony, a flying visit was paid to Mount 
Gambier, MiUicent, and Naracoorte vid Lake Alexandrina and 
the Coorong. 

The first place visited with regard to water supply was Wilming* 
ton. A bore was there being put down, in search of artesian 
water, to a depth of 360ft. A supply of water had been struck 
which rose to within 100ft. of the surface. An examination of the 
country showed that there was no likelihood of artesian water being 
met with by boring to a greater depth, and the work was discontinued. 

Callington was next visited, and a report given on the probability 
of well water being found on the stock-road. 

After examining the coimtry in the Hundred of Dublin, a report 
was made in favor of an underground supply of water being met 
with. A bore was accordingly sunk, and water was struck at 



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46 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Sl7{t» At a depth of 390ft. good stock water was stinick and 
rose within 14ft. of the surface. The supply is over 20,000 
gallons per day. A second bore has since been put down in the 
«ame district, and a supply of 20,000 gallons per day has been 
got at 212ft. 

At Barunga Qap a proposed site for boring was examined and 
favorably reported upon. A bore was put down, and at a depth 
of 9d0ft. a supply of 26,000 gallons of water per day was obtained, 
and rose in the tubes to within 345ft. of the surface. The quality 
of the water was similar to that got in the Dublin bore. 

At Wallaroo, where water is found in shallow wells in the sand 
on the sea beach, a series of trial bores was recommended. The 
intention was to have tested the mouth of an ancient river which 
apparently exists there. One bore was put down to a depth of 
16dft., 100ft. being in bed rock. Salt water only was met with,- 
and the experiment was not contmued. 

On the 21st March, Mr. Brown started on a journey to the 
north-east country. His object was to ascertain whether the gold* 
bearing rocks of Mount Browne (New South Wales), and the 
cretaceous formation in which artesian or other wells might be 
found, was continued into South Australia. 

Travelling from Adelaide to Beltana he proceeded to Wauka- 
ringa, where a bore had been begun in search of artesian water. 
After examining the strata, he advised that the work should not be 
continued. From there, vid Thackaringa, Mt. Browne diggings, and 
Cooper's Creek, to the north-east comer peg on the Queensland 
boundary, and on to Pandie Fandie station on the Diamentina 
Eiver, Clifton Hills, and Innamincka. The return journey was 
made vid Strselecke Creek to Mulligan Springs, thence to Blanche- 
water, Mount Lyndhurst, and Beltana, reaching Adelaide on the 
10th of July. This report shows that the gold-bearing rocks 
were not found to be continued from New South Wales into this 
colony. The Flinders Bange is the nearest point where rocks, 
likely to prove auriferous, outcrop, the intervening coimtry being , 
cov«*ed with cretaceous and tertiary deposits. 

The report concerning the underground water supply was, 
however, of a more encouraging nature. Mr. Brown pointed out that 
the water flowing from the mound and other springs, was derived 
from underlying horizontal strata of cretaceous age in which it is 
stored. He was, therefore, of opinion that artesian water was most 
probably to be got over a large area of this formation. 



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GOVERNMENT GEOLOGIST'S DEPARTMENT. 47 

In the following year artesian water was struck in a bore at 
Tarkinna, at a depth of 1,220ft., and since then has been got, 
by boring, in large quantities near Hergott, Coward, Strangways, 
and Mulligan Springs. These more recent bores, however, are 
situated within a few miles of the mound springs. 

Next an inspection of the coimtry from Wellington, on the Riyer 
Murray, to the Victorian boundary east of Bordertown, commonly 
known as the Ninety-mile Desert, was undertaken for the purpose 
of reporting on the question of a water supply along the route of 
the intercolonial railway. The report was in fevor of boring for 
artesian water. Four bores were subsequently put down — one at 
Cooke's Plains, one at Ei Ei, one at Rogers' Gap, and the fourth 
at a place not named. Unfortanately, howeyer, these bores were 
abandoned before they were finished, and no good resulted at the 
time. 

In September a report was made on the geology of Yorke's 
Peninsula, special attention being paid to the matter of artesian 
water supply being probable in the country between Clinton and 
Curramulka. In May, 1885, a journey was made from Port 
Augusta to Eucla, and with regard to the water supply — one of the 
main objects of the journey — ^it was not considered probable that 
artesian water would be found in the country lying between Port 
Augusta and the Gawler Ranges. To the westward of those ranges 
the prospect was more &yorable. But even there it would in great 
measure depend on the elevation of the country above the sea ; 
also whether the water is dammed back and sufficiently obstructed 
in its passage seawards, to produce pressure capable of bringing it 
to the suri^e. The report made upon this journey gives particulars 
of the supply and quality of the water in the various wells visited 
during the journey. The Nullabor Plain, on the Great Australian 
Bight, the locality in which it was most desirable that water should, 
if possible, be procured, was now reached. Some years previously 
the Government had sunk a bore to a depth of d26ft., but had 
failed to pierce the chalky limestone of the older tertiaries. 

The Geologist, after making a careful examination, reported 
that, in his opinion, water-bearing drifts underlaid the older ter- 
tiary limestone, and that by boring water would be found. On 
the strength of this report the Hon. the Commissioner of Crown 
Lands determined to put down a bore at a sight selected by Mr. 
Brown. This was twenty miles from the head of the Bight. 
The imdertaking was most successful ; water was struck in a 



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48 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

stratum of sand, and rose in the bore to within 115£t. of the 
surface. The water is of good quality, and the supply, from a 
depth of 200ft., equals sixty-eight thousand four hundred gallons 
per day (68,400). The bore was put down to a depth of 777ft. 

In former times the only water to be found in this immense 
district was that which chanced to collect in small rock-holes, and 
the country was therefore not available for pastoral purposes. But 
now that it has been proved that an inexhaustible supply exists 
undergroimd a large area of country fit for grazing purposes is 
made available. 

The return journey was made vid Mount Finke, Wilgena, and 
Wirraminna, and reports were made on places where water might be 
got by boring, and upon the geology of the country generally. 

Following upon this, came an inspection of the country in the 
neighborhood of Beetaloo Springs. This had reference to the con* 
struction of dams for the supply of water to Yorke's Peninsula. 

Later on reports were given with regard to a site for boring near 
Wasleys, but, unfortunately, though water was struck, it proved to 
be salt. 

In December, 1886, a site for a water bore was chosen at Tintinarra, 
in the Ninety-mile Desert, and in March of the present year water 
was struck at a depth of 246ft. It rises to the surface and 
gives a supply of 48,000 gallons per day at a depth of 35ft. 
The quality is exceedingly good. A bore had previously heen 
put down at Cold-and-Wet station, to a depth of 8d0ft., but no 
water was found. This result was remarkable, as the tertiary 
beds passed through were most favorable for the occurrence of ' 
water. 

During February, Sixth Creek and Teatree Gully were examined, 
and were reported to be capable of greatly increasing the supply of 
water to the city of Adelaide. 

The first work undertaken in reference to mining was the in- 
spection of the Woodside gold mines in January, 1883. A report 
with map attached, was published in the annual report of 1882-3. 
At tjiis time the reefs had not been prospected to any depth below 
the water level, but an opinion was expressed that to sink deeper 
would be a legitimate mining venture, and would probably prove 
payable. In July, the geology of h portion of the Mount Lofty 
Range wa*s mapped out, and subsequently a map was made of the 
gold reser\'es of the hundreds of Kuitpo and Noarlunga. 

During May and June, 1884, with the object of making a minera- 



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GOVERNMENT GEOLOGIST'S DEPARTMENT. 4^ 

logical and geological map of the district, the conntiy east and 
west of Farina was examined. At the Cutaway Hills, Leigh's 
Creek, indications of gold were got hy prospecting, and the locality 
was recommended as being one worth testing systematically. 

In December a geological map of the Echunga goldfields was 
completed, and one of the Barossa field was begun. 

In May, 1885, the Geologist inspected and reported on the 
country between Port Augusta and Eucla. He considered the 
country westward of Port Lincoln Gap as far as Uno, and west- 
ward of the Gawler Ranges, to be metalliferous, and that, in addi- 
tion to other metals, gold might be found. 

Eighty miles north of Fowler's Bay, a bed of lignite, or brown coal, 
was visited. It can be traced across a lake for a distance of about 
half a mile, and down its course for upwards of two miles. It has 
been bored into, and a section showed : — Lignite 30ft. ; grey clay 
and ironstone 9ft.; lignite 1ft. At this depth the bore was dis- 
continued. 

The Grumeracha and Watt's Gully goldfields. Burton's mine, 
Durdan mine, and other gold localities in the district were next 
visited, and after reporting on the discovery of reef and alluvial 
gold near WiUnnga, the silver-lead discoveries near Oulnina, in 
the north-east were inspected; also other lode outcrops in that 
district, as far as Thackaringa, on the New South Wales border. 
Before returning, the Broken Hill, Day Dream, and other well- 
known silver mines were visited. 

Reports were made on the supposed discovery of coal near 
Auburn, silver near Clare, quarries on the Finniss river, and pro- 
posed sites for wells or bores in the hundred of Muloowurtie. 

An inspection was made of coimtry in the neighborhood of 
Jamestown and of Port Lincoln. 

Kangaroo Island was visited for the purpose of investigating a 
reported discovery of tin. The Ulooloo goldfield was reported 
on, and a map of the field prepared. Also a large collection of 
rocks and fossils was made, and, together with a geological and 
mining map of South Australia, was sent to the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition in London. The map is made on a scale of 
eight miles to an inch. 

Early in 1886, reports were made on the goldfields of Talimga, 
Gumeracha, and Mount Crawford, and the Mannahill reefs. At 
Echunga a series of shafts and bores were put down to test the 
deep leads. ^ 

J> 



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50 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

In July silver-lead was said to haTe been discovered at Carrieton, 
Orroroo, Robertstown, &c., but an examination, made by the 
Geologist, showed that the ores contained but little silver, and in 
most cases none at all. 

Various localities deemed to be auriferous were selected by 
officers of the department, and prospecting parties were organised 
to test them. The results were fairly good, and proved that gold 
could be got over an immense area of country. 

During August the Neales river was visited, and a report was 
made on the discovery there of alluvial gold. Payable quantities 
yere found by the prospector, and the field has subsequently been 
worked to a small extent. 

In October came the news of the discovery of the Teetulpa 
goldfield. This place was twice visited, and reports made con- 
cerning it. The second visit was in December, and the Manna- 
hill reefs were inspected at the same time, and a detailed report 
made. Ten tons of stone from five different claims were sent by 
the department to Melbourne to be tested as to value, llie returns 
ranged from 3dwts. to 2ozs. of gold per ton. 

During the early part of 1887 a record of the mines of South 
Australia was compiled and published. This purposed to give, as 
completely as was possible, a description of every mine opened in 
the province up to the present time. Each mine is arranged in 
alphabetical order under the head of the metal it produces in 
greatest quantity. 

In January of this year the gold-workings at Sixth Creek were 
Tisited and reported upon. The Gumcracha goldfields, the 
German and other reefs in the neighborhood, were visited, and also 
the Balhannah, Grunthal, Montacute, and Mount's mines. In 
February a visit was paid to the districts of Mount Barker, the 
Meadows, Blackwood Gully, Port Elliot, and Goolwa. Subsequently 
an examination was made of the mines near Strathalbyn, and the 
Hundred of Waitpinga. The report shows that this hundred is a 
favorable one to the occurrence of gold. 

The goldfields of Forest Range and Blackwood Gully were in- 
spected ; and, subsequently, those in the Hundred of Myponga, 
including a new discovery at Blackwood Gully. 

In April visits were paid, first to the new* rush at Barossa, and 
then to Teetulpa and King's Bluff in the north-east. 

In addition to those journeys a great deal of work has been 
done in the office, more especially in the matter of reporting on 
specimens of ore sent from all parts of the province. 



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GOVERNMENT GEOLOGIST'S DEPARTMENT. 51 

On the 17th of June, 1886, the department lost the valuable 
co-operation and assistance of Mr. HarrjyP. Woodward, F.G.S., 
Assistant Geologist. The term for which he had been engaged 
expired, and he returned to England. Besides the work abready 
noticed, in which he took a prominent part, he accompanied the 
South Australian and Queensland Boundary Survey party as far 
north as lat. 23° 10', and furnished a report on the country passed 
over. 

Space does not permit of an extended notice of mining matters, 
nor is it essential that one should here be given. The " Mining 
Records of South Australia," in pamphlet form, are .obtainable at 
the Government Printer's, King William-road, and are also to be 
had in the Exhibition Building free of charge. 

The principal metal exported is copper. The statistics published 
by the Government show that in the year 1843 copper ore of the 
value of £23 was exported, but R\e years later the maximum value 
was reached at £310,172, representing 1 6,323 j^ tons of ore. 

In 1873, the export equalled 27,382 tons, but owing to the fall 
in prices the value was put at £133^71. Of refined copper the 
first record is in 1848, when 73c wt., value £215, were exported, and 
the largest quantity was in 1867, viz., 156,863cwt., value £637,384. 
In 1872, 149,050cwt. were exported of the declared value of 
£680,714. The total quantities exported up to 1886 are as 
follows ; — £ . 

Copper 3,086,134cwt. =12,696,216 value 

Copper Ore 588,305 tons= 5,920,487 *' 
Kegulus 2,972 toiis= 117,516 " 

Next to copper, the highest figures come under lead and lead 
ore : — £ 

Lead 23,535cwt. = 50,376 value 

Lead Ore 8,789 tons= 148,744 " 

Manganese 2,078 ton8= 14,857 " 

Emery = 1,022 " 

Gold is given, officially, as being 18,152ozs. of the declared value 
of £70,963, but it is well known that a far larger quantity has been 
procured. During the first three years that the Echunga goldfields 
were worked, viz», 1852-3-4, it is estimated that gold to the value 
of £250,000 was obtained, and since then the field has afiTorded a 
living to many men, who have worked continuously ; and from the 
time the Teetulpa field was opened in October, 1886, to the present 



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52 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

time, the yield is calculated as being fully equal to £200,000. l"he 
total declared value of minerals exported up to the end of 1886, is 
£19,075,040. 

In addition to copper, silver-lead, and gold, there are mines con* 
taining bismuth, cobalt, iron, nickel, and manganese. 

The reports and maps published by the department are as 
follows : — 

General Geological Map of the Province. New Edition. 

Beport on Woodside Gold Mines. 

Report on Geological Examination of the Province —Annual Beport for 

1882-3. 
Eeport on Country East and West of Farina. 
Beport on Country North- West and North-East of Farina. 
Beport by H. P. Woodward on Country East of Farina and North to 

lat. 23° 10'. 
Beport on Lakes in Mount Gambier District. 
Beport on Ecbiinga Goldfields. 

** Country from Port Augusta to Eucla. 
** Joiurney to Silverton. 

** Barossa and Para Wirra Goldfields, with Map. 
" Yorke's Peninsula., 

** Gumeracha and Mount Crawford Goldfields, with Map. 
" Ulooloo Goldfields, with Map. 
The Mining Becords of South Australia. 
Maps can be obtained at the office and also in the Exhibition 
Building, free of charge, and the Reports at the Government 
Printing Office. 



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WATER SUPPLY. 53 



WATER SUPPLY. • 

The history of our first half century reveals the fact that one of 
the greatest wants of South Australia is a plentiful supply of water 
for irrigation and other purposes ; and there is at this moment a 
consensus of opinion that in the wise and provident conservation 
and utilization of even the limited supplies of water which are 
available at our command we shall lay the sure foundation of an 
era of unparalleled prosperity. 

In the extent and quality of our lands we can justly claim 
favorable comparison with any country in the world. 

Area. — ^The area available for profitable cultivation is, however, 
limited to about one-twentieth part of our territorial area of 
243,244,800 acres (this is exclusive of the "Northern Territory" 
of our province). This limit is not due to the quality of the soil, 
the inaccessibility of the locality, or similar cause, in which respects 
there are superior advantages, but is due to an insufficient rainfall. 

Rainfall, — The records at the Adelaide Observatory (the Ob- 
servatory is situated on the south park lands of the city 140ft. 
above sea level) show that rain falls over the city on an average 
127 days in the 5*ear, chiefly during the months of May, June, 
July, and August, and that the average yearly quantity during the 
last twenty-five years has been 20in. A diagram is annexed 
showing the average rainfall at Adelaide, and also at Kooringa, a 
■town 100 miles north of the metropolis, from which the cyclic 
periodicity can be inferred, if it is safe to do so from so short a 
record. 

Mount Lofty, a prominent feature in the landscape, eight miles 
distant from the city, and 2,234ft. above sea level, has the maxi- 
mum record of 42 Jin. ; the next highest — away from the same 
moimtain range— being Mount Gambler, in the south, with 31 Jin. 

In the hilly districts, about one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
miles north of the city of Adelaide, the average is from 18in. to 
25in., in the heart of the best agricultural areas of the north 15in. 
to 17in., and in other farming localities lOin. to 13in. 

Still further in the interior, in the far outlying pastoral districts, 
the minimum of 6in. to Sin. is all that fais. 



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54 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Natural Waters, — Notwithstanding this small rainfall the natural 
supplies of water are not so unimportant as might be inferred from 
the foregoing, or indeed as generally supposed. 

In the south-eastern portion of the province, south of latitude 
36° 30', water of good quality, in great abundance, is found in the 
tertiary limestone, for the most part very near the surface. In 
many places towards the coast-line there is a considerable surface 
outflow forming ever-flowing streams of no mean size. The rain- 
fall in this district is from 20in. to 31 in., an unusual proportion of 
which is absorbed by the permeable marine limestone and sand* 
stone through which, at the normal water-level of the country, the 
subterranean stream slowly finds its way towards the sea. This 
flowing of the underground waters can be distinctly seen in the 
limestone caves, in wells, and in the lakes in the volcanic basins of 
Mount Gambler. 

At some distance inland, on the higher levels, the storm waters 
— gathered into streams or accumulated into lakes or swamps — 
soon finds its way underground to the normal water-level through 
pipes in the limestone (known in the district as " runaway holes "). 
Some of these water passages are of great interest, being in the 
shape of an inverted cone, 40ft. to 50ft. deep, with a surface 
diameter of above 30ft. At times of heavy rainfall these holes are 
flooded over, and a whirlpool can be seen until the whole of the 
water has been swallowed up. 

On the lands towards the coast the Government have found it 
necessary to carry out very extensive drainage works to carry ofT 
the freshwater, and a large area has thus been successfully re- 
claimed and occupied for cultivation. The farmers owning this 
land are now awaking to the fact that — even in this district — ^the 
water is too valuable to be allowed to run to waste, and in the near 
future intense cultivation under irrigation will certainly be very 
generally practised to the great benefit and advancement of the 
province. 

River Murray. — ^The only river of any magnitude is the Murray^ 
which enters the province over its eastern boundary and flows 
thence in its circuitous course of four hundred and eighty (480) 
miles to its debouchure at the southern ocean. The river is gene- 
rally in flood from September to December, and at its lowest front 
March to June. The annual quantity of water discharged is from 
210,000 to 550,000 million cubic feet. Steamers of considerable 
size navigate its waters, ftnd public attention is now directed to it& 



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WATER SUPPLY. 55 

further utilization for irrigation, the success of which is a foregone 
conclusion, and is looked forward to as a certain stride of substan- 
tial progress. 

Mountain Streams and Springs, — In the chain of mountains 
known as Mount Lofty Ranges, commencing at Cape Jervis on 
the southern coast and trending northerly for about one hundred 
miles, there are very numerous streams of delicious water having 
their source in springs flowing from the upland valleys. These 
waters are used to some extent for the irrigation of market 
gardens, in which most descriptions and varieties of luscious fruits 
and every vegetable that could be desired are grown. Similar 
springs exist in most of the other mountain ranges of the province, 
particularly the Clare Hills, the Flinders Range, and even the 
Freeling Heights, 450 miles north of Adelaide. There is a 
remarkable hot spring near the northern extremity of the latter 
range ; the temperature of the water as it flows from the spring 
is 130° Fahr., and a considerable smoking stream is formed for 
about a mile, when it is lost in the gravel bed. 

Many watercourses (" rivers " they are called when above a few 
yards wide and the water constantly flowing) convey ever-flowing 
streams from the mountain ranges to the plains below to serve the 
wants of man and beast ; but, so far, little has been done on the 
plains to utilize the waters for irrigation except in the immediate 
vicinity of Adelaide. 

Wells. — ^In many localities good water is readily obtainable in 
wells at moderate depths, and large supplies are drawn from, this 
source. 

Incomplete geological knowledge of the province, — In an extensive 
country like ours it was not to be expected that the first half 
century would suffice for obtaining an accurate knowledge of the 
wealth which nature has stored beneath our feet, whether it be 
minerals, fuel, or water. 

Although much has been done to develop our mineral resources, 
it is unquestionable that other rich mines of copper, silver, tin, 
gold, and, probably diamonds still lie concealed in our hills and 
valleys. 

Hitherto no coal has been discovered within our borders, but 
rumors of its existence are being continually circulated, and many 
practical coal miners are confident that the day is not far distant 
when we shall find this storehouse of national prosperity ; scientific 
opinion is, however, unfavorable. 



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56 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

So it is with the underground water supplies ; every day is 
revealing, in one part of the province or another, new— although 
very old — ^natural subterranean reservoirs of the precious fluid. 

Artesian Wells, — Up to a year or two ago the question " shall 
" we ever have a flowing artesian well ? " was often debated, but 
not satisfactorily answered. Now, however, the diamond drills 
of the Water Conservation Department have brought the debate- 
able into the region of certainty by the discovery of flowing wells 
in three widely separated portions of the province — viz., the Far 
North on the Transcontinental Railway line ; the Willochra Valley in 
the northern agricultural settlement ; and the South-Eastern Dis- 
trict on the Intercolonial Railway line. 

Mound Springs. — In the Far North the presence of water under 
conditions favorable to artesian wells was indicated by a series of 
wonderful mound springs, which, in some instances, have built 
up a huge dome of carbonate of lime, and the water is held in 
large cups at the top ; others are quite roofed over the top and 
the water is concealed within ; while others again have but low 
walls of lime or clay and give ofl* a flowing stream of water. It 
was apparent that this water came from a considerable depth, 
and probably from a great distance. 

Cretaceous Basin. — A geological examination proved the exist- 
ence of a very extensive basin, bounde^d on the north-east and east 
by the mountain ranges of Queensland and New South Wales ; 
on the south by the outcrop at the bed rocks north of Farina and 
in the Freeling Heights in South Australia; and on the west 
partially by the primary and igneous rocks near the Overland 
Telegraph line ; the precise limit on the north and west being still 
a matter of imcertainty. 

The portion of this immense basin within the boundaries of the 
province comprise a surface area of fully 100,000 square miles, 
and it has been found by boring that horizontal strata obtain from 
the surface down to the bed rock, consisting of homogeneous 
argillaceous silt intercallated with bands of hard blue limestone 
containing iron pyrites, and their marine origin is evident from the 
presence of numerous marine fossils. The Rev. Mr. Howchin, 
F.G.S., has very ably investigated and described these strata. 

Fossil Foraminifera, — In an article on the Foraminifera of the 
beds, Mr. Howchin says : — " These borings preserve a wonderful 
**' sameness of character throughout their entire depth. This is true 
^' both as to the mineral depositions and palceontological remains. 



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WATER SUPPLY. 67 

" The same similarity is observed when the respective borings are 
" compared with each other, a majority of the species observ.ed 
** being common to the geological area in question. The respective 
" borings have evidently passed through beds of contemporaneous 
** age and which were deposited under remarkably uniform con- 
*' ditions, and these persistent through a period of time sufficiently 
«< prolonged to permit this great thickness of deposit being thrown 
" down. That this deposition was carried on at a very slow rate 
" is evident from the presence of Foramintfera throughout the 
*• entire depth. Twenty samples from various depths were washed 
" and microscopically searched, and, with the exception of two, 
" yielded in each case more or less species of Foramintfera of the 
" following genera : — Hyperammina Reophaxy two species ; Hap- 
.'* laphragmium, four species ; Bigenerina, two species ; Gaudryina^ 
" three spefJies ; Verneuilina^ Cyclammina^ Crtslellaria, Marginu- 
" Una, two species ; and others.*' 

The Government geologist (H. Y. L. Brown, Esq.) has also 
reported on the formation which he describes as of cretaceous age. 

Source of Water, — It is evident that the source of the water is 
the mountain chain of Queensland on the north-east, and that 
imder the clay beds, at a depth in the centre of the basin of 
probably 2,000ft., rising to two or three hundred feet near the 
shores of this secondary sea, there is a permeable bed of sand and 
gravel conducting the water throughout the entire basin, and that 
when ^he sand bed is tapped in boring the hydrostatic pressure 
brings the water over the surface, unless the surface level is above 
the height to which the pressure is equal. 

Government Artesian Wells. — ^The borings in this locality by 
the Government, under the Department of the Conservator of 
Water, have been very successful in tapping large supplies of 
artesian water; the quality is, however, slightly brackish. 

The four most successful borings are the Hergott, Coward, 
Strangways, and Mungamurtiemurtie, at depths of 342ft. 3in., 
^08ft., d65ft. 2in., and 237ft. 5in. respectively, with corresponding 
supplies per diem of 100,000, 1,200,000, 1,200,000, and 52,000 
gsdlons, in each case flowing from the six-inch pipe several feet 
above the surface. The temperature of the water being 86° to 
90° Fahr. 

Artesian Well, Willochra Valley, — The boring in Willochra 
Valley, about 200 miles north of Adelaide, after passing through 
salt water in gravel beds near the surface, penetrated the tertiary 



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68 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

clays to a depth of 215ft., when good water was struck in white 
argillaceous sand. The quantity flowing over the surface is 
10,000 gallons per diem, and the quality suitahle for domestic 
supply, locomotive purposes, or irrigation. 

Artesian Well^ Tintinarra. — The successful horing at Tintinarra 
in the south-eastern district passed through tertiary marine beds 
of sand and limestone, highly fossiliferous, for 160ft., and then 
black carbonaceous clay to 251ft., at which depth good water was 
struck and immediately rose over the surface at the rate of 4,300 
gallons per diem. The quality is excellent. 

Government Wells, — ^It is in the extensive tracts of outlying^ 
country, away from the natural surface supplies, that the scarcity 
of water has been most felt, and it is to these localities that the 
Government have devoted the most of their attention. (In this 
article the waterworks for the supply of Adelaide an^ other large 
towns are omitted, as they are dealt with in a subsequent part of 
this book.) 

There are 199 Government wells for public use, giving a supply 
of one million gallons per diem. To these should be added the 
borings already described, yielding a supply of five million gallons 
per diem. 

Nullarhor Plains. — In the Far West, on the boundary of the 
adjoining province of Western Australia, there is an elevated 
plateau of good pastoral land which has hitherto been lying un*> 
occupied in consequence of the entire absence of water. 

Within the last few months the Conservator of Water has suc- 
ceeded in satisfactorily completing two deep borings, which yield 
a large supply of stock water. In each of these bores salt- water 
was struck at about sea-level — viz., 182ft. and 235ft. respectively. 
The strata passed through being marine limestone and chalk, 
highly fossiliferous, determined by Professor Tate, F.G.S., &c., as 
older tertiary; at 414ft. in the one, and 470ft. in the other, blue 
and black clay was entered and the water reached beneath the 
clay in a sand bed at 752ft. and 735ft. respectively, the latter 
being ten miles further inland than the former. The pressure is, 
however, unequal to bringing the water higher than from 135ft. 
to 187ft. from the surface. The temperature of the water is 81® 
Fahr. The area occupied by this formation is about 20,000 square 
miles, and similar success can now be safely predicted throughout 
the entire plateau. 

Government Reservoirs. — ^With a rainfall of six to ten inches 
and an annual evaporation of sixty inches very little natural 



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WATER SUPPLY. 59 

surface water could be expected, and it soon became patent that 
any storage tanks or reservoirs should be as deep as possible. 
The construction of reservoirs in the usual way, by retaining 
embankments only, is generally impossible from the level nature 
of the country, and the alternative of excavating tanks and reser- 
voirs in retentive clay beds has been generally adopted. The 
Government, by the Water Conservation Department, have been 
able to Tery successfully carry out these works by using steam 
ploughing and scooping machinery manufactured by Messrs. John 
Fowler & Co., of Leeds. A large number of reservoirs have been, 
thus excavated to depths of 18ft. to 25ft., and holding capacity of 
three to eight million gallons. 

There are 227 Government tanks and reservoirs for public use 
in the country districts with a holding capacity of 237,000,000 
gallons. 



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«0 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



ADELAIDE WATERWORKS. 

The following description of the Adelaide Waterworks and the 
.Sewage Farm at Islington has been kindly supplied by Mr. Charles 
W. Smith, A.M., Inst. C.E., of the Hydraulic Engineer's Depart- 
ment. This department has under its control all water supplies to 
country towns within the province, and the Adelaide sewers. 

The City of Adelaide is situate on the Adelaide Plains, which 
xeach in a westerly direction from the foot of the Mount Lofty 
Ranges to the sea. 

The city is four miles west from the ranges and six miles east 
irom the sea. From the Thomdon Park reservoir to the city the 
distance is six miles, and from the Hope Valley reservoir seven 
miles, both in a north-easterly direction. The area supplied by 
these two reservoirs extends for distances varying from two and 
three-quarters miles to twelve miles from the city, and covers over 
100 square miles, supplying a population of from 90,000 to 
100,000. 

The levels of the city vary from 175ft. to 100ft. above the level 
of the sea. The more elevated of the suburban townships have 
^supplies independent of the Hope Valley and Thomdon Park 
reservoirs. 

The marine township of Glenelg has a fairly large population, 
and is only 17ft. to ,25ft. above sea level. Port Adelaide, the chief 
port in the province, is situated on the Port Creek, within two 
miles of the sea, and from 13ft. to 18ft. above its level. 

The source of supply is the River Torrens, where it issues from 
a gorge in the western slopes of the Mount Lofty Ranges. The 
•catchment area equals about 150 square miles, and consists of very 
Mlly ranges of a slate and sandstone formation, covered with poor 
«oil, and sparsely timbered with *' bastard box " and stringybark. 

The flow in the river is constant but very variable, the quantity 
during the summer months not amoimting to more than 7,000 
to 10,000 gallons per hour, while in time of heavy winter rains the 
-water flows from 4ft. to Oft. deep over a weir 140ft. wide. 

The head works consist of a heavy masonry weir, about 15ft, 
liigh, constructed in a narrow gorge of the river at a point where 



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ADELAIDE WATERWORKS. 61 

it is about 200ft. wide, and at such an altitude as suffices to give 
the necessary declination to an aqueduct for conveying the water 
to the two reservoirs, one of which is situate at Thomdon Park 
and the other at Hope Valley. The level of the weir is 359ft. 
above low water (sea level). 

No filtering appliances are necessary, as the water, after the first 
of the winter floods have passed over the weir, becomes clear and 
quite fit for domestic use. The sluice- valve in the weir which 
governs the intake is then opened, and the water allowed to flow 
along the aqueduct to the reservoirs. The flow of water is regu- 
lated by this valve, which is 4ft. square, and which can be opened 
or closed in two minutes. No bye- washes are therefore needed 
for the reservoirs. 

The aqueduct is about three and three-quarter miles long, and 
consists of half a mile of cast-iron pipes 42in. in diameter, laid 
partly on masonry piers, and for the greater part in a bench 
excavated along the rocky and precipitous side of the gorge. At 
one point it crosses the river by an aqueduct bridge 200ft. long. 
This pipe delivers into an open channel, which is continued round 
the spurs of the hills. To avoid any long detours, the channel is 
taken in a direct course through two tunnels of an aggregate length 
of one-third of a mile. This channel is 10ft. 6in. wide at the top, 
4ft. deep, excavated in solid ground throughout, and lined with 
cement concrete, 9in. thick rendered. It is provided with all 
necessary under and over culverts, road bridges, scour-valves, 
bye-washes, &c., and has a fall of 1ft. 9in. per mile, and when 
running full delivers 1,000,000 gallons per hour. The aqueduct 
terminates at the second tunnel, the end of which enters the Hope 
Valley reservoir. At a point, however, along the aqueduct, the 
water can be wholly or partly diverted from the channel and con- 
veyed to the Thomdon Park . reservoir by a 21in. cast-iron pipe. 
The Thomdon Park reservoir was constructed in the year 1857, 
and from that time until 1872 was the only reservoir supplying the 
City of Adelaide, Port Adelaide, and the numerous suburbs with 
water. The increase of the population and the rapid extension of 
the suburbs demanded greater storage capacity. The larger 
reservoir at Hope Valley, with the weir and aqueduct, was 
therefore determined upon, and so designed as to ensure rapidity of 
filling. The Thomdon Park reservoir is now only considered 
supplementary to the larger one, but it is also intended as a reserve 
in the event of any accident occurring to the other reservoir or its 



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62 SOITTH AUSTRALIA. 

outlet works. Each reserroir is in direct connection with the city 
and suburbs, Either can be used alone or together. The two 
reservoirs are also directly connected by a 21 in. and 18in. 
compound main. The Thomdon Park reservoir is situated in 
valley, which has been spanned by an earthem dam constructed 
with a core or wall of good puddled clay, supported on either side 
with selected clayey materials, well punned in 12in. layers in- 
clining from the exterior slopes towards the puddled wall. This 
wall is 4ft. 9in. in thickness at the top, increasing in thickness by 
a batter of 1 in 12 to the natural surface of the ground, 
whence it diminishes by a similar batter to various depths. The 
outside slope is 2ift. horizontal to lift, vertical, and is covered 
with a compact turf. The^slope of the inside is 3ft. horizontal and 
1ft. vertical, the entire surface of which is heavily pitch-paved 
15in. in thickness. The dam is of a total length of 47 chains, 
its greatest height being 44ft. ; the centre portion is straight and 
19 chains long ; the two ends of the dam — one being 9 chains and 
the other 19 chains long — are curved inwards to meet suitable 
portions of banks of the valley. The outlet works consist of a 
brick-in-cement valve tower, erected within the reservoir and close 
to the toe of the inside slope, with outlet valves at various heights 
to suit the level of the water. From the tower there is a brick- 
in-cement tunnel, 6ft. 6in. x 6ft., carried through solid ground 
immediately below the base of the dam to a valvehouse situate at 
the foot of the outside slope of the dam. Two mains, one 18in. 
and the other 12in. in diameter, are laid in the tunnel. This 
reservoir contains at high water 140,500,000 gallons, the depth 
being then 40ft. The high- water level is 323ft. above the sea. At 
this height the water covers an area of 27^ acres. The Hope 
Valley reservoir is formed by an earthern dam crossing the valley 
at a point just below the junction of two others, thus giving the 
maximum storage capacity with the minimum length of dam. The 
dam is straight and nearly half a mile in length; its greatest 
height is 70ft., and greatest breadth at its base 355ft. It is foimed 
of good selected clay for about two- thirds of its solid contents, and 
was well punned in 12in. layers by means of heavy corrugated iron 
rollers drawn by four horses. The core or central wall consists of 
first-class puddled clay 6ft. in thickness at the top, increasing in 
thickness by a batter of 1 in 12 below the natural surface of the 
groimd, thence diminishing by a similar batter to various depths. 
The inner slope is three to one ; it is protected by a layer 9in. in 



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ADELAIDE WATERWORKS. 63 

thickness of 2^m. broken metal, on which is laid heavy pitch- 
paving 12in. thick. The outer slope is covered with turf. At 
the foot of the inner slope a cast-iron valve tower lined with brick- 
in-cement and cement concrete is built, with valves at different 
heights to suit the varying level of the water. This tower is 
connected with a strong outlet culvert of masonry lined with iron, 
built in the solid ground under the seat of the dam. This outlet 
leads by a connecting main one and three-quarter miles long, 21 in. 
and 18in. in diameter, with the subsidiary reservoir at Thorndon 
Park. The Hope Valley reservoir is constructed to hold 886,915,752 
gallons, the depth then being 51ft. Bin. ; the high- water level is 
347ft. above the sea; the surface of the water at the 51ft. 6in. 
level comprises an area of 162 acres. 

By careful evaporation gaugings carried out daily during several 
years, it is found that the evaporation from these reservoirs is 70in. 
during the year, About one-half occurring during the three hottest 
summer months, and the total amount being almost the same in 
each year. 

In connection with the two reservoirs there has been constructed 
on the northern boimdary of the city a service tank for the supply 
of water to the suburbs between the city and Port Adelaide, and 
the townships between it and the sea. This tank is placed at a 
level of 170ft. above the sea, and when full contains 1,041,000 
gallons ; it is 107ft. 6in. square and 17ft. deep ; it is constructed of 
pressed bricks set in cement, and roofed over with brick-in-cement 
arches resting on brick piers, the whole being earthed over and 
laid down in lucerne, and surrounded with ornamental shrubs and 
trees. The tank is filled during the night from a Idin. main ; the 
outlet pipe is 15in., and supplies two lOin. mains, carried along two 
roads parallel to each other and a mile apart, to Port Adelaide. 
In case of any extra pressure being required at the Port, or of 
repairs, &c., to this tank, a direct supply can at once be established 
between the Hope Valley and Thorndon Park reservoirs and the 
Porl^the inlet and outlet mains at the ser\dce tank being so 
arranged that the supply to it can be at a moment's notice cut off 
and diverted to the Port mains. A somewhat similar tank, con- 
taining 850,000 gallons, has been built to supply the town of 
Glenelg and other suburbs lying between it and the city. 

Two mains, 1 Sin. in diameter, convey the water from the two 
reservoirs to the city, while secondary mains branching therefrom 
supply the various suburban townships. These two 18in. mains 



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64 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. * 

have hitherto been sufficient for the demand ; but another main of 
18in. in diameter is urgently required to be laid, faking a new line 
of route towards the suburbs lying to the south and south-east of 
the city. 

The primary mains of from I5in. in diameter to 21 in. in diameter 
have a total length of sixteen miles ; the secondary mains of from 
15in. to lOin. in diameter have a total length of twenty- two nules; 
while the distributing or street mains from lOin. to Sin. in diameter 
have a total length of 462 miles. The furthest point supplied i» 
at the seaside, distant fifteen miles from the Thomdon Park 
reservoir. 

The service is high pressure with constant supply, and for 
domestic use unstinted, the only restraint being, in time of drought 
or a long dry summer, and the prevention of gross waste, and 
stopping the supply more or less for irrigation. 

The consumption fluctuates from about 1,750,000 gallons in 
winter to about 6,000,000 gallons per diem in the extreme hot 
simimer months. 

The meter system of supply is largely in use, a meter being 
supplied to everyone desiring it, whether for domestic or manufac- 
turing purposes. A rent, now abolished, of Is. per month was 
formerly charged for the use of the meter, the price of water being 
Is. 6d. per 1,000 gallons passed through it when situate outside the 
deep drainage area, and Is. 3d. per 1,000 gallons if within the 
proclaimed drainage area. 

Telephonic communication is established between the residence 
of the manager at the Waterworks-yard, Kent Town ; the Head 
Office, Victoria-square ; Police Station ; Fire Brigade Station ; the 
reservoir-keeper (residing at Thomdon Park), under whose control 
the two reservoirs and head works are placed, Kensington Pump- 
ing Station, and the superintendent at the Port Adelaide office. 

At the foot and partly on the western slopes of the Mount Loft7 
Eange are situated several townships considerably higher than the 
Hope Valley or Thomdon Park reservoirs. To supply <ihese 
townships and their environs (area covered, about ten square 
miles), the waters of several springs and creeks rising in the 
ranges, and flowing therefrom through rocky ravines and gorges, 
have been utilised. In three cases wells have been sunk in the 
detritus which now fills the old creek bed and adjacent to present 
creek, and the water is conveyed thence by a main to covered ser- 
vice tanks containing about 270,000 gallons each, and placed at 



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ADELAIDE WATERWORKS. 65 

such levels as to command the several townships. These supplies 
are constant during the winter months, but for a few months in 
the summer — December to May — the supply has more or less to be 
augmented by pumping water from the Kensington pumping 
station. The quantity pumped during each season amounts to 
about 25,000,000 gallons, the average cost for the past four years 
pumping being 4Jd. per 1,000 gallons. The rate charged in these 
high-level districts is now 2s. per 1,000 gallons. 

In addition to the above described auxiliary works, a water 
tower containing 66,000 gallons has been erected at the Sema- 
phore. This was found necessary to keep a constant service on 
in the district west of the Port River. The leading main is 
carried over the Port creek or river by means of the swing bridge. 
The main is disconnected on each occasion of opening the bridge 
to allow of the passage of vessels, and water is then drawn from 
the tank in water tower until the connection with the main source 
is again resumed upon the closing of the bridge. 



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66 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



ADELAIDE SEWERS AND SEWAGE FARM. 

The city of Adelaide can fairly claim to hold the unique position 
of being the best drained city in the southern hemisphere. The 
system of deep drainage, which has now been completed for nearly 
two years, has come up to the expectations of its most sanguine 
advocates ; and the concensus of opinion is that it is a pronounced 
success. 

The drainage area — ^that is, the entire district which can, by 
reason of the configuration of the ground, be benefited by these 
works — includes the city of Adelaide, the corporate towns of 
Hindmarsh, Thebarton, St. Peters, and Kensington and Norwood. 
The work of connecting with the sewers is still proceeding in the 
two last named corporations. 

The main sewer which receiyes the street sewers, is constructed 
for the greater part of its length of cement concrete. That por- 
tion which extends easterly from the Frome-road, Adelaide, is of 
earthenware pipes of a maximum diameter of 24in. The size of 
the concrete sewer varies from 3ft. 6in. by 2ft. 4in. to 5ft. by 3ft. 
4in., and is of oviform section. It is designed to discharge 23,000 
gallons per minute. Another main sewer, 3ft. 6in. by 2ft. 4in., 
traverses Bowden to receive the drainage of Bowden, Brompton, 
Thebarton, Southwark, &c. Where these main sewers join, the 
section is changed to a trough shape, perpendicular sides and 
semicircular top and bottom; it is 5ft. wide and 3ft. 9in. deep. 
This section is continued until it reaches the straining shed at the 
sewage farm, Islington. 

The sewage farm is situate about four miles to the north of the 
city, and contains altogether about 470 acres, including roads. 
The sewage from Adelaide and adjacent towns flows on to the 
farm by gravitation. The height of Adelaide at the post office is 
154ft. above sea level, that of the farm at the point where main 
sewer enters being 41ft. above the sea. At the northern end of 
farm the height is 28ft. above the sea. All the sewage is strained 
before being distributed over the land. 

The farm is worked on the broad irrigation principle, combined, 
in the winter months, with intermittent downward filtration. 



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ADELAIDE SEWERS AND SEWAGE FARM. 67 

The filter beds are thoroughly imderdrained, and work most 
efiectually, the effluent carried off therefrom being perfectly clear 
and pure. 

The sewage, after being strained, is conducted over the farm by 
means of cement concrete carriers and wooden ti-oughing. 

The farm has been divided, by fencing, into twenty-one pad- 
docks, varying in area from eight to twenty-five acres ; and water 
has been laid on to each for the use of cattle depasturing thereon. 
The whole of the farm, excepting about twenty acres of land above 
the level, is now irrigated*. The soil varies from a stiff clay to a 
sandy loam. 

A large sum of money has been spent upon buildings on the 
farm, including manager's house, dairy, stables, cowsheds, pigsties, 
&c., and the arrangements are all most complete. 

The dairy, for which most of the buildings were erected, had, 
after being brought into good working order, to be abandoned by 
reason of the strongly' expressed popular prejudice against the 
produce. The farm is now, therefore, farmed with a view of 
grazing and fattening of stock and the growth of root crops and 
other fodder plants. 

The production of the land treated with the sewage water has. 
been extraordinary, and it is generally considered that more 
luxuriant crops could not have been obtained. 

The Italian rye-grass, lucern, and mangolds, find a ready sale 
at high prices. 

At present the live stock upon the farm consists of about 300 
cows and bullocks, 30 horses, 300 sheep, and 160 pigs. 

The rate charged for depasturing large cattle ranges from 3s. 6d. 
to 5s. per week. Cattle, bought as stores, after being in the farm 
for three months double their market value. The pigs are well 
worthy of notice, being as fine a lot as could be seen anywhere ; 
they are fed on mangold leaves, pulped mangolds, lucern, and a 
little meal, and also the skim milk purchased from a neighboring 
dairy farm at a nominal price. 

The following is a description of last year's cropping of the 
farm. Many other cereals, fodder plants, and roots not mentioned 
here, were sown for experimental purposes, and the result of such 
experiments will doubtless influence the manager in his next year's 
cropping: — 

Lucern, — About 150 acres have been laid down in lucern. 
The paddocks are watered every three weeks to a depth of 3in« 



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€8 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

The soil varies from a sandy loam to a stiff clay. The yield 
obtained at each cutting is from four to ten tons per acre, cut 
eight times a year. The lucern brakes let readily for £10 per 
acre, but is found more expedient for the manager to retain all the 
land in his own hands in order that the watering may be better 
controlled and distributed over a larger area. 

Italian Rye-grass, — ^About 150 acres are devoted to Italian rye- 
grass, watered about four times in the year with a 3in. watering. 
The average yield is about eight tons per acre. 

Mangolds, — About twenty-five acres was sown with mangolds. 
They were drilled in ridges about 30in. apart. The plants 
were watered about every three weeks, 3in. deep. The soil varies 
very much in quality, consequently the crop was not very uniform. 
The yield was, however, tremendous, giving an average of fifty-five 
tons per acre, and a maximum yield of eighty-five tons per acre. 
Some of the roots can be seen in the Northern Annexe of the 
Jubilee Exhibition. They are quite brobdignagian in size. 

Sorghum. — Twenty-five acres of recently levelled land was sown 
with sorghum, and received waterings Sin. deep every six weeks. 
Although the crop was patchy the total yield gave an excellent 
average. The plants were cut twice, giving twenty-four tons per 
acre at each cut, and afterwards grazed. Undoubtedly this is a 
most invaluable fodder plant, either for chafPed feed, grazing, 
or ensilage. 

Wheat (for hay). — Fifty acres under wheat yielded about two 
and a half tons per acre. Three waterings 3in. deep were given 
to this crop. 

Barley, — ^About thirty acres of land was sown with barley 
for seed. This crop only had one watering 3in. deep, and this 
when the plant was 18in. high. It yielded twenty bushels to the 
acre. 

Vines, — Sewage water has proved to be generally suited to the 
production of the grape. About two acres of trellised vines of all 
the table varieties gave a 'splendid yield, about ten tons to the 
acre, notwithstanding the depredations of the sparrows. About 
three waterings were given during the season. 

Wattles, — Owing to the success which has attended the growth 
of the wattle on the farm, some of the paddocks have been planted 
therewith, in widely distanced rows, the usual annual cropping of 
the land going on at the same time. 



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ADELAIDE SEWERS AND SEWAGE FARM. 69 

There is little doubt that under good management, such as the 
farm now enjoys, this property must become most valuable, and 
the income that will be ultimately derived therefrom go a long 
way towards paying interest upon cost of the works carried out 
both in the farm and in the towns benefited by the deep drainage 
system. The last half-year's balance-sheet indicated a profit of 
£700. 



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70 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



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71 THE RIVER MURRAY. 



THE RIVER MURRAY. 

This noble stream was first discovered by Mr. Hamilton Hume 
and W. H. Howell, who started from Lake Greorge, and crossing 
the river, first named it the Hume, In 1828 Capt. Sturt, accom- 
panied by Mr. Hume, traced the Macquarie River down to its 
junction with the Darling, following that river down to Fort 
Bourke. The following year, Capt. Sturt traced the Murrum- 
bidgee to its debouchure into a magnificent stream 350ft. wide, 
and a depth from 15ft. to 20ft., which afterwards proved to be the 
Murray, " the antipodean Nile, the prince of Australian rivers," 
and which has since been found to have a navigable course of 
nearly 2,000 miles. He followed the river down to a consider- 
able distance, but not being able to find the true channel into the 
sea, was obliged to return, after enduring great hardships. 

In 1829 Sturt was again commissioned to explore the southern 
rivers, and in company with Mr. (afterwards Sir) George McLeay, 
sought the Murmmbidgee. They passed the junction of the river 
which Hume had called after his father, but which Sturt named 
the Murray, after Sir George Murray, then Secretary of State, by 
which name it has ever since been knowm Sturt found the natives 
very numerous, and utilised friendly ones by sending them ahead 
to announce his coming. They reached Lake Alexandrina, which 
Sturt named after Her Majesty the Queen ; named Point McLeay 
and Point Sturt, and, going around the Goolwa side of Hindmarsh 
Island, walked along the shore to the Murray sea-mouth. 

Passing through a period of intermittent vicissitudes, in Which 
jao doubt the conflicting interests of naval traders played important 
parts, very little of any importance has since been done to develop 
the advantages incident to this interesting river hitherto. 

Our legislators have comparatively ignored the commercial 
advantages of this grand river, and the result has been that less 
highly favored neighbors, after marvelling at our apathy, have 
secured for themselves the larger portion of these advantages. 
Possessed of a waterway far superior to that of the other colonies, 
South Australia could have commercially annexed considerable 
portions of the New South Wales and Victoria trade, but the 



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72 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

opportunity was not improved, and consequently a considerable 
amount of commerce took other channels, from which it will be 
difficult to divert it. Very early in the history of the colony the 
keen eye of the then Governor, Sir Henry Young, recognised the 
advantages that might be secured to South Australia by the 
improvement of the Murray channel for navigation. But the 
uncertain rises of the water, together with the limited amount of 
trade, all had a prejudical effect on the important feature of 
economic trade. Consequently it was not until 1874 and 1875, 
when Mr. Boucaut again directed public attention to the importance 
of the river trade, that any fresh effort was made to utilise or 
improve the advantages of our position. 

Up to the year 1883, ninety-two steamers were employed in this 
trade, forty-four being registered in South Australia, and forty- 
eight in Melbourne and Sydney. The average carrying capacity 
of each steamer and barge may be placed at about 200 tons, and as 
much as 500 tons have been taken at one steamer load. 

One drawback to this noble stream, is the danger attendant 
upon the passage through its mouth, which has been a stand- 
ing difficulty and disappointment to the colony. Being exposed to 
the full sweep of the gigantic waves of the southern ocean, this 
entrance is continually shifting, silting up one channel, and open- 
ing out another. Though river steamers have been na^agated in 
and out several times, there is always some measure of risk about 
it. But it is not too much to say that we have not turned the one 
great river we possess to full account for the convenience of pro- 
duce ; for a port at its mouth capacious enough to receive large 
vessels would do more than anything else to enable us to titilise the 
river as we ought. Without being over sanguine, we believe a 
great future lies before the colony in the further development of 
the River Murray trader 

Not the least valuable feature of this great river is the enormous 
area of splendid soil along its banks, to which some practical and 
economic system of irrigation might be applied. Deficient in 
rainfall sufficient for the growth of cereals, and other ordinary 
products, it embraces a climate of great unanimity, admirably 
suited to an irrigation system. If, by a gradual system of locks, 
the normal level of the river could be raised, so as to provide on 
the one hand a permanent water carriage, and at the same time 
establish a natural reticulation of water by gravitation over the 
chief portions of those magnificent plains along its banks, no doubt 



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THE RIVER MURRAY. 73 

a numerouB and happy population would be planted along its 
banks. 

The fact of the permanent establishment of the river through 
South Australian territory as a highway of commerce would in 
itself provide ^ reliable market for such a colony, having the 
metropolis on the one side, and the vast avenue of the trade of 
Bourke, Riverina, &c., on the other. Roughly estimated, it may 
be computed that over 2,000,000 acres would be available for irri- 
gation along its banks from the boundary to the mouth; and which 
are only waiting the enterprise of the capitalist, the agriculturist, 
and horticulturist, to be utilised, upon the highest system of modem 
cultivation, whether by cereals, pasture, orchards, orangeries, or 
vineyards. 



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74 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF 

AUSTRALASIA. 

South Australian Branch. 

The South Australian Branch of the Royal Geographical Society 
of Australasia was founded at an influential meeting of citizens 
held in Adelaide on the 10th July, 1885. Branches had been 
previously formed in New South Wales, where the movement was 
initiated in 1883, and in Victoria in 1884. 

From its position, geographically remote from the older portions 
of the habitable globe, and owing to its comparatively recent 
discovery, Australia has formed an inviting field for the adven- 
turous work of exploration. At briefly recurrent intervals, hardy 
discoverers have dared the dangers of the great southern unknown 
lands, and have plunged into the mysteries of Australian untried 
shores and wilds. The roll of brave men, who have won laurels 
in discoveries along the extended coasts, and in the inland regions 
of Australia, is rich and long. 

In the dim and distant past, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Dutch, 
pushed away southward, till we hear tell of a " great south land, 
afar off, under the southern cross.'' And then James Cook, sent 
out by the, at that time newly organised, now renowned, Royal 
Geographical Society of Britain, explored the eastern shores of the 
new continent; and, landing near Cape York, took possession for the 
** Empress of the Seas " under the title of New South Wales. 
Another brave rover of the seas. Flinders, found the dividing 
waters of Bass's Straits, and so proved Tasmania to be an island. 
After experiences upon the eastern coasts, he brought out the good 
ship Investigator^ and, naming prominent features of the coast 
from the Leuwin to near Eucla, discovered all the prominent 
points along the shores of South Australia from her western 
boundary to Encounter Bay. Spencer's and St. Vincent Gulfs 
were first seen and explored by him. Flinders, too, it was, who 
first saw and named Mount Lofty, under the shadow of which now 
nestles the fairest city of Australia, Adelaide. Now 'twere a 
fitting time, in this our year of jubilee, for South Australia to 



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ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 75 

dedicate some worthy and lasting memorial in honor of the man 
who did so much, and in whose memory we have done so little. 

Sturt discovered the great Australian rivers, the Darling and the 
Murray. His marvellously adventurous trip in an open whale- 
boat down the tortuous Murray river, seeking a highway to the 
sea, has never yet received the attention the deed merits. The 
lamented Leichardt, whose unsolved fate forms to-day one of the 
most extraordinary problems of geographical adventure, sought to 
pierce the continent from Sydney to Swan River. Eyre, after good 
work at the head of Spencer's Gulf, made himself renowned by 
his famous •' march by the sea " to Western Australia. 

Now we have John McDouall Stuart, peer of Australian ex- 
plorers, whose determined attempts to cross the continent resulted, 
in his sixth expedition, in well earned victory. In 1860, on his 
second journey, he discovered Central Mount Stuart, in the heart 
of the continent, planting upon its crest the British flag. And so, 
from the centre to the sea the ' proud flag waved exultingly." In 
October, 1861, John McDouall Stuart started on his sixth expedi- 
tion, being his final and victorious march for the Indian Ocean. 
There were with him, William Kekwick, second oflicer, since dead; 
F. W. Thring, third officer ; W. P. Auld, assistant ; Stephen King, 
John W. Billiatt, all living; James Frew, dead; Heath Nash; 
John McGorrerey, shoeing-smith ; F. G. Waterhouse, naturalist ; 
still living. After many baffling experiences and great hardships, 
Stuart, on the 25th July, 1862, reached the Indian Ocean in Van 
Diemen*s Gulf, after, in his own words, "having crossed the entire 
continent of Australia from the Southern to the Indian Ocean, 
passing through the centre." The grand flag was raised anew on 
the ocean sands of Northern Australia, and Stuart's triumph was 
complete. He had proved that central Australia was not the 
useless desert coimtry it had been represented to be, he having 
found good grazing country right away through. No higher 
testimony is needed, nor can be given, that Stuart did his work 
wonderfully well, than the fact that his track across Australia is 
now marked out by the transcontinental telegraph line which binds 
us to the old world; and further, that the route of the great 
Australian transcontinental railroad follows the footprints left by 
him. Nor can any better route be found. In connection with 
Stuart's great exploit, the names of James and John Chambers 
should be recorded ; for these were the men who stood by him in 
his earlier endeavors, and, but for their aid, his great achievement 



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76 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

must have been long delayed. Honor is due also to the South 
Australian Government for supplying the needed assistance for the 
last and successful expedition. 

Mr. A. C. Gregory, at this juncture, led an expedition whiek 
made valuable discoveries in North Australia ; and later, along the 
Barcoo, and Cooper's Creek. In 1860, also, the famed and 
lamented Burke and Wills expedition, of Melbourne, started on 
their terrible, but successful journey to the Gulf of Carpentaria 
the leaders dying at Cooper's Creek, through being forsaken by 
the party in chai*ge of their stores. John McKinlay, having been 
sent with a relief party to find Burke and Wills, traversed the 
continent from Cooper's Creek to the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Ernest Giles led an expedition in 1862, to Lake Amadeus, and the 
Rawlinson Ranges, barely escaping with his life, in a waterless 
range of country. The brothers Forrest, of Western Australia, 
have done marvellous work in the difficult country lying between 
the overland telegraph line and Western Australia, a region of 
country thrice successfully traversed by them. 

In 1872, through the generosity of two honored and enterprising 
citizens, the late Sir Walter W. Hughes, and Sir Thomas Elder, 
G.C.M.G., who still gives ready aid in similar work, an expedition 
was organised under the leadership of Colonel P. Egerton- War- 
burton, C.M.G. This expedition marked a new era in Australian 
exploration, inasmuch as camels were now first employed in trans- 
port. The wonderful " ship of the desert " at once demonstrated 
his superiority over the horse for such adventure, owing to hi» 
powers of endurance, and ability to traverse long stages with no 
water supply, which would be utterly impracticable to the more 
sagacious, but less hardy '* friend of man." In fact, the value of 
work done in Central Australia by the camel can scarcely be over- 
estimated. As in Asia and Africa, so here, for long journeys over 
trying, arid country, the camel has established itself as indispensable 
and invaluable; yet, strange to say, though forty years ago a 
gentleman from India pointed out the adaptability of the camel to 
such purposes in Australia, it is only comparatively recently that 
he has come into use. Colonel Egerton- Warburton carried on 
work in the north-west. He barely escaped from the desert with 
his life ; but, thanks to the efforts and attention of the late J. W. 
Lewis, we have the aged and honored leader still in our midst. 

Such are the leading facts respecting work done for geographical 
science in Australia up to the date of the inauguration of the 



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ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 77 

Geographical Society of Australasia. Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
has since been pleased to grant her gracious patronage, and to 
permit the assumption of the title " Royal," by the society. To 
encourage, and assist in every way possible the interests of geo- 
graphical science, is the purpose of the society, as set forth in the 
statement of "objects" in its constitution. These are as follow: — 

I. Scientific — The advancement of geographical science, the 
study of physical geography, and the exploration of 
Australasia, with the islands and seas adjacent thereto, 
to obtain information upon their physical features, 
fauna, flora, and geological formation, &c. 
II. Commercial — The study of commercial geography, the 
natural and artificial products, and the manufactures 
of various countries, to promote commerce. 

III. Educational — The dissemination of knowledge of physical, 

commercial, and political geography among all classes, 
by means of illustrated public lectures, and publica- 
tions. 

IV. Historical — The collection and publication of historical 

records of geographical interest, and of memoirs of 

notable men of Australasia. 
V. The compilation, from reliable data, of the geography of 

Australasia. 
Very much of results attained, and of work accomplished by 
some of the explorers named, yet remains unwritten. The deeds, 
too, of others who, though not so prominent, have done good 
service in the interests of geographical science, are still, to a 
considerable' extent, unrecorded. Thus many facts of value are 
still unrescued. Great gaps, too, still appear upon the map of 
Australia, showing regions as yet unexplored, showing work to be 
done, and problems to be solved in our great island-continent. 
Lying near to our northern coasts, is the, as yet little known, island 
of New Guinea. Expeditions for the exploration of this '* wonder- 
land " have been equipped and sent out under the auspices both 
of the Royal Geographical Society of England, and also of the 
Australasian section. Further attempts are immediately to be 
made to traverse that island across the inland heights, from sea to 
sea. A scheme for the further exploration of the Antarctic 
regions is before the public. Such an expedition would doubtless 
succeed in solving scientific problems of exceptional interest. 



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78 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Australians realise that investigations into the mysteries of the 
great Antarctic realms come rightly within the sphere of dwellers- 
beneath the southern cross, and by the great southern sea. 

Mr. David Lindsay, explorer, has recently returned from a 
journey into new country to the N.N.W. and N.W. of Adelaide. 
He has made discoveries on the Finke and Macumba rivers, having 
foimd the point of junction of these streams, northward of Lake 
Eyre. The record of these is now passing through the press* 
Mr. Charles Winnecke, equipped by Sir Thomas Elder, G.C.M.G.^ 
who had formerly accomplished good work in the mid-northern 
wilds, has recently been out to the westward into new country. 
Thus, gradually the unexplored regions are becoming more and 
more restricted in area. Lake Amadeus, to the north and west of 
the Musgrave Ranges, in latitude 24° S., is still undefined as to its 
northern and western shores ; nor is it known what waters, if any, 
may flow into it in these directions. Yet farther to the north and 
to the west of PowelFs Creek, lie large tracts of, so far, untraversed 
country, being bordered to the north-westward by the now famous- 
Kimberly gold districts. 

It is fitting here to give the honor due to Mr. G. W. Goyder, 
F.R.G.S., Surveyor-General to South Australia, who did valuable- 
exploring work in N.E. North Australia, and who, for many years 
has been the able chief of his department. His energy, and his- 
thorough knowledge of the country, have enabled him to further 
for South Australia, more than any other man, the general interests- 
of geographical science. 

The Royal Geographical Society of Australasia is very desirous 
to become possessed of as much information as possible of geo- 
graphical interest. Any records of early discover}' upon these 
coasts by American or other whalers, notes from logs of vessel* 
which visited these shores prior to European settlement ; all such 
information would be of highest value for preservation in the 
annals of the society, in so far as they treat of discoveries made 
upon these shores. 

The aboriginal wanderers over our wide Australian wilds claim 
and merit our attention. These dusky children of the soil will 
soon have passed away, and we shall then find left with us but 
meagre record of their race. Now, whilst they are with us, or 
whilst we have in our midst men who long ago met them in their 
primitive estate, is the time to rescue information which, if un- 
rescued now, will prove lost for ever. The names of their tribes. 



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ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 79 

nomenclature of their country, the boundaries of their tribal 
territories, their language, their customs respecting birth, man- 
hood's estate, marriage, hunting, and religious observance; their 
traditions, superstitions, social distinctions, festivals, funeral rites,, 
burial, laws of marriage, property, war; modes of manufacture^ 
and use of clothing, canoes, utensils, nets, ropes, colors, ornaments,, 
weapons, barter, knowledge of astronomy. The opportunities to^ 
rescue such information grow daily less. Only three representa- 
tives of the once numerous and intelligent Adelaide tribe remain. 
The Encounter Bay, and lower Murray River (Narinyerrie) tribes,, 
too, have well nigh passed away. Contact with the " pale-face " 
has, as seems inevitable, " civilized *' the aboriginal race off the 
soil that once knew him. 

The early struggles of pioneers and settlers are, to a considerable 
extent imknown, because hitherto unwritten. The origin and 
history of names of localities, with some sketch descriptive of 
f oimders of interesting settlements, should all be gathered in before 
the only persons who are cognizant of the facts pass away from us. 

Should any visitor to our Jubilee Exhibition be in a position to- 
supply or to obtain items of historical interest, such would be 
placed in permanent form in the " Proceedings'* of the Society,. 
if sent to its honorary secretaries. 

Educational. — The Society proposes to compile, publish, and 
disseminate accurate information upon Australian geography, by^ 
means of maps and books of geography for use in schools, not 
alone in our own country, but also in those of the old world, that 
so may be imparted far more accurate ideas of what Australia 
really is. For instance, wide stretches of country formerly shown 
on maps of Australia, and spoken of in geographies as " desert," 
are now in reality, feeding groimd for countless herds of horses, 
and cattle, and for thousands of head of the producers of our 
now world-renowned "golden fleece.'* Other lands here once 
termed " desert " will, ere long, be rich in the yield of the olive, 
vine, mulberry, orange, almond, apricot, fig, and other fruits and 
growths, destined for the tables of our brothers and cousins in the 
far away homes of " old England." People dwelling in that "old 
home" have yet much to learn of the Australia under the southern 
cross ; this Society is engaged in the work of diffusing this infor- 
mation. 

In addition to the Royal Geographical Society, the local 
institution has interchange of publications with the societies of 



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80 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

France, Germany, Italy, Scotland, America, Mexico, Japan, and 
others. There are some 400 members of the Society in Australia, 
ninety of these in the South Australian branch. The Society's 
rooms in Adelaide are at No. 27, Waymouth-street; in Melbourne, 
Victoria, at No. 15, Market Buildhigs, Collins-street west ; also 
branches at Sydney, New South Wales ; and Brisbane, Queens- 
land. The honorary secretaries will be glad to give or to receive 
information of geographical interest. 

Volumes of the Society's " Proceedings," published annually, 
may be had at the Government Printing Office, Adelaide. 



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THE RAILWAYS. 81 



THE RAILWAYS. 

Great facilities for intercommunicaiion by means of railways 
exist to and from all the principal centres and ports of the colony, 
and to a distance of 442 miles from Adelaide to the interior; in 
addition to which 207 miles are under construction towards the 
centre of the continent. Further lines are still in contemplation^ 
and it is hoped that, in comparatively a few years, a railway will 
extend across Australia from south to north, from Adelaide ta 
Port Darwin. With the latter aim in view, already 146 miles are 
in course of con8truction from Palmerston on the north coast, so 
as to meet the southern section on its extension northwards, and 
thus form an iron road from the Southern Ocean to the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. 

The last portion of line opened in this colony has placed 
Adelaide in direct railway communication with Melbourne and 
Sydney, and, with the exception of crossing the Hawkesbury river, 
a bridge over which will be completed in two years ; on the com- 
pletion of two short lines, one from Sydney to Newcastle, and the 
other from Tenterfield to Wallangarra, lines will connect the 
capitals of four of the })rincipal Australian colonies. South Aus- 
tralia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, which will 
enable travellers to any or either of the latter colonies to cut short 
their sea passage by landing at Adelaide, and completing their 
journey by rail. 

The summary of the railway returns for the year is as follows: — 
On the 30th June, 1886, there were 1,211 miles of railway open 
for traffic, of which 487 were on the 5ft. Sin. gauge, and 724 on the 
3ft. 6in. gauge. Owing to the exceptionally depressed condition 
of the colony for the last few years, because of drought, the traffic 
returns for the last year are very low. The total tonnage of goods 
conveyed was 742,942 tons. The total number of passengers con- 
veyed was 3,961,650, composed of 686,940 first-class, 1,852,066' 
second-class, and 1,423,644 third-class; the third-class passengers 
were on the Port line only. Of the whole number of passengers,. 
17*31 per cent, were first-class, 46*75 per cent, second-class, and 
35-94 per cent, third-class. The earnings per train mile were 67*52: 

¥ 



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82 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



pence, and the cost per train mile 45*57 pence. The earnings from 
the railways amounted to £549,092, and the working expenses to 
£370,654 7s., or 67*50 per cent, of the revenue. The net profit 
was £178,438, equal to 2*37 per cent, on the capital invested in 
lines open for traffic, which is £7,533,500. 



MAIN ROADS. 

Length of Main Roads in South Australia ^ June^ i886. 



District. 


Made. 


Unmade. 


Total. 


Central 


Miles. 
741 
240 
154 
104J 
141 
353 
172f 
214 


Miles. 
362J 
191 
2ol 
476t 
286 
177 
lOOi 
163 


MUes. 

1,103J 

431 


Midland 


North Midland , 


405 




581 


Flinders 


427 


Peninsula , •• 


530 


"Victoria 


273 


Albert 


377 






■ 


2,120i 


2,097 


4,127i 



Approximate Amount Expended on Main Roads, 

£ 8, d. 

From January, 1862, to June 30th, 1886 4,038,267 9 6 

To June 30th, 1887 54,010 



£4,092,277 9 6 

Prior to 1852 the records are not reliable, as the separate 
expenditure on roads cannot be traced. 



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MARINE DEPARTMENT. 



MARINE DEPARTMENT. 

The Port Adelaide river or creek was discovered in 1836, when 
Colonel Light was Surveyor-General, and was first navigated by 
by Lieutenant Pullen, who declared it to be the natural harbor for 
the City of Adelaide. 

In the earliest days of the colony, masters of vessles used to send 
their boats ahead to ascertain the depth of water on the bar before 
venturing to cross. About 1843 pilots were appointed, and an 
efficient service has since been maintained at Port Adelaide, the 
only port in the colony where pilotage is compulsory. Masters of 
intercolonial owned vessels may however become exempt. 

Before any money was expended on deepening operations, the 
depth of water on the outer and inner bars was about S^it. at low 
water, and vessels therefore had to wait until spring tides, and 
lighter before being able to cross the bar. Even then they often 
took one tide to cross the outer bar, and then had to anchor until 
the next tide, before crossing the inner bar. 

Although the earliest expenditure for improving the Port 
Adelaide creek was in 1849, the plant at the disposal of the 
authorities was very limited and primitive, and little improvement 
was actually effected up to 1876, as compared with what has been 
-done since. The total quantity of silt raised in 27 years, to the 
•end of 1876, was 1,154,576 cubic yards, whereas the quantity 
raised in the following ten years, to the end of 1886, was 3,393,656 
•cubic yards, making a total of 4,548,232 cubic yards. 

At the present date, there are three first class dredgers con- 
«tantly at work improving^ the Port Adelaide river and harbor. 
The total amount provided to the end of 1886 was £743,106, and 
the estimated value of the plant is about £240,000, including the 
plant employed at the various outports and charged to the Port 
Adelaide deepening loan. 

From the harbor to the outer bar is about nine miles, and the 
whole of this distance, with the exception of about 1^ miles in 
Light's passage, has been deepened. 

At the outer and inner bars a depth of about lljft. has been 
entirely removed, and in some parts of the harbor, where it was 



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84 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

formerly dry, there is now a depth of 22ft. at low water. The 
channel from the harbor to the anchorage is 250ft. wide, with 20ft. 
at low water, or 28ft. at high water, with the exception of a small 
portion which has 1 8ft at low water and 2Gft at high water. This 
is however now being deepened by the dredgers, and will be com- 
pleted before the end of the present year. The channel is well 
lighted with thirteen beacons, so that steamers, &c., can go up or 
down at any time, night or day. 

A self-registering tide gauge is erected at the dockyard which 
records the height of the water at any hour night or day, and. 
returns are published for the information and guidance of persons- 
nterested; the highest tide known at Port Adelaide rose' 12ft. 
above low water datum. This would give 32ft. of water in the 
present channel. 

About thirty ocean cargo steamers came alongside the wharves 
in the harbor during 1886, the largest being the s.s. Hankoio, 2,332 
tons register and 389ft. long. The deepest draught was for the s.s. 
Huhhuck drawing 21ft. 6in., and the largest cargo taken out in any 
one vessel was 4,240 tons, shipped by the s.s. Port Pine, which 
was in the Port five days. 

Most of the ocean-going passenger steamers which trade with 
Australia call at Port Adelaide, but do not come up the river; they 
find convenient and safe anchorage at what is known as the Sema- 
phore, which is connected with Adelaide by rail. Mails for all 
the colonies except Western Australia are landed there, and 
forwarded by train to Melbourne. 

The total length of wharfage accommodation in Port Adelaide is 
13,626ft., or 2 J miles, and of this the Government own 3,438ft. 
Railway lines, water, and gas are laid along nearly all the wharves,, 
and the depth of water alongside varies from 16ft. to 24ft. at low 
water. 

Cranes capable of lifting 25 tons, and patent slips which can 
accommodate vessels from 400 to 1,500 tons register, have been 
provided, and a dry dock of sufficient size to take in some of the- 
largest ocean steamers is being constructed by private enterprise. 

Thirty lighthouses have been erected, six first order, two second 
order, three third order, and the repaainder from fourth to sixth 
order. The total cost of these was about £155,000. Kerosine is- 
consumed in nearly all the lighthouses, and about 1 1 ,000 gallons a- 
year are used. The cost of maintaining the lights is about £8,50(y 
per annum. 



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MAKINE DEPARTMENT. 85 

Some of the lighthouses are connected by cable or telegraph, 
'and seyeral signal stations hare been established from wMch 
passing vessels may communicate with Adelaide, and thence with 
nearly all parts of the world. 

The total number of wharves and jetties provided by the 
Government for different parts of the colony, including the 
Northern Territory, is 67, the longest being 5,530ft., and another, a 
screw-^ile structure 4,000ft. long. The total cost of these wharves 
and jetties was about £600,000. 

There are three lifeboat stations, and nine stations supplied with 
Tocket apparatus for saving life. 

Between 4,000 and 5,000 seamen are shipped and discharged 
«very year in this port alone, where a Sailors' Home has for several 
years provided for the accommodation of mariners. 

The shipping of the colony in 1885, exclusive of the coast trade, 
was 1,072 ships of 893,092 tons register inwards, and 1,091 ships 
of 913,950 tons outwards, or a total of 2,163 vessels and 1,807,042 
tons register. 

Port Pirie, near the head of Spencer Gulf, is the principal port in 
"South Australia for the export of wheat. At present vessels draw- 
ing 18ft. to 19ft. can go down the river at high water spring tides, 
the highest tide registered in 1886 having been 24ft. at high water. 
The creek is lighted up with beacons, so that vessels can go in 
or out at any time, and wharves are provided. 

Port Augusta is situated at the extreme head of Spencer Gulf, 
and is the principal port for the export of wool from the interior of 
South Australia, and parts of Queensland. 

Deepening operations were commenced in 1881. The total sum 
provided is £51,228, which has been spent, and 745,399 cubic 
yards of silt have been raised. Before deepening operations were 
commenced there was only lift, of water in the shoalest place. 
There is now a channel nowhere less than 150ft. wide, with 18ft. 
^t low water right up to the wharf. 

A new Government wharf, about 1,200ft. long, with 22ft. at low 
water, has been constructed. There are other jetties, some of 
which have 1 4ft. at low water alongside. 

The channel to the harbor is well marked with buoys and 
beacons, and the harbor itself is perfectly safe and commodious, 
and has a depth of 20ft. to 29ft. at low water. 

Other principal ports of export are Glenelg, Kingston, Wallaroo, 
Port MacDonnell, Port Victor, Port Beachport, Port Victoria, and 
Port Germein. 



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86 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



MUNICIPAL INSTITUTIONS. 

By the Imperial Act of William IV. creating South Australia 
into a British province, provision was made for the establishment 
of a municipality in the metropolitan city so soon as the population 
numbered 2,000 souls. The first sale of city lands took place i» 
March, 1837, and, in little more than three years thereafter, the- 
first Colonial Municipal Act was passed (August, 1840), providing^ 
for the election of a common council of nineteen members for the 
City of Adelaide. 

The elections to fill the municipal offices took place on the 31st 
October, 1840, the first mayor being the late Sir James Hurtle 
Fisher. Adelaide has the proud reflection of being the parent of 
municipal institutions in the Australasian colonies. The first city 
assessment was estimated at £80,000, and the rate declared, at 
fourpence in the £, produced only £1,333 6s. 8d. 

The limits within which this paper is to be confined precludes 
the possibility of giving an historical retrospect of the exception- 
ally interesting events which have led to the building up of so* 
beautiful a city as now oflfers itself at this jubilee time for the 
admiration of visitors to the International Exhibition now being 
held within its boundaries. The sales of city lands in 1837 
yielded a sum of less than £4,000 ; the estimated value ofi real 
property in 1887, fifty years after the foundation of the city^ 
amounts to £11,000,000. Land which in 1837 sold at the rate of 
three farthings a foot frontage to a main street, by a depth of 
210ft., is now worth from £400 to £500 a foot in the same street 
and for the same blocks, but only for half the depth. 

In 1837 there were only fifty-one streets in the city, none less 
than 66ft. wide, some 100ft. wide, and others 132ft. wide ; there 
are now (1887) 270 streets, measuring in length a little over eighty 
miles. All these streets are macadamised, the watertables paved, 
and the footpaths kerbed. The footpaths in the principal street* 
vary in width from 10ft. to 20ft., some of them being flagged with 
marble, whilst those in the narrower streets are not less than 4ft. 
wide. Thirty-two roadways, measuring thirteen miles in lengthy 
cross the park lands *in all directions, supplying mean» of corn- 



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MUNICIPAL INSTITUTIONS. 87 

munication with the suburbs and the country districts ; whilst, for 
the greater convenience of pedestrians, there are no less than sixty 
well-made footpaths, twenty-six miles long in the whole, crossing 
and recrossing all parts of these beautiful parks. 

The municipal government of the city is vested in a mayor, six 
aldermen, and twelve councillors. The elections are held on the 
1st December in each year, when the mayor and two aldermen 
retire, and their successors are elected by the whole body of the 
ratepayers. There are six wards, each represented by two coun- 
cill(»*s, one of whom retires on the same date as above, and hi& 
successor is elected by the ratepayers of the ward ; thus there are 
always nine candidates to.be elected for the council, viz., mayor, 
two aldermen, and six councillors. The swearing in of the newly 
elected candidates generally takes place on the 2nd December. 

At the present time the annual valuation of real property 
for ratable purposes amounts to £520,000 ; but, in consequence of 
the depressed times, the council have reduced the total value by 
35 per cent., and rates are now collected on the reduced amount. 
These are as follows : — A city rate for general purposes of Is. in 
the £, a health rate of If d. in the £, a lighting rate for street 
lamps of 4d. in the £, and a park lands rate of Jd. in the £, making 
a total rate of Is. 6^d. in the £ for civic purposes. There are, 
however, other rates collected by the Government, in payment of 
water and drainage works, of Is. and 8d. in the £ respectively. 
In addition to the income from rates, the City Council has extra- 
neous sources of income, which vary with the times in prosperity 
or depression, from £13,000 to £16,000 a year, out of which the 
salaries of the officers, interest on bonded debt, and various other 
accounts are paid. The bonded debt of the corporation at the 
present time is less than £80,000, whilst the value of the real pro- 
perty belonging to the corporation is £250,000. 

The Corporation has provided for the public convenience three 
massive iron girder bridges over the Torrens at a cost of about 
£32,000. A weir has been erected across the Torrens at a cost of 
£15,000, which impounds the waters and provides a lake varying 
in width from 100ft. to 500ft. ; in depth, from 20ft. to 2ft. ; and in 
length two miles, which is much availed of for aquatic sports. The 
whole of the park lands imder the control of the Corporation, 
equalling about 1 ,750 acres, have been planted and fenced under 
the direction of the City Council ; nearly every tree and shrub on 
these extensive and charming healthful resorts has been put in at 



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d8 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

die expense of the Corporatioii since 1855. Over the weir an iron 
lattice girder bridge has been erected, from which a capital yitw 
of the beautiful lake can be obtained. 

The city is well lit with gas at a cost of about £6,000 a year ; 
furnished with an abundant and constant supply of w^ater; and 
with a system of underground drainage which renders it the most 
delightful place of residence in Australia. The present condition 
of the city of Adelaide reflects the highest credit on the ability 
and enterprise of the civic authorities, and also exhibits in a 
marked degree the readiness with which the citizens have subscribed 
the necessary funds for carrying out the requisite public works. 

In addition to the municipal institutions of the city, there are 
thirty other municipal corporations, incorporated as follows : — 
Kensington and Norwood in 1853 ; Port Adelaide, also Glenelg, 
1855; Gawler, 1857; Brighton, 1858 ; Kapunda, 1865 ; Strath- 
albyn, 1868 ; Unley, 1871 ; Goolwa, Moonta^ and Kadina, 1872 ; 
Hindmarsh, Wallaroo, and Port Augusta, 1874 ; Mount Grambier, 
Port Pirie, Burra, and Clare, 1876 ; Jamestown, 1876 ; Yorketown, 
1879 ; Port Wakefield, 1881 ; Edithburgh and Laura, 1882 ; Quorn, 
Gladstone, St. Peters, Thebarton, Semaphore, and Maitland, 1883 ; 
and Petersburg, 1886. The population included in these muni- 
cipal corporations equals more than one-third that of the whole 
colony, being 105,000. The annual value of ratable property 
within their bounds amounts to £1,005,440, and the gross value to 
£20,100,000; their total bonded debt does not exceed £160,000, 
whilst the value of their real estate amounts to double that sum, 
or £?25,000, and their annual income to £120,600 for 1886. The 
number of gentlemen comprised in these municipal councils is 238. 

The Municipal Corporations have established a Municipal Asso- 
ciation " whose objects are to watch over and protect the interests, 
" rights, and privileges of Municipal Corporations ; to take action 
*' in the relation to any subject affecting j^unicipal bodies or Muni- 
*' cipal legislation ; and to promote the efficient carrying out of 
*' Municipal Government throughout the colony." The governing 
body of the Association comprises a President, Vice-President, 
Treasurer, and Secretary, with Executive Council. 

The subscription is £5 5s. per year. The Executive Council 
meets once a quarter, or oftener, on the summons of the Presi- 
dent, if the exigencies of business require their attention. To 
the ability, watchfulness, and forethought of this body is to be 
attributed the enlarged powers already obtained by Municipal 



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MUNICIPAL INSTITUTIONS. 89 

•Corporations, and the greater attention which is given to their 
jrepresentations to Parliament or Government on matters affecting 
.their powers or responsibilities. 

Besides Municipal Cprporations there are other local governing 
bodies designated districts, of which there are 121 in the colony, 
^governed by district councils. Each council elects from its own 
body its chairman at the first meeting after the annual elections, 
^nd the powers gi-anted to tliese councils are somewhat analogous 
.to those of Municipal Corporations. U'his form of local govem- 
jnent was introduced by Governor Sir Hemy E. F. Young in 1853. 
They have charge of all the roads (not being main roads) within 
Ttheir respective districts, and all other public matters of a kindred 
nature. Power is given to levy rates u[> to one shilling in the £. 
'These local bodies have, in the aggregate, supervision over an area 
»equal to 9,826 square miles of country, their population numbering 
124,112 (census 1881), their total incomes amounting for 1884-5 
to £99,343. The annual assessment of property is set down for 
the whole at £1,105,414 for the same period, representing a gross 
value of £22,108,000. The number of members in the several 
councils make a total of 614, the average number for each council 
being about five. Under the term of *' District Chairmen's As- 
•sociation '* representatives from the councils meet at some central 
point at stated periods during the year for the consideration of 
Tnatters affecting their rights and powers, and for the arrangement 
.of conjoint action whenever it may be deemed necessary, in a 
•similar manner to that of the Municipal Association. 

There are three drainage districts, governed by drainage boards 
'Consisting of five members each, with powers somewhat similar to 
those of district councils in respect to assessments and rating. 
These are located in the south-eastern part of the colony, where 
itheir efforts have won from the swamps large tracts of valuable 
land suitable for agricultural purposes. These three boards have 
:an area of country under their administration equal to 229 square 
.miles, and their revenue for 1885-6 equalled £4,318. These boards 
'have the care, control, and management of all district drains, and 
all drainage works within their respective districts, and under their 
.directions all such drains are cleansed, repaired, and maintained in 
a state of efiiciency at the expense of the Boards. 

Under the control of the Hon. the Commissioner of Public 
Works are other quasi municipal bodies entitled, " Eoad Boards," 
•of whom there are eight, having control over 4,131 miles of main 



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90 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

roads, the expenditure on "which during 1885 amounted to» 
£181,306. Road Boards are supplied with funds by Parliament 
(not having power to levy rates for road purposes'). These roads 
branch out in all direotibns from the City and illustrate in a strik- 
ing degree the excellent principles on which the roads are made, 
as well as the watchfulness and care exercised by these Boards- 
in the proper and due discharge of their onerous duties. 

Too much praise cannot be awarded to the unpaid representa- 
tives of the people in these various local governing bodies, who,^ 
whilst exercising the strictest economy in the expenditure of the 
funds under their control, yet give such splendid results as the 
efPorts of their forethought and attention. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

The Public Library contains at the present time about 24,00S> 
volumes ; in which the Proceedings and Transactions of Societies, 
and scientific and literary periodicals of a high class, are weli 
represented. It is so far mainly an English Library, although it 
includes to a moderate extent the literatures of other languages, 
ancient and modern. It is open to the public on week days from 
10 a.m. to 9 p.m., and on Sundays from 2 to 6 p.m. 

Readers have free access to the bookshelves, the collection of 
bound newspapers being the only part of the Library which is- 
placed under any restriction. During the year ending June 30th, 
1887, the number of readers was 80,447. 



READING ROOM. 

There is a public reading-room in the Institute building, which 
is distinct from the Public Library though under the same manage- 
ment. It contains English and Colonial newspapers, most of the 
leading English periodicals, and a few American and French onesv 
It is open from 9*30 a.m. to 9-30 p.m. There are no means of 
registering the attendance, but there is little doubt that it is larger 
than that in any other department of the institution. 



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lUSEUM, ART GALLERY, &c. 91 



MUSEUM. 

The Museum is open on week-days from 10 a.!n. to 6 p.m. in 
summer, and 5 p.m. in winter. The number of visitors during the 
year ending June 30th, 1887, Avas 71,298. 

The principal departments of the Museum are. mammals, birds, 
and reptiles mounted, and birdskins unmounted, articulated skele- 
tons, spirit preparations ; also reptiles and fishes in spirit, fossils, 
minerals, and shells. The minerals are properly arranged and 
labelled ; the shells are now in course of arrangement. 

Unfortunately the space appropriated to the Museum is very 
limited ; it is consequently so crowded that classification is impos- 
sible except as regards the minerals and shells. 



ART GALLERY. 

The Art Gallery is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. in summer, and 
4 p.m. in winter. It contains 64 oil paintings. 1 water-colour 
drawing, 4 marble statues or busts, and 4 casts. The number of 
visitors for the year ending June 30th, 1887, Avas 63,856. 



INSTITUTES. 

The number of urban, suburban, and country institutes affiliated 
to the Public Library is 136. 

Boxes of English and German books are circulated among them ; 
these are sent out from the Public Library, and the circulation is^ 
managed by its officers, but the books are not taken from the 
Public Library — they are a distinct collection. 

The principal statistics of the Institutes for the year ending June 
30th, 1886, were as follows :— 

Volumes in libraries, 114 institutes, 107,303; members, 114 
institutes, 5,876; volumes circulated, 114 institutes, 182,565;. 
incomes, inclusive of Government grants, 114 institutes. £10,664 
14s. lOd. 



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.92 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



SCHOOLS OF PAINTING AND DESIGN. 

These schools are held under authority of the Board of Governors 
of the Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery. The School of 
Painting, under Mr. L. Tannert, formerly of Dresden and Dussel- 
^orf, contains forty-five students, who are receiving an artistic 
education in painting from nature, antique, and life. The School of 
Design, under Mr. H. P. Gill, of South Kensington, assisted by Mr. 
G. A. Reynolds, late of Birmingham, numbers about 150 students. 
The studies embrace a geometric foundation, and are carried on 
through the various grades of drawing, and include decorative 
painting, drawing from the antique and the life ; all the work is 
-done with a view that the students shall use their studies as a means 
to the working out of original and artistic designs. In the evening 
there are large artisan classes who receive an education in practical 
drawing, classes in machine and building construction, under Mr. 
R. A. White and Mr. J. G. Beaver, and a small class in practical 
pottery, under Mr. G. Bosley, to instruct artisans in throwing and 
turning upon the wheel. Experiments are being made in burning 
glazed and colored pottery prior to the erection at the schools of a 
pottery kiln. 

Examinations are periodically held in art, and certificates of the 
first and second grades are granted to successful candidates. State 
school training teachers are instructed at this school, and are 
certificated as competent to teach drawing in the State schools. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

The Royal Society of South Australia is affiliated with the 
Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery of South Australia. 
The objects of the society are, the diffusion and advancement of 
the arts and sciences by the meeting together of the members for 
the reading and discussion of papers connected with the above 
subjects, and by other approved means. 

The society consists of fellows (117), honorary members (11), 
corresponding members (14), and associates (2). 

The management of the society is conducted by a council, con- 
sisting of a president, two vice-presidents, a treasm-er, a secretary, 
and six other members. 



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THE UNIVERSITY. 9S 



THE UNIVERSITY. 

The University of Adelaide dates from the year 1872, when Sir 
Walter Watson Hughes, of Torrens Park, invested in trustees 
the sum of £20,000 to found an University. This magnificent 
donation was further increased, in the year 1874, by Sir Thomas- 
Elder, of Birksgate, who gave a like sum of £20,000 without 
conditions. Subsequently the Hon. J. H. Angas presented the 
University with a sum of £6,000, to found a Chair of Chemistrj^, 
and Sir Thomas Elder paid over to the University a sum of 
£10,000, to assist in forming a Medical School. 

A Chair of Music was founded for five years, by subscription by 
prominent citizens, amounting to £530 a year, and to this fund 
Sir Thomas Elder subscribes £300 annually. 

The John Howard Clark Scholarships, £30 a year each, tenable 
for two years, eligible for those students who have completed the 
first year of their course of B.A., were established in 1882; the- 
Commercial Travellers' Association Scholarship in 1879; and the 
Stow Prizes of £45 in 1883. 

Mr. John Howard Angas established the Angas Engineering 
Scholarship of the value of £200 a year, tenable for three years. 

The number of undergraduates in the various courses for the 
session of 1886 was 108, and of non-graduating students, 89. 

Facilities exist for the courses of law, medicine, science, arts- 
and music, and evening classes have been established in English 
literature, mineralogy, French, and German. The professors of 
Greek, mathematics, geology, and Latin also conduct evening 
classes for the benefit of students. 

Endowments. £ 

Sir W. W. Hughes 20,000 

Sir T. Elder 20,000 

Sir T. Elder 10,000 

Mr. J. H. Angas 6,000 

Gosse Fund . . . . < 800 

Stow Prizes 500 

J. H. Clark Scholarahip 600 

•Sir T. Elder 1,000 

♦Australian Literary Societies Union 220 

£59,020 
On this amount of £59,020 Government pay 5 per cent, annually, by Act of 
Parliament, which amounts to £2,951. The Government have also endowed 
the TJniveraity with 60,006 acres of land. 

• Evening. 



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94 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



PUBLIC EDUCATION. 

In the early days of the colony a school was built on North- 
terrace, and a teacher appointed to conduct it on the principles 
of the British and Foreign School Society. Beyond this little was 
done until 1847, when Ordinance No. 11 was passed, under which 
a capitation grant was paid to schools established by private 
persons.' This was repealed by Act No. 20 of 1851, which came 
into operation on May 1st, 1852. 

Its aim was to introduce and maintain good secular instruction 
based on the Christian religion, apart from all theological and 
controversial differences. The system was imder the control of a 
Central Board of Education, consisting of seven members ap- 
pointed by the Governor. 

The Board granted licences to teachers, and salaries ranging 
from £40 to £100 per annum. An inspector of schools was 
appointed, and District Councils were authorised to visit schools 
and report thereon to the Central Board. Schoolhouses were 
built by local subscriptions, subsidised by the Government to the 
extent of £200. 

It having been found that the requirements of the colony were 
not met by the system, a fresh Education Act was passed in the 
year 1875, during the premiership of Mr. (now Mr. Justice) 
Boucaut. By this the management was entrusted to a Council of 
Education, with a salaried president; but the arrangement did 
not work satisfactorily, and an Amending Act, passed in 1878, 
transferred the responsibility to a Minister of the Crown. 

The principal features of the system now in force are as 
follows : — Education is secular (with permissive Bible-reading 
before morning school) and compulsory; fees are charged when 
the parents are in a position to pay them, but are remitted in 
other cases; buildings are erected by the State when there is 
satisfactory proof of a permanent average attendance of not less 
than twenty ; when erected they are cared for by local Boards 
of Advice appointed by the Governor, and attendance is enforced 
by the same bodies ; grants of land are annually made as educa- 
tional endowments. 



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PUBLIC EDUCATION, 95 

The regulations made by the Minister Controlling Education 
begin as follows:— "The object of the education system is to 
*' develop the intellectual and moral faculties of the children. It is 
*' not sufficient merely to give instruction, but the aim of every 
'"teacher should be to train his pupils in habits of cleanliness, 
•" industry, punctuality, obedience, truthfulness, honesty and con- 
■" sideration for others. The discipline of each school should be 
*' based on the strictest justice in the relations between master and 
*' scholars, as well as between scholars themselves ; and all teachers 
" should remember that their own example exerts the most power- 
*' ful influence in moulding the characters of their pupils." 

The general management under the Minister is entrusted to the 
Inspector-General of Schools, who is assisted by a staff of six 
inspectors. These gentlemen visit the schools twice a year, making 
a careful examination into their general condition and the progress 
of the individual pupils. A small portion of the salaries of 
teachers depends upon the results of the examination, but this 
amount does not exceed £24 per annum for men and £16 for 
women. 

The schools are of two kinds — public and provisional. The 
former have an average attendance of twenty or more, and are in 
charge of certificated teachers. Provisional schools are to be found 
as a rule in the thinly-populated districts, and are taught by 
uncertificated persons — principally young women. In 1876 there 
were in all 281 schools, with 25,889 individual scholars on the books, 
and an average daily attendance of 13,622 ; ten* years after (1886) 
there were 504 schools, 44,405 children under instruction, and 
exactly 28,000 in average daily attendance. 

The curriculum includes reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic 
(mental and slate), geography, grammar, composition, Enp^lish 
history, drill, and (for girls only) needlework. In the year 1885 
an amended programme of instruction was issued, with the object 
of bringing the work more into harmony with the results of modern 
thought on education ; but space is too limited to enter into detail, 
and those who are interested in the question may be referred to the 
Education Regulations themselves. The department has found it 
necessary to prepare in the colony some of the maps, diagrams, and 
books required in the schools, and specimens of the work may be 
aeen in the Exhibition. 

The teachers are trained for their work at a central institution in 
Adelaide. About 380 persons have passed through this college 



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96 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

since its foundation. Students have generally shown by sound andl 
careful teaching that they have profited by their advantages. 

The salaries of the teachers employed in public schools (including- 
fees), vary from £110 to £450, in the case of men, and from £70 
to £250 for women. Provisional teachers receive from £60 to £ 1 00'' 
per annum, including fees as above. Six weeks' holiday are 
allowed during the year. In reference to the discipline of the 
schools it may be stated that corporal punishment is discoui-aged^ 
and may not be used at all to girls except under special authority. 

By a system of exhibitions and scholarships the way is opened 
for deserving pupils to pass frdm the primary to secondary schools, 
and thence to the University. Six exhibitions are annually offered 
for competition among the pupils of the Government schools ; they 
are tenable for three years, and are of the value of £20 per annum 
for those who attend the secondary schools as day boys, and £40 in- 
the case of boarders. Besides these, three University scholarships 
are open yearly. The successful candidates receive £50 annually 
for three years if they become students at the University of 
Adelaide and pass their examinations satisfactorily. 

Since the passing of the present Act 234 school buildings have 
been erected, at a cost of £378,906 14s. The expenditure from 
the general revenue during 1886 was £90,767 lis. 5d. on primary ,^ 
and £1,496 6s. 7d. on secondary education ; these amounts represent 
the net cost to the country, fees paid into the Treasury being 
deducted from the gross expenditure. Besides this, £4,34 1 6s. 4d., 
was spent on buildings. From the rent of dedicated lands (endow- 
ment), £13,014 2s. 8d. was received ; altogether, 320,120 acres of 
Crown lands have been set apart. 

Some attention is being given to industrial (technical) education. 
A Board is at present making careful inquiry into the question. In 
one part of the country (Wallaroo) school savings banks have 
recently been established by the Board of Advice. They have- 
already met with considerable success. 



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NEWSPAPERS. 97 



NEWSPAPERS. 

The newspaper press may fairly claim to be the oldest insti- 
tution comiected with South Australia, as its establishment pre- 
ceded the actual settlement of the colony. The first number ol 
the South Australian Gazette and Colonial JRegister, now pub- 
lished daily as the South Australian Register^ was issued in 
London by Messrs. Robert Thomas and George Stevenson on 
June, 18th, 1836, prior to the departure of those gentlemen for 
the new colony, where they published the second number on June 
3rd, 1837. The Register has, therefore, a record of fifty-one 
years' continuous publication, and a history of half a century as 
a purely colonial paper. It has been a daily paper since 1850. 
The early days of the colony witnessed numerous literary births 
and deaths. Next to the Register the oldest paper existing in 
the colony is the Adelaide Observer^ which was established in 1843 
by Mr. John Stephens, and soon after associated with the Register^ 
since which time the two papers have been conducted by the 
same proprietary. The South Australian Advertiser was estab- 
lished as a daily paper by the late Hon. J. H. Ban-ow nearly 
thirty years ago, and it has had associated with it the South 
Australian Chronicle as a weekly paper. These papers were 
originally owned by a company. They passed into the possession 
of Messrs. Barrow & King, and are now the property of Messrs. 
Burden & Bonython. In connection with these papers, in the year 
1863, an evening paper was established, which was named the 
Express, At this time there was another evening paper in exis- 
tence, named the Telegraphy which became amalgamated with the 
Express^ the latter being called the Express and Telegraph, Sub- 
sequently an evening paper was issued from the office of the 
Register^ named the Evening Journal. 

Among the newspapers which had a brief history on the colonial 
stage were the Southern Australian^ the Guardian, the Chronicle, 
the Adelaide Free Press, the Port Lincoln Herald, the Adelaide 
Independent^ Examiner, Southern Cross, Monthly Times, Mining 
Journal, the Comet, the South Australian Times, and others. 

The place of Punch is fiUed in Adelaide by a weekly journal 
illustrated by lithography and entitled the Lantern ; the German 



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98 SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 

population have their Australische Zeitung ; the interests of the 
burners and gardeners, which are also attended to by the weekly 
papers, are looked after by the Garden and Field ; the Sentinel 
pays special attention to sporting matters and the needs of the 
licensed yictuallers ; the Christian Colonist^ the Christian Weekly y 
and several denominational organs devote their space to religious 
news ; the Pictorial Australian appears monthly, with illustrations 
of current events. Following is a list of the papers appearing 
weekly or bi-weekly in the more important country to^vn8hips : — 
Wallaroo Timesy Wallaroo, bi-weekly ; Yorkers Peninsula Adver- 
tiser, Moonta, bi-weekly ; Border Watvh^ Mount Gambier, 
bi-weekly ; South- Eastern Star, Mount Gambier, bi-weekly ; 
Naraeoorte Herald, Naracoorte, bi-weekly; Tatiara Mail and 
West Wimmera Advertiser, Bordertown, bi-weekly ; Southern 
Argus, Strathalbyn, weekly ; Northern Argus, Clare, bi-weekly ; 
Mount Barker Courier and Onkaparinga and Gumeraeha Advertiser, 
Mount Barker, weekly; Terowie Enterprise and North-Eastern 
Advertiser, Terowie, weekly ; Kapunda Herald^ Kapunda, bi- 
weekly; Bunyip, Gawler, weekly; Agriculturalist and Review, 
Jamestown, weekly; Port Pirie Advocate^ Port Pirie, weekly; 
Burra Record, Kooringa, bi-weekly ; Garden and Field, monthly ; 
Sentinel, weekly; Areas Express, Gladstone, weekly; Port Augusta 
Dispatch, Port Augusta, bi-weekly; Our Commonwealth, Adelaide, 
weekly ; Teetulpa Netcs, Teetulpa, weekly ; Truth and Progress, 
monthly ; The Presbyterian, quarterly ; The Standard (Import 
Company of Australasia) : Primitive Methodist Record, Adelaide, 
quarterly ; Temperance Herald, quarterly ; Free Press, Norwood, 
weekly ; Catholic Monthly ; The Times, Petersburg, weekly ; 
Northern Territory Times, Port Darwin, weekly ; North Austra- 
lian, Port Darwin, weekly. 



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POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPH. 99 



POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPH. 

Post Office. 

The Post Office and Telegraph Departments in South Australia 
\vere amalgamated in 1870, when Mr. Charles Todd was appointed 
Postmaster- General, in addition to his appointments as Superin- 
tendent of Telegraphs and Government Astronomer. A brief 
sketch of the history of these Departments may not be without 
interest, as showing the progress of the colony from its foundation 
in 1836 up to the present year, which celebrates its jubilee. 

On the first establishment of the colony, Mr. Thomas Gilbert, 
the Colonial Storekeeper, was appointed Postmaster, at a salary of 
£30 a year. The business of the Department 'was, of course, 
conducted in a very primitive way; there was no palatial Post 
Office, but Mr. Gilbert received the mails at his residence on the 
Torrens, under Montefiore Hill, where they were sorted and 
delivered, one penny a letter being charged on all letters received 
and dispatched. This continued imtil December, 1838, when it 
was considered necessary to appoint a Postmaster-General (Mr. 
Henry Watts), with the large staff of one clerk, who also acted as 
a letter-carrier and messenger. A Post Office Act was passed in 
the following year, which fixed an inland rate of 3d. on every 
letter or packet, irrespective of weight or size, but on ship letters 
only Id. was charged, to cover gratuity to ships. A post office 
was opened at Port Adelaide, with a daily mail to and from the 
city. A fortnightly mail, carried by the mounted police, was 
established with Willunga and Encounter Bay, where post offices 
were opened, as well as at Port Lincoln. 

Mr. Henry Watts resigned in 1841, and Captain Watts was 
appointed his successor, in which year there were six post offices, 
viz.: — ^Adelaide, Port Adelaide, Port Lincoln, Morphett Vale, 
Willunga, and Encounter Bay. 

The business in 1840 was as follows : — 

Number of letters 41,103 

Number of newtpapen 61,101 

Bevenue £232 48. 6d. 

The first ocean mail service with England by steamers was estab- 
lished in 1852, and a contract with the Peninsula and Oriental Co. 



c;^f78892Be 



100 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

was entered into by the Imperial Govemment for a mail every two 
months, via Singapore, in 1853. This service had, however, to be 
discontinued during the Crimean war, and steam communication 
was not re-established until 1857 ; and theo, owing to the failure 
of the company (European and Australian), not continuously, until 
the P. & O. Co., under a new contract, commenced a monthly 
service via Mauritius in 1859, the route being altered to Galle in 
the following year. The mail steamers then did not call at 
Adelaide, but passed on to Melbourne direct, and South Australia 
had to maintain, at her own cost, a branch service to King George's 
Sound until February, 1874, since which date the P. and O. 
steamers have called at Glenelg. The colony spent, during those 
thirteen years (1861-74), no less than £191,471 on this branch 
service. 

Postage stamps were introduced in 1855, the denominations 
being Id., 2d., and 6d. ; and prepayment of postage by means of 
stamps was made compulsory. Since the Stamp Duties Act, passed 
in 1886, came into operation at the commencement of this year, 
adhesive postage and revenue stamps, as they are now called, have 
been used indiscriminately for payment of postage and stamp 
duties, and new stamps have been issued up to £20. Thus, there 
are in use at the present time stamps of the values following : — 
half-penny, penny, twopenny, threepenny, fourpenny, sixpenny, 
eightpenny, ninepenny, one shilling, two shillings, two shillings- 
and sixpence^ five shillings, ten shillings, fifteen shillings, one 
pound, two pounds, two pounds ten shillings, three pounds, four 
pounds, five pounds, ten pounds, fifteen pounds, twenty pounds, 
besides two sizes of newspaper wrappers bearing the half -penny 
impressed stamp. • 

The money order system was introduced on the 1st of January, 
1859, when fifteen offices were opened, and the regulations 
provided for telegraphic money orders, in accordance with a 
recommendation previously made by the Superintendent of Telcr 
graphs, Mr. Todd. 

Continuing the history of the Department, it may be mentioned 
that Captain Watts retired from the service on June 30th, 1861, 
and was succeeded by Mr. J. W. Lewis, the Deputy Postmaster- 
General, who held the position till the end of 1869, when the 
Department was amalgamated with the T^egraph and Observatory 
Departments. 

It may be well to mention that a new Post Office Act was passed 



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POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPH. 



101 



in 1841, under which letters were charged according to distance, 
up to a maximum of 28. 6d., however weighty; and the postage 
on newspapers was abolished. In 1845, the inland postage waa 
reduced to a uniform rate of 4d. per half-ounce, except between 
Adelaide and the Port, or those posted in Adelaide for town 
delivery, which were liable to only half rates. Later on, or in a 
subsequent Act. a uniform inland rate of 2d. per half-ounce was 
adopted; and in 1874 the postage, to the other colonies was reduced 
to the same rate. Act No. 214 of 1881, imposed a postage rate 
of id. on each newspaper, but a concession was made by a subse- 
quent Act, No. 374 of 1886, under which newspapers made up in 
bundles, could be forwarded by the publishers, and recognised 
newspaper vendors, at bulk rates of Id. per lb. 

Poj-t cards (Id.) were introduced oil December 8th, 1876, and 
reply cards (2d.) on March 1st, 1883. 

The postal notes system came into operation at the beginning of 
the present year, an Act for the purpose having been passed in 
1886. They are of the following value, viz. : — 

Postal note Is. Od. . . fee Jd. Postal note '4s. 6d. . . fee Id. 



Is. 6d. . 




H 


2s. Od. . 




Id. 


2s. 6d. . 




Id 


3s. Od. . 




Id. 


8s. 6d. . 




Id. 


4s. Od. . 




Id. 





68. Od. . 


. " 2d 




7s. 6d. . 


. " 2d. 




10s. Od. . 


. « 3d 




lOs. 6d. . 


. " 3d. 




16s. Od. . 


. ** 3d. 




20s. Od. . 


. ** 3d. 



When in England, Mr. Todd arranged with the Imperial Post 
Office for the exchange of a parcel post, which was brought into 
operation February, 1887, and has since been extended to some 
other European countries and British colonies. The first parcel 
post yrom England was, however, received in August, 1886. 

The following statistical table will show the growth of the postal 
service : — 



Tear. 


No. of 

Post 

Offices. 


Length 
Routes. 


No. of 

Letters and 

Packets. 


No, of 
Newspapers. 


ReTenne. 


1840.... 
1850..,. 
1S60.... 
1870.... 
1880,... 
1886.... 


6 
63 
146 
274 
449 
566 


Miles. 

278 

1,837 
4,469 
8,901 
9,883 


60,103 

266,688 

1,360,341 

3,049,818 

10,340,772 

13,830,462 


60,101 
393,177 
1,062,077 
2,198,477 
6,790,768 
6,672,013 


232 4 6 

6,413 9 6 

14,682 8 9 

30,862 6 5 

81,008 14 3 

104,686 12 7 



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102 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



The following table will briefly indicate the progress of the 
money order branch, made up to the end of 1886 : — 



Year. 


No. of 
Offices. 


Issued. 


Paid. 


Namber. 


Ajnoimt. 


Number. 


Amount. 


1870,... 
1880..., 
1886,... 


67 
116 
167 


13,936 
39,762 
62,286 


£ 9. d. 

39,6^3 5 8 
123,461 9 I 
172,630 


11,004 
26,413 
63,636 


£ 9. d. 

31,773 14 7 

79,822 7 11 

175,018 4 



With 80 large a territory, it will be readily understood that the 
cost of the inland mail services is very great. In 1883 it amounted 
to £49,404 17s. 8d., the nfiles travelled being 2,758,846, costing 
4*1 Id. per running mile. 

The foundation stone of the present General Post Office was 
kid by H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh on November 1st, 1867. 
It was completed in 1872, at a cost of £53,258 9s. 2d. The old 
Post Office adjoining (built in 1851), was, until March, 1885, used 
as a central police station, but the increasing business of the Post 
Office has led to the premises being since occupied by the money 
order and stamp printing branches, and also by the postal cashier. 

E/eotrio Telegraph, 

The first electric telegraph in South Australia was a short line 
between Adelaide and the Port, erected by Mr. James Macgeorge, 
at the end of 1855. 

Mr. Todd, who, at the instance of the Colonial Government, had 
been appointed by Lord John Russell as Superintendent of Tele- 
graphs, arrived in the colony in November of that year, with all 
the necessary plant for telegraph lines to Port Adelaide and the 
Semaphore, and also to Gawler, the railways to the Port and 
Gawler then being in course of construction. The telegraph to 
the Port was opened in February, 1856, and to Gawler in the 
following year. Telegraphic communication with Melbourne was 
established in July, 1858, the length of the South Australian 
section being nearly 300 miles, and the cost £19,403 9s. Od. 
Stations in connection with this line were opened at Willunga, 
Port Elliot, Goolwa, Robe, and Mount Gambier. Sydney was 
connected via Melbourne in October, 1858, Brisbane in 1861, and, 
in 1867, a direct line of communication with Sydney via Went- 



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POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPH. 103 

worth was completed. In the meantime, the telegraph in South 
A.ustralia had been extended to Clare, Kooringa, Kadina, Wallaroo, 
IMoonta, Port Augusta, and other places ; so that, at the end of 
1869, there were 1,642 miles of wire erected, at a cost of £101,591 
10s. 3d., and 63 stations. 

South Australia's great work in this direction was, however, the 
•construction of the overland telegraph to Port Darwin, a line of 
nearly 2,000 miles long, carried through the very heart of Australia, 
then almost, except what we knew from Stuart's journals, a terra 
incognita. The history of this line is so well known that, even if 
«pace permitted, it is unnecessary to repeat it here. It was 
-authorised by Parliament in 1870, in order to meet the cable to be 
laid from Singapore to Port Darwin by the British Australian 
Telegraph Co. (now the Eastern Extension Telegraph Co.), was 
commenced the same year, and, in the face of great difficulties, 
was completed in August, 1872. Mr. Todd, at the time, was on 
his way back to Adelaide from the north coast, personally superin- 
tending the work and arranging the stations, and, at his camp near 
^Central Mount Stuart, with a small pocket telegraph instrument, 
Teceived and responded to the congratulations of the Governor, 
the Government, and a large number of persons in this and the 
neighboring colonies. The cable from Singapore had been laid in 
November of the previous year, but communication through it was 
interrupted in July following, and was not restored till October 
2 1st, when, for the first time, the Australian colonies were elec- 
trically connected with Great Britain, or, in a word, with the whole 
civilised world. On the 15th of November, 1872, banquets were 
held in London, Adelaide, and Sydney, to celebrate the event. 

In the first instance wooden poles had to be used, but these 
have been almost entirely replaced by iron poles ; and, up to the 
present date, the expenditure on this great national undertaking 
amounts to £492,439 12s. 7d., which includes the cost of stations, 
and the re-poling with iron poles. 

The following table shows the length of the sea and land lines 
connecting Australia with England : — 

Miles. 

Falmouth to Gibraltar, via lisbon (sea) 1,250 

Gibraltar to Malta (sea) 981 

Malta to Alexandria (sea) 819 

Alexandria to Suez (land line) 224 

Suez to Aden (sea) 1,308 , 

Aden to Bombay (sea) ••• 1,664 

Bombay to Madras (land) 600 

Madras to Penang (aea) 1,218 



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104 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Penang to Singapore (sea) ••.... 381 

Singapore to Batavia (sea^ 660 

fiatavia to Banjoewangi (land) , 480 

Banjoewangi to Port Darwin (sea) >. 970 

Port Darwin to Adelaide, S.A. (land) 1,975 

Total 12,425 

Total length of cable 9, 1 46 

Total length of land lines 3,279 

Total 12,426 

We have the following stations on the line, commencing north 

from Port Augusta : — 

Distance from Adelaide. 
Miles. 

Beltana 356 

Farina 410 

Strangways Springs 645 

The Peake 636 

Charlotte Waters 804 

Alice Springs 1,036 

Barrow Creek 1 ,207 

Tennanfs Creek 1,354 

Powell's Creek 1,467 

Daly Waters 1,605 

The Katherine 1,771 

Yam Creek 1,848 

Southport 1,934 

Palmerston 1,976 

The extension to Western Australia in 1876, completed the 
chain of intercolonial telegraphs. The length of the South Aus- 
tralian section, from Adelaide to Eucla, is 979 miles, or 759 miles 
of entirely new line from Port Augusta, iron poles being used 
throughout. 

A submarine cable was laid from Normanville to Kingscote, 
Kangaroo Island, 38*34 knots, in January, 1876, connecting with 
a land line 62 miles, to the lighthouse at Cape Borda^ and later on 
to Cape Willoughby. Cables have also been laid to connect the 
lighthouses at Troubridge Shoal and Althorpe Island ; and two 
cables from the end of the Largs Bay jetty to a buoy in the road- 
stead, by means of which the Orient and Messageries Maritimes 
steamers are placed in direct telephonic communication with their 
agents' offices at Port Adelaide and Adelaide, a flexible^insulated 
wire, joined to the heavier cable, being brought on board the 
vessels, and then connected with a telephone. 

The telephone system, which is entirely in the hands of the 
Telegraph Department, under a special Act (No. 207, 1881), was 
introduced in 1882; and telephone exchanges have been opened 



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POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPH. 105 

at Adelaide and the Port, besides several public telephone offices^ 

and a number of leased lines to private firms, and other persons. 

There are now over 400 subscribers, and the length of telephone 

wires i» operation at the end of 1886 was 1,539 J miles. The total 

length of telegraph and telephone lines was 5,459^ miles, or 

10,310^ miles of wire, and the number of telegraph offices 200, 

The business of the Department in 1886 was as follows : — 

Number of messages (colonial and intercolonial) 622,755 

" *♦ (international) 46,667 

Total ....• 669,422 

£ ». d. 

Receipts from colonial and intercolonial messages 38,367 2 9 

<* '< international messages ... • 29,764 4 7 

Total receipts £68,131 7 4 

Gross charges on international messages £256,526 19 6 



ZOOLOGICAL AND ACCLIMATISATION GARDENS. 

The Zoological Gardens of Adelaide have been established close 
on four years, and are now second to none in the Australias. Th& 
number of animals, birds, &c., on exhibition number nearly 900. 
The society derives its revenue from three sources, viz., an annual 
grant from the Parliament, payment received at the gates of the 
Gardens from visitors, and subscriptions from members. The total 
quantity of land comprising the Zoological Gardens is about seven* 
teen acres. The site is admirably chosen, being within five minutes- 
walk of North-terrace, and close to the surrounding and thickly- 
populated neighborhoods of North Adelaide, Kensington, and 
Payneham. The Gardens are under the entire control of a council 
appointed annually by the subscribers. The present president is 
Sir Thomas Elder, G.C.M.G., who has held the position for three 
years. The Chief Justice, the Hon, Samuel J. Way, was the first 
president. Mr. R. E. Minchin, J. P., has been director of the 
Gardens from the commencement. He has twice visited foreign 
countries with the object of procuring rare animals, &c., and on 
each occasion has returned with a large and valuable collection. 



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106 SOUTH AUSTRAUA. 



THE OBSERVATORY. 

The Observatory stands on the west park lands, and is in charge 
of Mr. C. Todd, M.A., C M.G., the Government Astronomer, who 
has three assistants, viz. : — Mr. W. E. Cooke, B.A., Assistant 
Astronomer; Mr. R. F. Griffiths, Meteorological Assistant; Mr. 
£. P. Sells, Junior Assistant. 

The Observatory, which has recently bee« largely added to, 
possesses a fine transit circle, made by Mr. Simms, of London, and 
an Sin. equatorial by Cook & Son, of York, besides some smaller 
instruments. It is also fully equipped with complete sets of all 
kinds of meteorological instruments, including barographs, thermo- 
graphs, anemographs, plunometer, &c. 

The transit circle has an object glass of 6in. clear aperture, with 
a focal length of 8din.; it has two divided circles 30in. in diameter, 
graduated to every 5' in arc, each circle being read off to fractions 
of a second by means of four microscopes and pointer telescope 
£xed on parallel carrying circles. The telescope is supported on 
two iron piers resting on a compound system of bedplates, which 
afford means of adjustment in level and azimuth ; and the whole 
rests on a solid granite and brick foundation. On the same foun- 
dation are two coUimating telescopes, oi^e north and the other 
south of the principal instrument, the axes of the three telescopes 
being in the same meridianal plane. The observing room is 32ft. 
by 22ft. 

In conjunction with the Government Astronomers of Victoria 
and New South Wales, and Captain Darwin, R.E., a determination 
has recently been made of the difference of longitude between 
Singapore, Banjoewangie, Port Darwin, Adelaide, Melbourne, and 
Sydney, by exchanging telegraph time signals. The difference of 
longitude between the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and Singa- 
pore, had previously been determined in sections in the same way, 
so that the signals exchanged with Singapore gave the longitudes 
of the several Australian observatories. The longitude of the 
Adelaide Observatory was found to be 9h. 14m. 20'30s. E. ; the 
latitude is 34° 56' 33" S. 

The time throughout the colony, or within the limits of the 
telegraph system, is regulated by the Observatory, Adelaide time 



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THE OBSERVATORY. 



107 



being everywhere kept, although the difference of longitude be- 
tween the west and east boundaries is from 129^ to 141^ east 
longitudes, or 48 minutes in time. A time-ball at the Semaphore 
18 dropped at Ih. p.m. daily, except Sundays, by a voltaic current 
from the Observatory. 

The Observatory can be seen by visitors between the hours of 
2 and 4 p.m., except on Saturday and Sunday ; but in the evening 
only by special permission of the Government Astronomer. 

South Australia, including the Northern Territor}-, lies between 
the parallels of 1 1^ and 38^ S. ; it is therefore partly within and 
partly without the tropics, and enjoys a great variety of climate. 
On the north coast the year has two seasons — the dry, with S.E. 
winds, from May to September — the wet, with a prevalence of 
N.W. winds, frequent thunder storms and heavy rains, Jfrom 
October to April. The N.W. monsoon rains penetrate into the 
interior, but the amount rapidly diminishes as the coast is left. 
Thus, taking the published observations in 1 882, the mean annual 
rainfall on the coast and inland at the stations on the overland 
telegraph is as follows : — 



station. 



Palmeraton (Port Darwin) 

Tarn Creek 

Katherine Biver 

Daly Waters 

Powell's Creek 

Tennant's Creek 

Barrow's Creek , 

Alice Springs 

Charlotte Waters 

Peake 





Approximate 


Inches. 


Latitude. 


62-623 


12J<' S. 

is}** " 


48-768 


42-284 


14° *' 


31-192 


I6i° " 


19-729 


18* '« 


17-616 


19 1° *' 


16-364 


21 o ** 


12-830 


23 » " 


6-493 


26^ ** 


6-648 


28*^ «' 



Occasionally the monsoon, or tropical rains, extend well across the 
continent, but in other years they may barely reach as far as the 
MacDonnell Ranges, and all south of that, down to Lake Torrens, 
is subject to prolonged drought. ' 

The winter rains on the south coast accompany barometric 
depressions, or cyclonic disturbances, having almost uniformly a 
progressive motion from west to east. These are heralded by 
northerly or north-easterly wdnds and falling barometer on the 
advancing or eastern quadrant of the disturbance; and as the first 



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108 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

i&dications of tlieix approach are felt on the west coast, and they 
take, as a rule, from thirty-six to forty-eight hours to pass &om the 
meridian of Cape Leuwin to Kangaroo Island, the telegraphic 
weather reports exchanged at dh. a.m. give timely warning of 
their existence and character. Most of these disturbances pass 
with their centre to the south of Adelaide, and the wind conse- 
quently veers from N.E. to N., N.W., W., and S.W. ; hut 
occasionally the centre is more northerly, and in such cases the 
rains will extend well inland up to latitude 28^, or still farther 
north, and perhaps be heavier over the northern agricultural 
districts, especially on and near the Flinders Range, than in the 
southern portions of the colony ; but when the c^itre passes to 
the south of Kangaroo Island the rain, as a rule, is heaviest over 
the Mount Lofty Ranges, and along the coast. 

Meteorological observations have been made in Adelaide for 
thirty years by the Government Astronomer, who has organised, in 
conjimction with tbe astronomers in the other colonies, an exten- 
sive and very complete system of daily weather reports, embracing 
the whole of Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. These 
reports, and an isobar map, showing also the direction and force of 
the wind, are exhibited at the General Post Office, and at Port 
Adelaide. 

There are well furnished meteorological stations at Port Darwin, 
Daly Waters, Alice Springs, Farina (barometer only). Port Augusta, 
Clare, the Agricultural College, Roseworthy ; Mount Barker, 
Strathalbyn, Eucla, Streaky Bay (barometer only). Cape Borda, 
Robe, Cape Northumberland, and Mount Gambler. Besides these 
more than 300 stations are supplied with rain gauges, the returns 
from which are published monthly. 

The temperature in Adelaide exceeds 90*^, taking the average <>! 
thirty years, in January, twelve days ; February, ten days ; March, 
seven days ; April, one day ; October, one day ; November, five 
days; December, nine days; or, during the year, on forty-five 
days. 



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THE OBSERVATORY. 



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SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



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112 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 
The Church of England in the Diocese of Adelaide, 

General Description, — The See of Adelaide was founded in 
1847, and by the letters patent of the first Bishop (the Right Rev. 
Aug. Short, D.D.) the boundaries of the Diocese were conter- 
minous with the boundaries of the colony of South Australia. 
When the Northern Territory was added to the colony, it appears 
to have been regarded as included in the Diocese ; but as this is by 
no means certain, the Primate has requested the Bishop to exercise 
episcopal supervision over this portion of the colony until proper 
steps can be taken for its inclusion in this Diocese. The whole 
colony may be regarded as comprising three divisions — South 
Australia proper. Central Australia, and the Northern I'erritory. 
It thus stretches across the whole continent from the Southern 
Ocean to the. Indian Ocean. The total area comprises 914,730 
square miles. The population is about 300,000, of which number 
about 3,000 are residents in the Northern Territory. 

The Right Rev. George Wyndham Kennion, D.D., of Oriel 
College, Oxford, was consecrated Bishop of Adelaide in West- 
minster Abbey on November 30th, 1882. The church members 
are returned at 80,000. The number of clergy working in the 
Diocese is seventy. During the year ending December, 31st, 1886, 
there were 2,603 persons baptized, and the number of children 
receiving religious instruction in Sunday schools was 9,656. There 
are in the Diocese 128 churches and fifty-six mission stations. 

The Diocesan Synod consists of the Bishop as President, all the 
clergy licensed in the Diocese, and ninety-two lay members elected 
by the various parishes. The finances of the Synod are managed 
by a standing committee, consisting of the Bishop, the Dean, and 
the Archdeacon of Adelaide, the Archdeacon of Flinders, and the 
Archdeacon of Mount Gambier and the West, with seven clergy- 
men and twenty-two laymen, elected annually. 

The Collegiate School of St Peter, Adelaide. 

The Collegiate School of St, Peter, Adelaide, was incorporated 
by Act of Parliament in 1849. The buildings, upon which nearly 
£30,000 have been spent, consist of a chapel, schoolrooms. 



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RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 113 

laboratory, gymnasium, boarding-house for masters and about fifty 
boys, headmaster's residence, and they stand in about thirty 
acres of play ground. 

The Board of Governors consists of the Bishop, the Dean, and 
the Archdeacon of Adelaide, ex officio members, and the Venerable 
Archdeacon Farr and eleven lay members of the Church of 
England. 

The Headmaster is the Keverend Francis Williams, M.A., of 
Lincoln College, Oxford ; the second master is J. H. Lindon, Esq., 
B.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge; the third master and bursar 
is the Reverend J. C. Haynes ; and there are six assistant masters. 

There are four scholarships, founded by the late Dean Farrell ; 
they are of the value of £60 a year each, and are tenable for three 
years. Two of them are limited to sons of clergymen of the 
Church of England, and two of them are open. The Vansittart 
scholarship, which is worth £50 per annum, is for the purpose of 
educating a boy from the Mount Gambier district. The West- 
minster, Christchurch, Allen, and Short scholarships are each of 
the value of £10 per annum, and are tenable for two years. The 
following scholarships are awarded annually : — The Prankerd, for 
modem languages ; the Bowman, for physical science ; the Wyatt, 
for botany or zoology ; the May, for physical science ; the Young, 
for mathematics ; and the McCulloch, for mathematics. The Ade- 
laide St. Peter's Collegians' Scholarship is of the value of £50 per 
annum, and is tenable for three years at the Adelaide University. 

The number of boys in attendance is 181. 

Wes/eyan Methodist Church. 

Rev. J.Young Simpson, President of the Conference — ^residence, 
Glenelg — attends president's vestry, Pirie-street Church, Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday mornings, 10*30 till 12. 

Rev. James Haslam, Secretary of the Conference; residence, 
Essex-street, Goodwood. 

Wesleyan Methodism was founded in this colony in 1837. The 
first sermon preached in South Australia was by a Wesleyan local 
preacher, on the sandhills at Glenelg, in 1837. The first Church 
erected by the denomination stood in Hindley-street ; it was 
opened in 1838. The first minister was the Rev. William Long- 
bottom, who was wrecked near Encounter Bay, when proceeding 
to Western Australia; and, at the request of the handful of 
Methodists then in Adelaide, he took charge of the Church. 



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114 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Statistics. 

1838. 1887. 

Ministers 1 «... 71 

Churches 1 .... 208 

Hearers 150 .... 46,137 

Sunday school scholars .. 100 .... 18,838 
The Wesleyan Church has a Loan fund amounting to £6,00 
which greatly assists burdened Church trusts. 

The Home Mission work of the Church is very extensive, reach- 
ing from Palmerston in the Northern Territory to Millicent in the 
South-East. The amount raised annually is £1,000. 

Prince Alfred College, 

Prince Alfred College, one of the finest educational institutions 
in the colony, belongs to this denomination. The hon. president 
is the Rev. J. Young Simpson, President of the Conference. The 
Head Master, Fredk. Chappie, Esq., B.A., B.Sc, is ably assisted 
by a large and efficient staff of teachers, many of them holding 
University degrees ; and the splendid results of their teaching, 
shown in the position taken at the University matriculation and 
other examinations by Prince Alfred boys, proves the thoroughness 
of the system of education carried out in that admirable institution. 
The cullege is under the management of a large committee of 
representative gentlemen. The spirit of the school is decidedly 
christian, and strictly undenominational. Some 350 pupils are in 
attendance at the present time. 

The Wesleyan Church has just been celebrating its jubilee 
year, and the amount promised by its adherents approximates to 
£20,000. 

Presbyterian Church of South Australia. 

Churches, 22; ministers, 14; elders, 70; managers, 173; mem- 
bers, 1,736 ; sitting accommodation provided for 5,266 ; average 
attendance, 2,382 ; Sabbath schools, 28 ; teachers, male, 104, 
female 153, total, 257; scholars, male 1,011, female 1,193, total, 
2,204 ; Bible classes, 19; members of same, male 119, female 180, 
total, 299 ; preaching stations, 1 2 ; accommodation provided, 725 ; 
average attendance, 360 ; prayer meetings, 21 ; average attend- 
ance, 482. 

It will be seen that altogether there are 34 places for Presby- 
terian worship. Churches 22, and stations 12 ; and that accommo- 
dation is provided for 5,266 and 725, total, 5,991 persons, and is 
availed of by an average of 2,382 and 360, total, 2,742. 



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RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 115 

The officers of the General Assembly aie — ^Moderator, Rev. 
James Lyall, of Adelaide ; Clerk of Assembly, Rev. John Hall 
Angus, of Port Adelaide ; Treasurer,,Hon. D. Murray, M.L.C. 

There are three Presbyteries, as follows: — Presbytery of 
Adelaide, clerk. Rev. W. F. Main, of Norwood; Presbytery of 
the Onkaparinga, clerk, Rev. W. S. Macqueen, of Strathalbyn ; 
Presbytery of Helalie, clerk, Rev. T. D. Smythe, of Kybunga. 

The Church has one missionary to the heathen, the Rev. Wm. 
Gray, stationed at Weasisi, Tanna, one of the New Hebrides 
islands. 

Names of ministers and their location: — Angus, J. H., Port 
Adelaide ; Burns, J. A., Mount Barker ; Gordon, J., Gawler ; 
Gray, T., Mount Pleasant; Lyall, J., Adelaide; Law, A., Monarto; 
Macqueen, W, S., Strathalbyn ; Milne, W. R., Mannum ; Main, 
W. F., Norwood; Macaulay, J., M.A., Woodside and Naime ; 
Mitchell, R., Port Augusta; Paton, D., D.D., Adelaide; Royke, 
E., B.A., Adelaide ; Smythe, T. D., Blyth. 

On the 10th day of May, 1865, the Presbyterian Church of 
South Australia came into existence by the union of the represen- 
tatives of the three Presbyterian bodies, the Established, the Free, 
and the United Presbyterian churches ; and since then, up till the 
3rd March, 1886, the supreme court of the Church in the colony 
was the Presbytery of South Australia ; upon that date a division 
of the Presbytery into two parts took place, the new Presbyteries 
being styled the Presbyteries of Adelaide and Belalie respectively. 
Since then, a further division has been brought about, a new 
Presbytery being formed in the districts south of the city, called 
the Presbytery of the Onkaparinga. 

The first Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church was the Rev. James Gordon, of Gawler. 

South Australian Baptist Association. 

The opening services of the first Baptist Church in South Aus- 
tralia were held on September 2nd, 1838 ; the membership when 
the church was opened was only fifteen. 

In 1862, a number of general Baptist Churches formed an 
association, chiefly for the purpose of prosecuting Home Missionary 
work; from time to time other churches have joined, and the 
association now includes all the general Baptist Churches in the 
colony. 



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116 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

The present statistics are as follows : — 

Churches 62 

Membership 3,838 

Pastors 30 

Sunday Scholars 5,269 

Sunday School Teachers 516 

Chapels 53 

Other buildings used for Divine worship 1 3 

Seating Accommodation 13,895 

Value of Church Property £8<),256 

. Debts on Church Property £19,606 

Receipts for past year £12,282 

Out of the Baptist Association has grown a Missionary Society, 
which supports ten missionaries in Furredpore, Eastern Bengal ; a 
Building Fund with a capital of £2,022 ; a Jubilee Debt Extension 
Fund, to which already £1,576 has been contributed; an Aged 
Ministers' Relief Fund, capital £2,889. The official organ of the 
association, Truth and Progress^ has now been in existence nine- 
teen years ; it is published monthly, the present editor being the 
ReT. H. J. Lambert, Norwood. 

The New Church fSwedenborgian) in 8, A, 
The Adelaide Society of the New Church has been in existence 
forty years, and numbers under a hundred, of which fifty-five are 
registered members, who worship in a building situated on the 
west side of Hanson-street, Adelaide; the Rev. E. G. Day is the 
preacher. 

The Church building contains a Sunday School, a Band of Hope, 
and a Total Abstinence Union attached to the Society. 

Unitarian Church. 
Unitarian public worship was begun in South Australia in 
October, 1855, in the building in King William-street, Adelaide, 
then known as Green's Exchange, the minister being Rev. John 
Crawford Woods, B.A., before that time minister in various places 
in the old country, and for the longest period at St. Mark's Chapel, 
Edinburgh. On the 23rd December, 1856, the foundation stone of 
the Unitarian Christian Church in Wakefield- street, Adelaide, was 
laid by the late Hon. John Baker, M.L.C., of Morialta ; and more 
recently a lecture hall and schoolrooms have been erected close 
by the Church. About twenty- two years ago a place of worship, 
cemetery, and several acres of land at Shady Grove, near Mount 
Barker, were presented to the Unitarians by Mr. John Monks, of 



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RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 117 

Sbady Grove, and these Unitarian religious services are regularly 
conducted chiefly by lay readers. There are in connection with 
the Unitarian Church in Adelaide, a Sunday School, a Mutual 
Improvement Society, a Theological and a Children's Libraries, and 
a Minister's class for religious instruction. The Unitarians in the 
proi/ince number about 700, and there is Church accommodation 
for 500. 

Free Presbyterian Church. 

This denomination has existed in the colony since 1854. It 
holds to the Disruption principles of the Free Church of Scotland, 
as these were expressed in 1843 ; rejecting Erastianism on the one 
hand, and Voluntarjdsm on the other, and retaining the simple 
Scriptural forms of worship uniform in Scotland at that period. 
In 1881, the Presbytery which governed it became defunct, through 
the translation of two of its ministers to the sister Church in Vic- 
toria, and the death of a third, since which time the denomination 
has been without a supreme governing court. It is now served by 
two ordained ministers, and catechists, elders, and deacons, and has 
churches at Morphett Vale, Aldinga,Yankalilla, Kingston, Lucindale, 
and Spalding, as under : — 

John Knox Churcbi Morphett Vale, by Rev. J. Benny. 

Church at Aldinga, at present closed. 

Church at Yankalilla, by Rev. John Anderson. 

McCheyne Church, Kingston, by Catechist. 

Church at Lucindale, by occasional service. 

Church Ht Spalding, by Catechist in Gaelic, and occasionally by 
Minister of Morphett Vale in English. 

Society of Friends. 

The Society of Friends have two places of worship in South 
Australia, one at Pennington-terrace, North Adelaide, and the other 
at Mount Barker; these have been regularly open for public 
worship for more than forty years. 

The presence of a minister of the Gospel is not essential to the 
right holding of these meetings, as the Friends hold the belief that 
it is their privilege to meet for worship under the authority and 
friendship of Christ, without a pre-arranged service. 

There are, however, several who are frequently engaged in the 
sacred office of the ministry. 

They recognise in their Church the offices of ministers, elders, 
and overseers. 



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118 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Meetings for conducting Church affairs are held every two 
months at North Adelaide and Mount Barker alternately. 

Number of members, about seventy. Registering Officer, Ben- 
jamin Sanders, Netley, Mount Barker. 



Bible Christian Church. 

The Bible Christian Connexion in South Australia consists of 
the following circuits : — Adelaide, Bowden, Goodwood, Eastwood 
and Kensington, Port Adelaide, Gawler, Grace, Yankalilla, Claren- 
don and Willunga, Port Elliot, Mount Lofty, Mount Torrens, 
Millicent, Burra, Kapunda, Auburn, Kiverton, Hallett, Silverton 
(N.S.W.), Kadina, Moonta, Balaklava, Kulpara, Crystal Brook, 
Keilli, Snowtown, Port Augusta, Gladstone, Wilmington, Wirra- 
bara, Quorn, Orroroo, Port Germain, Carrieton. There are 1 30 
Churches, 21 other places in which services are held, affording 
accommodation for 18,500 worshippers. There are 23 parsonages, 
11 cottages, and 18 schoolrooms, the aggregate value being re- 
turned at £65,396. There are 2,856 communicants, 960 teachers, 
and 6,329 scholars. 

The affairs of the Church are managed by an Annual Conference, 
which meets in Adelaide in February. The President for this year 
is Rev. John Thome, Adelaide ; Secretar}% Rev. W. W. Finch, 
Gladstone. 

To commemorate the life and labors of the late Rev. James 
Way, the pioneer minister of the body, who, with the Rev. James 
Rowe, arrived in the colony in December, 1850, Way College has 
been founded. A handsome and commodious building in North 
Goodwood, facing the Adelaide south park lands, has been pur- 
chased for the purpose. The necessary funds are being subscribed, 
the Chief Justice, Sir Thomas Elder, G.C.M.G., Mr. J. G. Ashton, 
Mr. Jos. Ashton, Mr. W. G. Torr, Sir Henry Ayers, K.(\M.G., 
Hon. T. Playford, M.P. (Premier), J. H. Howe, Esq , M.P.. Mr. 
John Darling, and other well known citizens contributing hand- 
somely to the fund. Each donor of ten guineas, before the college 
opens in 1889, is styled a founder, and will have a vote in the 
election of deserving boys to founders' scholarships when vacancies 
occur. 

The principal places of worship of the denomination in Adelaide 
and the suburbs are at Young-street, City, Goodwood, Bowden, 
Glanville, Kensington, Eastwood, &c. 



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RELIGIOUS DEXOMINATIONS. 119 

Christian Churches. 

About forty years ago, Mr. Thomas Playford (father of the 
present Premier of South Australia), gathered together a few 
christians who were willing to unite for worship upon an unde- 
nominational basis. They held their meetings for some time in a 
small chapel in Hindley-street, and, in 1848, removed to a larger 
building in Bentham-street. Other Churches were subsequently 
formed, and now meet for worship in Zion chapel, Pulteney-street; 
George-street chapel, Stepney ; Hindmarsh place, Hindmarsh ; 
Biimside, Kersbrook, and Stansbury. There arc Sunday schools, 
and other auxiliaries to christian work, connected with these 
Churches. 

The above Churches practise the immersion of believers, weekly 
communion, and give prominence to the doctrine of the personal 
pre-millenial advent of the Lord Jesus Christ. 

The work and business of these Churches is carried on and con- 
ducted by pastors and deacons, elected by the members of each 
church. 

United Free Church of South Australia (Incorporated J, 

In connection with this body there are three chapels, affording 
accommodation for 800 persons. — Adelaide, Waymouth- street, 
Burnside, Thebarton. Rev. B. P. Mudge, Minister, West Ade- 
laide. 

These churches were formerly connected with the Victorian 
district of the U.M.F. (Churches, but a separation having taken . 
place in 1884, the churches in South Australia assumed the name 
contained in their deed of incorporation as above. 

German Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
The German members of the community possess about 80 places 
of worship, accommodating 9,000 to 10,000 persons. Of these, 
50 are chapels with sittings, 30 school or other rooms used for 
worship, capable of holding 1,000 attendants. There are 40 
schools, 45 teachers, and iabout 1,350 scholars, in connection with 
the undermentioned chapels (denominational day schools) : — 
Adelaide, Rev. E. Homann ; Appila, Rev. L. Kaibel and W. 
Fuhlbom ; Bethanien, Rev. G. A. Heidenreich ; Blumberg, Rev. 
H. Harms ; Callington, Rev. K. Dorsch ; Caltowie, Rev. J. 
Thiessen; Condowie, Rev. A. Dohler; CaTlsruhe, Rev. G. Bertram; 



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120 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Dutton, Revs. E. D. Appelt and J. Bode ; Emmaus, Rer. D. 
Georg ; Emu Downs, Rer. J. Hansen ; Oawler Town, Rev. Jul. 
Kodiger; Habndorf, Revs. C. F. A. Strempel and F. Braun; 
Hoyleton, Rev. H. Meyer ; Klemzig, near Adelaide, Rev. C. 
Maschmedt; Langmiel, near Tanunda, Rev. J. C. Auricbt; Light's 
Pass, Revs, J. P. Niquet and G. J. Rechner ; Lobethal, Rev. Rud. 
Ey ; Mannum, Rev. L. Kuss ; Mount Gambier, Rev. F. W. 
Matscboss ; Nain, Rev. C. F. W. Heinze ; Point Pass, lievs. F. 
Recbner and Drautz ; Rosenthal, Revs. G. Dost and Ph. J. Oster; 
Tanunda, Rev. J. Reuscb; Yorketown, Revs. T. Koscbade and 
J. H. Hoopman. 

Methodist New Connexion Church, Franklin-street, Adelaide. 

Tbe above Cburcb opened a mission in South Australia in the 
year 1861. Tbe first minister appointed was the Rev. J. 
Maughan. During bis ministry the Church in Franklin-street 
was erected. It will seat 500 people. It is acknowledged to be 
a convenient and beautiful structure. The original cost was about 
£5,000. Tbe present debt upon the estate is £1,800. A branch 
Church and Sunday school was opened in Goodwood in 1886, and 
is being worked with cheering success. The present minister is 
the Rev. E. Gratton. 

The Welsh Free Church, Adelaide, 

This Church was established in tbe year 1879, and meets for 
worship in tbe lower schoolroom of tbe Flinders-street Presbyterian 
Church. 

It is an union Church, composed of members from all tbe 
different denominations. As there were not enough of any one 
denomination to start a Cburcb, they all agreed to differ, and meet 
together to worship God in their own tongue. 

The Rev. Richard Jones, formerly of Monmouthshire, held the 
pastorate of tbe Church till very recently. * 

Church of Christ 
In connection with this body there are Churches at the following 
places: — Grote-street, Adelaide; Kermode-street, North Adelaide; 
Robert-street, Hindmarsh Chapel-street, Norwood; Park-street, 
Unley ; also, at Alma, Balaklava, Baroota, Cameron, Dalkey, Ful- 
ham, Hall, Langhome's Bridge, Locbiel, Long Plains, Mallala, 



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RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 120a 

The Catholio Gburoh. 

The Catholics of South Australia petitioned the late Archbishop 
Folding (then Vicar Apostolic) in 1839, to send them a clergy- 
man; and, in January, 1840, the Vicar General UUathome arrived 
in Adelaide, and celebrated mass for the first time in the house of 
Messrs. Johnson & Phillips, near East-terrace. His stay was 
necessarily short; yet he made arrangements for the coming of 
the first priest, the Rev. William Benson, towards the end of the 
following year. He had a wooden building in Waymouth-street 
as a church and residence. 

In 1842, Adelaide was made an Episcopal See, and was offered 
to Dr. UUathome; he declined, however, as he determined on 
residing in England. In 1844, Dr. Francis Murphy, of Sydney, 
accepted the charge, and was consecrated on September 8th, and 
took possession on November 6th. He died April 27th, 1867. 
His successors were Bishops Geoghagan and Shiel. 

Adelaide was erected into an Archiepiscopal See by Pope Leo 
XIII. on May 20th, 1887, and Dr. Reynolds nominated its first 
Archbishop. The new Province embraces Southern and Western 
Australia, having Perth, Port Augusta, and Port Victoria, as 
Suffragan Sees. 

The Catholic population of the colony is estimated at 42,000, 
a^id is at present attended by an Archbishop, a Vicar General, 
three Rural Deans, and forty-seven Priests. 

The educational requirements are attended to by the Jesuit 
Fathers at Seven Hills College ; the Christian Brothers' College, 
Wakefield-street ; a boardiug and day-school at New Cabra, Good- 
wood, is conducted by Sisters of the Order of St. Dominic, who 
have also select day-schools in Franklin-street. The community 
in the above convents number eighteen. There are two com- 
munities of Sisters of Mercy, one in Adelaide, with two largely 
attended schools, and the other at Mount Gambier, with boarding, 
day, and poor schools. These Sisters attend hospitals, prisons, and 
the sick poor in their homes. There are twenty-four Sisters in 
these communities. The Dominican Nuns of the Congregation of 
St. Catherine of Sienna number seven in community. They con- 
duct a boarding and day-school at North Adelaide. 

The Sisters of St. Joseph have a care of the Orphanage, the 
Refuge for penitent women, and a House of Providence for poor 
women and as a home for young girls seeking situations. They 
also attend to several schools throughout the colony, which are 



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120b south AUSTRALIA. 

largely attended. The sisterhood numbers ninety-six. Beside the 
schools under the care of the several sisterhoods, there are many 
others conducted by lay teachers. 

The churches number 64; mission churches (i.e., serving for 
ischools on week-days, and churches on Sundays), 29 ; stations, 
visited by the clergy periodically, 103. The new diocese of Port 
Augusta embraces ^1 country north of the County of Victoria. 

The Congregational Churches of South Australia. 

The first minister of this body was the Eev. Thos. Q. Stow, who 
landed on October 18th, 1837, within a year of the foundation of 
the colony, since which time there have been ninety-eight ministers 
liolding office as Congregational pastors. There are at this time 
(1887) thirty ministers, of whom twenty- three are holding charges, 
and the others doing work, either in occasional public ministry, or 
other church work. 

From the constitution of these churches, accurate statistics are 
difficidt to obtain ; but the f oUovring may be looked upon as ap- 
proximately correct: — Church members, 2,430; adherents, 10,000; 
Sunday scholars, 6,000; buildings for public worship, 42; sittings 
in them, 10,126; preaching stations in rooms, 24; sittings in 
Ihem, 3,835 ; total sittings, 13,961. 

The following Societies are connected with the Congregational 
Churches of South Australia : — 

1. The Congregational Union. Income, £355 15s. 

2. The Parkin Trust, for education of ministers, and other 
purposes. Capital, £15,222; income, £569 8s. Not available 
until the income reaches £1,000. 

3. The Parkin Congregational Mission, for gifts to widows, and 
Bush Missions. Income, between £1,200 and £1,400 a year. 
Not available until 1890. ' 

4. The Chapel Building Society, for assisting in the erection of 
places of worship. Capital, about £2,500. 

5. Ministers' Provident Fund. Capital, £3,630. 

6. Lay Preachers* Association. Members, 25 ; stations round 
Adelaide, 8 ; with about 40 or 50 more members in the country 
^districts. 



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RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 121 

Milang, Millicent, Mount Oambier, Point Sturt, Port Pirie, Stirling 
East, Strathalbyn, Wild Horse Plains, Yatina, and York. The 
number of members in connection with these Churches is 1,800, 
and scholars in Sunday schools about 1,300, constant additions to 
which numbers are being recorded. 

Brethren T. H. Bates, J. Colbonme, T. J. Gore, M. Wood 
GrQen,and W. Judd, are engaged as evangelists. Mr. Green being 
now on a visit to America and England, in the interests of a Bible 
College which it is proposed to establish. In addition to the 
evangelists, a large number of brethren take part in the conduct 
of the public services and in carrying on the general work of the 
Churches. Representatives of the various Churches meet in 
Annual Conference in September, to report progress and devise 
means for further usefuhiess, in preaching the gospel, and estab- 
lishing Churches throughout the colony as centres for christian 
work and effort. Further particulars concemmg this body may be 
obtained by addressing communications to the Secretary of the 
Church of Christ, Grote-street, care of Mr. David Gall, Tynte- 
street, North Adelaide. 



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122 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

For the relief of infirmity and distress, the following Goveni* 
nient institutions have been established in and near Adelaide: — 

The Adei^ide Hospital is situated on a well-drained spot 
east of the Exhibition building; and connected with it is a 
dispensary for out-door patients, facing the exhibition road. The 
hospital has accommodation for 231 patients, but the number of 
beds occupied seldom exceeds 170. It is controlled by a committee 
of management, consisting of members of the medical profession 
and laymen. The institution is supported principally out of the 
public revenue; voluntary subscriptions contribute nearly one- 
seventh of the annual cost. The resident secretary is Mr. E. H. 
Hallack, whose residence is adjoining the dispensary. Visiting 
days are Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays, from 2 to 4 p.m. 

A Government hospital is also established at Port Adelaide, and 
country hospitals are to be found at Mount Gambler, Wallaroo, 
Port Augusta, Port Lincoln, Clare, and at Teetulpa goldfields. 

Lunatic Asylums. — ^The Adelaide Asylum for the Insane on 
North-terrace, to the east of the Botanic Gardens, and the Parkside 
Asylum at Parkside east, are supported by the State. Fees for 
maintenance are levied where the relatives can afford to contri- 
bute, but such recoveries bear but a very small proportion to the 
annual outlay. The cost of both asylums for the year ended June 
30th, 1886, was £25,033 6s. lid., whilst the fees for maintenance, 
&c., amounted to £2,257 3s. Id. Dr. Alex. S. Paterson, Colonial 
Surgeon, is the resident medical officer at Adelaide, and Dr. W. L, 
Cleland at Parkside. Steward and secretary to both asylums, 
Mr. John J. Hannah. Visiting days for the public at both asylums, 
10 to 12, and 2 to 4 daily, excepting Sundays. Visiting justices, 
appointed by the Government, make frequent visits to examine 
into the general condition of the institution. 

The Destitute Asylum on North-terrace, at the rear of the 
South Australian Institute and Public Library, is also supported out 
of the public revenue. Besides offices, and residences for officers, 
a lying-in department is included in the same enclosure. Relief is 
dii^ensed by a board, which meets every Thursday, at 10 a.m. 
The superintendent and secretary, Mr. Arthur Lindsay, resides on 
the premises. 



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CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 123- 

The industrial and reformatory schools formerly imder the 
control of the Destitute Board, have been recently separated, and 
placed under the jurisdiction of a State Children's Council; 
president, Dr. Stirling. The offices of the State Children's depart- 
ment are in Freeman-street. 

The boarding-out system is very extensively adopted throughout 
the colony, but there are still the following Government institutions 
occupied by deserted and criminal children : — Industrial and Re- 
formatory School for girls at Magill ; and Reformatory School for 
boys, hulk Fitzjames, Largs Bay. 

Amongst the principal private institutions, supported by private- 
subscriptions, and deserving of general sympathy and aid, are the 
following: — Home for Incurables at FuUarton; Convalescent Hos- 
pital, St. Margaret, Military -road. Semaphore; the Cottage Homes- 
for the aged and infirm poor and widows, situated in Stanley- 
street and Kingston-terrace, North Adelaide ; Adelaide Children's 
Hospital and Training School for Nurses, Brougham-place, North 
Adelaide, visiting days, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays, 2 to 4 
p.m. ; the South Australian Institution for the Blind, Deaf, and' 
Dumb, at Brighton ; Industrial School for the Blind, Brougham- 
place, North Adelaide, open daily, 9 to 6 ; the Orphan Home, for 
the reception and training of orphan girls, Carrington street, 
Adelaide ; the Servants' Home, comer of Flinders and Freeman- 
streets, Adelaide ; Adelaide Retreat for Women, at Walker'vdile ; 
Inebriates' Retreat, at Belair ; the Bushmen's Club, Whitmore- 
square and Gilbert-street, Adelaide; Prince Alfred Seamen's Home,- 
St. Vincent-street, Port Adelaide. 



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124 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



CENTRAL AND LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH. 

The laws relating to sanitation are contained chiefly in the Public 
Health Acts of 1873, 1876, and 1884. These are administered 
'by the Central Board of Health and bj Local Boards. 

The Central Board was established in 1873, and consists of the 
President and four other members appointed by the Government. 

Jjocal Boards. — All municipal councils are Local Boards of 
Health for their respective towns. Other local boards are formed 
irom time to time by order of the Government. There are at 
present thirty-eight local boards. 

Local boards have powers to make orders and regtdations for the 
xemoval and prevention of nuisances within their respective districts. 
In cases of neglect the Central Board has authority to compel local 
boards to do what is necessary or proper for the purposes of the 
Health Acts. In places where there is no local board the Central 
Board has direct jurisdiction. 

In emergencies the Central Board has power to make special 
regulations for the cleansing, purifying, and ventilating of streets, 
liouses, churches, schools, and other places of assembly, the erection 
of public closets, the speedy interment of the dead, and generally 
for preventing the spread and mitigating the effect of infectious 
diseases ; also for the provision of medical aid and medicine for 
persons infected. In cases of smallpox and other dangerous infec- 
tious diseases not usually met with in the colony, the Board has 
very extensive powers to enable it to stamp out promptiy the disease 
on its earliest appearance. 

The Central Board has also authority to order an inquiry, and 
to compel the attendance of witnesses whenever it requires infor- 
mation on any matter (whether of scientific opinion or &u;t) con- 
nected with the discharge of its duties. 

The administration of the Adulteration of Food and Drugs 
Act is also intrusted to the Central and Local Boards of Healthy 

The Quarantine Act is administered by the Government under 
the advice of the Central Board. All Health officers are required 
to correspond with and to report to the board on all subjects 
relating to quarantine. 



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CENTRAL AND LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH. 126 

Under the Vaccination Act eyery child horn in the colony must 
he yaccinated within six months of birth. The president of the 
Central Board of Health is also Vaccination officer for South Aus- 
tralia. He is required to maintain a supply of efficient yaccine 
lymph, and to exercise a general superyision oyer the puhlic 
yaccinators throughout the colony. 



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126 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



THE MARRIAGE LAWS. 

Marriages may be celebrated by the Kegistrar-Qeneral, the 
Deputy Registrars or District Registrars, and by officiating 
Ministers of all religious denominations wliose names are ordered 
by tbe Governor to be entered on a roll kept in the Registrar- 
General's office. An officiating Minister may use any form of 
marriage usual with his denomination, and bis signature on the 
marriage certificate is evidence that the marriage has been cele- 
brated in due form. 

Before any marriage can be celebrated the parties must either 
have obtained a certificate from the Registrar-General or a District 
Registrar that fourteen days' notice has been given, and that no 
authorised person has forbidden the issue of the certificate, or they 
must obtain a licence from the Registrar, his deputy, or a District 
Registrar, or from an officiating Minister. After the issue of a 
certificate, or the granting of a licence, a marriage may be cele- 
brated at any time within three months. Caveats against the 
granting of a licence or a certificate may be entered by any person 
who objects to the marriage ; after which the marriage cannot be 
celebrated until after due inquiry. 

Before marriage a minor must produce the written consent of 
his or her parent or guardian, unless satisfactory grounds for not 
having obtained such consent shall be assigned. 

The person celebrating the marriage must make out, in triplicate, 
a certificate of the marriage ; one copy is to be given to the parties 
thereto, another is to be sent within seven days to the Registrar of 
the district, and the third to the Registrar-General. 

Each District Registrar and officiating Minister must also send to 
the Registrar-General a quarterly return of all marriages performed 
by him during the preceding three months, or a nil account if no 
marriages have been performed by him during this period. 

The Registrar-General is required to arrange the certificates he 
receives, and have them bound, and kept safe for reference. 
Certified copies are to be evidence. 

In case of fraudulent marriages (through false declarations or 



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THE MARRIAGE LAWS. 127 

otherwise), the guilty party may be made to forfeit all property 
accruing from the marriage. 

The fee for a marriage at a registration office is ten shillings. 
The fee for a licence issued by a Registrar is three pounds. These 
fees are paid into the Treasury. 



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128 



SOUTH A13STRALIA. 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MILITARY FORCES. 

These are at present* as shown in the table below : — 





Establiahment. 








(See BemarkA.) 












Term 




Nature d Forces. 


Officers. 


Warrant 
Offioeis, 

Non-Com. 
Officers, 

and Men. 


ofSerrioe 

Enlisted 

for. 


Remarks. 


I. Staff S.A. Forces 


8 


4 


— • 




II. Permanent Mili- 


2 


45 


5 years 




tary Force (S.A. 










ArtiUery) 








This is the normal 
peace establishment, 
as laid down by the 
Act, of the Active 
Militia, but its Re- 
serve may be in- 


/ Active MiHtia.. 


70 


850 \ 




creased. At present, 
I owing to large re- 
] ductions in 1885, 

this force is under 


m. {Active MiUtia 
( Reserve.. ., 


5 


100 J 


3 years 










its establishment. 




















establishment may. 










in case of necessity. 










be increased to 1,500 










^men. 

' No establishment is 


















laid down for this 


IT. Eeserve Militia.. 


/Asma;j 
\ clai 


-^bepro- 
med. 


Asmay'be 
proclaimed 

To g:ive 3 
months* 
notice of 
wish to 


force, which, if re- 
quired, in time of 
emergency would be 
.raised by baUot. 
No establishmcDt is 






( 


laid down for this 


T. Volunteer Force. 


96 


1,660 j 


force. The strength 
shown is the ap- 
proximate strength 






v 


resisn 


^at present. 


Grand total .... 


ISO 


2,649 





• September 15th, 1887. 



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MILITARY FORCES. 129 

The origin and history of these forces is shortly as follows :<— 

/. Permanent Military Force, — S.A. Artillery. 

In 1878 an Act was passed (amended in 1880) authorising the 
formation of a standing (or permanent) Military Force of 4 officers 
and 130 men. 

This Act was not carried out until 1882, when a force of one 
officer and twenty men (Gan'ison Artillery ) was raised under the 
Act. 

This force was increased in 1885 to two officers and fifty vuen, 
under the command of Major Gordon (late Royal Artillery), and 
was slightly reduced to its present strength in 1886. 

/A Active Militia and Active Militia Reserve. 

The first organisation for a force of this nature dates from 1854, 
when a Militia Act was passed, empowering the Government to 
call a force of 2,000 men, to be ballotted for from the cifizens 
between eighteen and forty-six years of age, if sufficient volunteers 
were not forthcoming. 

No action was ever taken under this Act. 

In 1865-6 an Act was passed authorising the calling out of a 
body of not less than 540 nor more than 1,000 paid volunteers, 
this force being styled the Volunteer Military Force, at 5s. per 
day ; also a Reserve Force of 1 ,000 men at the same rate. 

This Act was amended in 1867, higher pay being given by it to 
Artillery, and a Troop of Cavalry (providing their own horses) 
being authorised. 

No men were, however, raised under these Acts for many years. 

But, in 1 877, the strong warlike feelings awakened throughout 
the colony determined the Government of the day to take active 
steps towards raising definite organised local forces under the 
above-mentioned Acts. 

Imperial officers with a small staff of drill instructors were 
obtained from England to organise a body of 1 ,000 paid volun- 
teers, raised under the Acts of 1865-6-7. These officers were in 
the first place : — Colonel Downes, R.A. (now retired with the rank 
of Major-General), as Commandant, and Major Godwin, of the 
jl03rd regiment, as his principal staff officer (D.A.A.G.). 

Amending Acts were passed in 1881-2, allowing of a maximum 
of 1,500 men of this force being raised instead of only 1,000. 

In 1885, Colonel Downes (now Secretary of Defence, Victoria), 
having previously retired from the army with the honorary rank 
I 



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130 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

of Major-General, was succeeded by the present Commandant, 
Brigadier-General Owen, Royal Artillery. ^ 

The post of D. A. A. General has been filled up by Imperial 
officers (Major Fergusson, Rifle Brigade, and Major Jervois, Royal 
Engineers), up to last year. It is now yacant, the O. C. Permanent 
Force doing the work temporarily as acting D.A.A.G. 

In 1886 a " Defence Forces Act " was passed (as drafted by 
Brigadier-General Owen), repealing all former Acts relating to the 
Militia, and the paid and unpaid Volunteer Forces, and consolidat- 
ing and amending the law as to the same. 

' By this Act the paid Volunteer Force is styled by its proper 
title, " South Australian Militia," with its Reserve, the latter con- 
sisting of men who haye already seryed one or more terms of three 
years. The minimum was raised to 850 men (in addition to re- 
engaged men) and the maximum left at 1,500. 

If called out by proclamation for actual service, the Militia may 
be ordered to. serve in the other colonies in case of danger, for the 
defence of a neighboring colony might in some cases be the most 
rational means of defending South Australia. 

The Defence Act, 1886, aimed also, especially at the simplifica- 
tion and consolidation of the laws relating to this and the other 
forces of the colonies. 

///. Reserve Militia. 

Provision for a paid force of this description, to be raised by 
ballot, of the able-bodied men of the colony in case of great 
emergency, was made in 1884, by the Act above mentioned, in 
which such force was termed *' Militia.*' 

This Act, being in many ways obsolete and not in a form easily 
applicable, was repealed by the Defence Forces Act, 1886, which 
latter provides in a practical form for the raising by ballot of a 
paid Militia Reserve on proclamation either to complete the Active 
Militia to the strength authorised to be raised, or, in case of danger, 
in addition thereto in such number as may be required. 

This Force is not in existence at present, but the colony has 
been diviied by proclamation (under the Defences Act, 1886) 
into the necessary territorial military districts, and in case of 
emergency the required machinery for raising it could easily be 
put into operation. 

IV. Volunteer Force. 

This is a purely Volunteer Force, not paid except by a capitation 
grant for such members as make themselves efficient. 



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MILITARY FORCES. 131 

The Government supplies arms and accoutrements free, as well 
as a certain proportion of ammunition. 

At various periods Volunteer corps of different descriptions have 
existed in the colony. 

In 1877 they had all been mei^ed into the '* South Australian 
National Rifle Association/* organized by an Act passed in 1878 
imder the control of a council, with provision for military 
inspection by an officer appointed for the purpose. 

In 1881 and 1882 amending Acts were passed, changing the 
Rifle Association into a Rifle Volunteer Force, and placing it under 
the command of the Military Commandant. 

By the " Defence Forces Act, 1886," the council ceased to 
exist, and the Volunteer Force as it now exists was established, 
being the former Rifle Volunteer Force with provisions tending to 
make it more complete as a military organization. 

The last mentioned Act also allowed of the raising of Mounted 
Infantry Volunteer Corps. Eight of such corps, numbering about 
300 officers and men, have already been raised under this Act. 

All matters simply appertaining to rifle contests and matches 
for this and the other forces were handed over, by the Act of 
1886, to a new "South Australian National Rifle Association," 
without any military or quasi-military functions, but somewhat on 
the model of the English N. R. Association and of similar associa- 
tions existing in other colonies. 

In the event of threatened invasion or rebellion, the Militia 
Force and the Volimteers are liable to be called out for service, 
and would then be employed under the provisions of the Imperial 
Army Act. 

The S.A.M. Forces, therefore, in addition to (I.) Head Quarters 
Staff, consist of — 

Officers. Men. 

II. A small Permanent Garrison Artillery (S.A. Artillery) of 2 45 
III. An active Militia of the following ordinary estabHshment* 

Cavalry (2 Troops, Lancers) 6 60 

Field Artillery, 1 Battery (Eight 16 Pr. Guns) .... 6 7-5 

Garrison Artillery, 1 Battery 6 120 

Infrtntry, 2 Battalions 40 680 

Medical Staff and Ambulance Corps 6 15 

64 950 
Also Active Militia Beserve, 2 companiest 6 120 

70 1,070 

• This is the suthorised establishmcn*, but it i* 'not c omplete at present. 
f This is the establishment aimed at for the present. 



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132 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



IV. Reserve Militia. 

No establishment laid down. To be raised, if necessary, in 
case of great emergency. 

V. Volunteer Force. 

Officers. Men. 

Mounted Infantry (eight companies) 14 283 

/ One organized battalion of six companies > 

an ry. j Xwenty-one companies organized in ter- ' * 

\ ritorial districts. 



95 1,650 



The Cavalry are armed with lances and M.H. carbines. 
Garrison Artillery and Infantry- with M.H. lifles. 

B. Defences. 

The land defences of Adelaide and its ports (Port Adelaide and 
Glenelg) consisting of : — 



Name of Fort. 


Annainent. 


Remsrlur. 


Glanville 


Two 20-ton lOin. R.M.L. 

guns ; two 64-pounder 

R.M.L. guns. 
Two 12-ton 9in. R.M.L. 

guns; two 80-pounder 

E.M.L. guns. 




Largs 


bricks, &c. 
Masonry, reyetment, &c. 



A new battery is also proposed to be built in the neighborhood 
of Glenelg, and to be armed with powerful breech-loading 
ordnance of the latest description, viz., two 9'2-inch breech-loading 
guns and two 6-inch breech-loading guns, all on hydro-pneumatic 
carriages. 



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THE POLICE FORCE. 188 



THE POLICE FORCE. 

One of the earliest acts of the first Legislative Council of this 
colony was to pass an Ordinance which authorised the formation of 
a Police Force. This measure was agreed to in the year 1839, and 
it was then that the force was first put on a proper basis in this 
colony. 

The colony is divided into six divisions — The Metropolitan 
Division, which includes Adelaide and the suburbs; the Port 
Adelaide Division ; the Central Division ; the South-Eastem 
Division, which has for its head-quarters Mount Gambler ; the 
Northern Division, which has for its Central station Clare, and 
which comprises the districts between Balaklava and Port Pirie 
and Yorke Peninsula; and the Far Northern Division, which 
extends from Terowie to Alice Springs, and includes what was 
formerly known as the Western Division. The force throughout 
the colony, is, of course, under the control of Commissioner 
Peterswald, but the divisions are placed under the immediate 
supervision of Inspectors Hunt, Saunders, Sullivan, Besley, and 
Woodcock, each of whom is allotted a separate division, for the 
good conduct of which he is responsible to the Commissioner of 
Police. They are assisted in their duties by Sub- Inspectors 
Doyle, Shaw, RoUison, and Field. The Metropolitan and Port 
Divisions, from the fact of their containing the largest proportion 
of the population, of course, absorb the greatest number of the 
force, and there are stationed in them, in addition to the com- 
missioned officers, 7 sergeants, 6 corporals, 35 troopers, and 160 
foot police; in the Central Division there are 1 sergeant, 2 
corporals, 41 troopers, and 12 constables ; in the South-Eastern 
Division there are I sergeant, 2 corporals, 1 7 troopers, and 4 foot 
police; iii the Northern Division 2 sergeants, 3 corporals, 29 
troopers, and 17 foot police ; and in the Far Northern Division 3 
sergeants, 2 corporals, 55 troopers, and 13 constables. In order 
to preserve the proper working of the force a system of visiting 
has been introduced by which every station in the colony is visited 
once a month by the Inspector, Sub-Inspector, or one of the 
sergeants, with the view of drilling the men, inspecting their 



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134 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

quarters, and examining the books, reports of each visit having 
to be forwarded to the head oflBce, where they are carefully 
examined. The fact which must strike the most superficial 
observer is the extreme disproportion of the numbers of the Police 
Force in this colony with those of the neighbouring provinces of 
Victoria and New South Wales, the mounted troopers alone in the 
latter colony exceeding the whole of our force by over 100 men. 
The population of South Australia, of course, is not so great as in 
those two provinces, but the exceedingly large area which has to 
be kiept under police supervision taxes the resources of the depart- 
ment to the utmost, and it is only by the most strenuous exertions 
of the officials, and the hearty co-operation of the men, that it can 
exercise a control over such an extent of territory. 

The Troopers. 
"The duties and powers of a mounted constable diflfer in no 
" respect from those of an ordinary police constable." These are 
the words used in the Police Manual when dealing with the 
work of the trooper, but the exigences of the service have 
rudely set aside this rule, and have thrust upon this branch 
of the force duties of the most multifarious character. In 
the country the moimted man has to act in many instances as 
bailiff ; he is also Crown Lands Ranger ; he has to collect jury 
lists for the Sheriff's Department ; agricultural statistics for the 
Under Secretary ; to co-operate with the Inspectors of Schools in 
seeing that all the children in the neighbourhood in which he is 
stationed are sent to school ; to keep an eye on all cases of desti- 
tution, and communicate with the Destitute Board in reference to 
them ; to destroy vermin, and give certificates to scalphunters ; 
and to carry out any other special work which a paternal Govern- 
ment may call upon him to perform. None of these duties are 
allowed in the slightest way to interfere with his ordinary police 
wx)rk. When in charge of a station he has to patrol the country 
in the neighbourhood of his post, and keep a daily journal of all 
transactions ; he has to make himself acquainted with the people 
and the physical character of the district, and keep a watch over 
suspicious persons, besides marking down a description of their 
appearance; his horses must not be neglected, and station and 
stables must be kept in a perfect state of cleanliness ; and, above 
all things, he has to be ready to start away to any part of the 
district in a case of emergency. His duty also calls upon him to 



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THE POLICE FOHCK laS 

arrest all offenders, and in the great majority of instances to act as 
Crown Prosecutor. It will thus be seen that the idea that a 
police trooper in the country districts has little to do, and even 
less responsibility, is but a popular fallacy, and it is clear that the 
public get more than an ample return for the amount of pay that 
is received by the men. The most arduous work falls upon the 
troopers in the Far Northern Division, where they have to keep a 
strict watch over the natives, and to hold themselves in readiness 
to visit any part of the interior where deaths under suspicious 
circumstances may be reported to have occurred. 

The Foot Police, 
The number of foot constables considerably exceeds that of the 
troopers, this fact being of course due to the larger proportion of 
population that they have to exercise control over. The metropo- 
litan and Port forces are under the control of Inspector Sullivan 
and Sub-Inspector Doyle and thirteen non-commissioned officers, 
who are either sergeants or corporals, and the duties of the men may 
be briefly summed up as being to protect property and to prevent 
crime. The patrolling police are divided into watches, who have 
to be on duty for eight hours during either the day or the night, as 
the case may be, and they are under the immediate supervision of 
the corporal, who is responsible for the presence of a man on his 
beat, and for the general conduct of his duties. Since 1882 the 
system of employing troopers to act as night patrols in the less 
populous parts of the city and in the suburbs, owing to the numerical 
weakness of the foot police, has been adopted, and has been found 
to answer exceedingly well. 

The Defectives 

Are under the control of a sergeant— Mr. F. J. Upton — but 
their work is so important and of such a delicate nature that they 
really are under the constant personal supervision of the Commis- 
eioner of Police himself. 

The duties of a detective are most onerous. He has to make 
himself acquainted with the members of the criminal classes; he is 
expected to know if there are any accessions to its ranks from the 
other colonies or from abroad; and he has also to note anything 
suspicious that may happen among them. If a case is put into his 
hands at the office he has to interview the complainant, and then 
from information supplied to him he sets about unravelling the 



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136 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

mjrtterj. The task is sometimes one of much difficulty, but he is 
snpposed to orerccnne Uiat and to bring the mminsl to justice. 
The records show that as a mle he is successful in his efforts, 
although there are cases in which he is foiled. Every morning the 
Commissioner holds what may be termed a Ict^ at the Detective 
Office, at whieh all the men attend. The object of this gathering 
is that they may consult together as to the cases which are then in 
coarse of inyestigation or which need inquiry. It is a fixed rule 
that should one of the detectiTcs meet some due which would be 
of use to a comrade he is expected to communicate it to him at the 
earliest possible moment, otherwise be is liable to severe censure ; 
but no interference by one man with another is permitted, as if such 
a thing were allowed it would only lead to much jealousy. 

The Police Fund. 
This fund was established by Act of Parliament, its object 
being to provide for the compensation of police officers who 
claimed to retire under the provisions of the Civil Service Act, 
or who were obliged to resign on account of ill-health, or from 
injuries received in connection with the performance of police 
duties. A portion of it was also devoted to rewarding police 
officers for meritorious services, or for reiinbursing any member of 
the force the costs and expenses which he might have incurred in 
defending himself in the discbarge of his duty, provided the Chief 
Secretary does not consider him blamable in respect to such 
action. The funds are invested from time to time in the names of 
the trustees, who are the Commissioner of Police, the Under 
Secretary, and the Under Treasurer for the time being. Previous 
to the Police Act, No. 15 of 1869-70, being passed, the fines which 
the police were entitled to were distributed annually among the 
members of the force, but now all of them are paid to the credit of 
the fund. On April 20th, 1870, there was a balance of £1,970 in 
hand in the Bank of Australasia, where the account is still kept. 
Only one claim for legal expenses was made, and now there is a 
good round sum to the credit of the fund. 



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BOTANIC GARDEN. 13T 



BOTANIC GARDEN AND ITS PROGRESS. 

(Extracts from a sketch hy Dr, Schomburgk^ Curator.) 

This being the year of South Australia's jubilee, in which it i» 
not only of public interest, but of public importance, that the 
progress made by the province in the fifty years of its existence 
should be placed on record, I have considered it advisable to 
furnish a brief sketch of the Botanic Garden from its foundation 
down to the present year. The establishment of a botanic garden 
in the neighborhood of the city was contemplated when South. 
Australia was first surveyed. A site for this garden was marked 
on the early maps of the city on the north banks of the River 
Torrens, as may be seen by reference to the origiiial plm of 
Adelaide, in the Survey Office. This site was used for the purpose 
for a few years, but nothing was done to make the Botanic Garden, 
a success until the end of the year 1854, when the matter was- 
taken in hand by the Governor, Sir Richard Graves MacDonnelL 
The preliminary arrangements were completed early in the year 
1855, and the first meeting of the Botanic Garden committed 
took place on March 5th. The first members were Mr. John 
Bentham Neales, Mr. Matthew Moorhouse, Mr. William Wyatt*. 
M.R.C.3., Mr. Charles Bonney, Mr. Joseph Hall (mayor of 
Adelaide), Mr. John Bristow Hughes, and Mr. William Young, 
husband, the last-named gentleman being elected chairman. A 
few days after the first meeting the members of the committee 
proceeded to select the present site which was determined upon 
and set aside for the Botanic Garden. It includes about forty acres, 
of land, being portion of the Government reserve, which extended 
from North-terrace to the southern bank of the River Torrens, 
and from the Company's Mill-road, on the east, to the city 
slaughterhouse, on the west, and was placed under the superin-^ 
tendence of Mr. George Francis, F.H.S. 

In July, 1856, the first report of the directors of the garden was 
published — it contained a mere official representation of the work 
that had been accomplished. In itself it was not much, but what 
had been done, had been done well. The importance of the task 



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138 . SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

which was confided to them seems at last to have been brought 
prominently before them, and in May, 1857, application was made 
to the GoTemment for a special grant of £1,000 for the erection 
of a conservatory. This was readily granted, as well as £1,000 in 
addition to the grant, £2,500, that had been made for the year, 
which was asked for to meet the expense for the succeeding year. 

The intention of the Government to erect a suitable building for 
agricultural and horticultural shows had been held in abeyance for 
a considerable time, for in May, 1859, an application was made to 
the Government for fimds to erect the building. The building 
was erected, but it was not placed under the control of the 
directors of 4he garden. It remained in the hands of the Govern- 
ment, but was eventually placed under the charge of the South 
Australian' Agricultural and Horticultural Society, which 'still 
retains it and controls its affair. 

One of the drawbacks that had been experienced by the founders 
of the garden was the want of a proper supply of water. They had 
nothing to depend upon except the ordinary rainfall and the water 
-which was collected in the lakes. In the dry weather it was a 
•costly and laborious work to draw water from the ponds and dis- 
tribute it over the large area that was then under cultivation. 
Large numbers of the plants were exotic, of a delicate nature, and 
could not properly become acclimatised without a sufficient supply 
of water to carry them through the rigors of the South Australian 
summers. The Adelaide waterworks were then almost completed, 
and the Government sanctioned an application to have the water 
laid on to the garden. These works, being constructed on the 
principle of gravitation, with constant service at high pressure, 
supplied all that was wanted, and after the connection was made 
with the water mains, a marked improvement in the condition of 
the plants became soon apparent. The supply is abundant, and of 
^ood quality, and has been the means of causing a considerable 
saving in labor. It has also rendered the acclimatisation of many 
trees, shrubs, and plants, a complete success, which, without it, 
would in many instances have been extremely difficult, and in 
others impossible. Since the water has been laid on, although in 
some years of drought the supply has been somewhat restricted, it 
has always been sufficient to keep the garden in proper condition. 

On the 5th of August, 1865, Mr. Francis forwarded his resigna- 
tion to the board. It was accepted with expressions of regret, and 
with a suitable acknowledgment of the value of his labors on behalf 



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BOTANIC GARDEN. 139 

of the establishment. Shortly after his resignation, Mr. Francis 
died, and an obelisk to the memory of the late director was erected 
in the garden, having attached to it a plate, bearing the following 
inscription : — 

X In 

remetnbranee 
of the late 

F.L.S., F.H.S., 

Firet Director of thit 

Garden, by whom it was 

planned and laid out 

in the Tear 

1855. 

A few weeks after the decease of Mr. Francis, Dr. R. Schom- 
burgk assumed charge of the garden on the 14th September, 1865. 
Shoitly after his appointment it was determined to add some 
new and useful features to some parts of the area which 
had not been brought into cultivation. An experimental garden 
was projected, besides the erection of a new and larger aviary, atid 
in addition it was proposed to form a scientific arrangement of the 
natural system of plants in another portion of the site which had 
not yet been broken up. It was further resolved to make an 
extensive rosery, and to lay out and ornament the banks of the 
creek which ran through the garden. An aquarium for aquatic 
plants, which had been in hand for some time, was reported 
complete in the middle of the year 1866. 

In the year 1867 the Sultana grape was introduced into the 
garden from the Cape of Good Hope. The statue of Niobe and 
that of Kisz's Amazon, the original of which attracted such atten- 
tion in London at the great Exhibition of 1851, were presented to 
the board of management. They had been procured by the exer- 
tions of private persons who collected subscriptions to purchase 
them. Canova's Venus was also added to the garden. The 
years 1866-7 were marked by considerable activity in the develop- 
ment of the garden. The glass and hot houses and the con- 
servatories were supplied with a new and improved system 
of warming by means of hot water pipes, and the aquarium, 
82ft. by 42ft., for the cultivation of rare aquatic plants, gave 
additional means of reproducing and bringing to perfection 
many of those which grow in other parts of the world. Much 
attention was paid to the improvement of the lakes; though 
the drainage plan adopted by the Corporation of Adelaide was 



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140 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

altered, the unproYement, such as there was, was not great. At 
the close of 1866 the number of plants in the garden was about 
5,000. An experiment was made to cultivate the tea plant, which 
there is reason to think may become acclimatised in this colony, but 
the seed failed in South Australia, and Baron von.- Mueller, the 
Director of the Botanic Gardens in Melbourne, was not more 
successful with those which he planted. The failure was due to 
the use of unsuitable seeds and our dry climate. Very large 
additions were made to the zoological collection, which now had 
grown to considerable proportions. The museum also had been 
enriched by many valuable and interesting objects, and the botanic 
library had been increased to a total of 230 volumes. 

His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh paid a visit to the 
garden when he came to the colony in the Galatea^ and he planted 
a Cedrus deodara as a memorial. 

One of the greatest achievements in the history of the garden 
has been the construction of the Victoria House — built for the 
pujrpose of accommodating the giant South American water lUy, the 
" Victoria Regia,'* as well as for the reception and cultivation of 
epiphytal and terrestrial orchids and other plants which require a 
high degree of humidity and heat. The first "Victoria** was 
planted on the 22nd July, 1867, in the tank especially made for 
its reception, 36ft. by 26ft. Its progress surpassed all expectation. 
It produced in the course of six months no less than fifty-four leaves, 
the largest of which was 6ft. 4in. in diameter — ^and forty-one flowers 
with nearly thirteen inches in diameter. The growth of the plant 
was so vigorous, that notwithstanding the large size of the tank in 
which it grew it became necessary to cut away two ort hree leaves 
every week in order to make room for the young ones as they came. 
The luttice leaf plant, Ouvirandra/ensstralis, a native of Madagas- 
car, was also planted and cultivated but did not do well. The 
house afforded an abode for r,169 other tropical plants, so that it 
proved to be an excellent investment of the funds expended upon 
it, and one of the most attractive of the objects collected in the 
garden. The ordinary expenditure upon the purchase of new plants 
was largely supplemented by donations of rare and valuable speci- 
mens contributed by private individuals, ladies and gentlemen who 
are at all times active and assiduous in increasing the general 
collection. Over 3,250 trees and shrubs were planted in the course 
of the year. The number of plants, trees, and shrubs distributed 
for the adornment of public places amounted to 8,387. 



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BOTANIC GARDEN. 141 

The experiments made with the Sultana g;mve were most suc- 
cessful, and in 1869 1,100 grafts were distributed amongst vine- 
growers, of which more than two-thirds grew well. A coUectioli 
of wine grapes from the celebrated collection in the Jar din de 
Luxembourg, which were new to this colony, throve well, and 
were distributed amongst persons who were likely to turn them 
to good account. The Guinea grass, Panicum giganteum, which 
had been introduced into Queensland, was sent to this colony by 
the Acclimatisation Society of Brisbane, and it has proved to be 
well suited to the climate of South Australia after ordinary care 
and attention have been bestowed upon it when first planted. The 
introduction of the variety of the midberry known as the Morus 
cedrona, was followed by excellent results. All the young trees 
which were planted out throve admirably, and it proved that the 
climate was well adapted to the production of a good quality of 
Taw silk, for which there is always a good demand in Europe. 

The annual report for the year 1870 dwelt upon the necessity 
that existed in the colony for the cultivation of forest trees. The 
suggestions made have not so far produced any startling or indeed 
even adequate results. The establishment, however, of a forest 
department has shown the value of the suggestions made, and the 
South Australian system of forest conservation is now most suc- 
cessful. It is not excelled in any of the Australian colonies — 
indeed. South Australia may be regarded as the only colony where 
the work of cultivating forest trees has been undertaken on a scale 
at all commensurate to the importance of the industry. In recent 
years a very large supply of the timber suitable for railway con- 
struction has been drawn from the forests, planted and maintained 
by the State, and in future years there is every probability that 
South Australia will be completely independent of extraneous 
supplies in this direction. This is one of the advantages which 
have sprung from the planting and distribution of forest trees by 
the committee of the Botanic Garden. 

The new Palm House, the construction of which had been 
determined on, was ordered in Bremen according to designs by 
Herr G. Runge^ architect, made for a gentleman named Rother- 
munde. Its dimensions were, length 100ft., width 35ft. The 
length of the rotunda and dome In the centre is 37ft. and of the 
wings 35ft. Its site was on a terraee about 6ft. above the level of 
the adjacent parts of the garden. The house, which was con- 
structed of iron and glass, was surrounded by a broad walk and a 



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142 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

grass margin, adorned with flower-beds, statues, and fountains, 
with two broad flights of steps leading to the entrance doors on 
the north and south sides. The terrace itself was 150ft. long by 
75ft. broad. In order to obtain the earth required for the terrace, 
a small lake was excavated in the creek. The erection of the 
house was commenced as soon as the material came to hand, much 
of the work being performed by the artificers and laborers em- 
ployed about the garden. The ironwork of the house was put 
together under professional supervision. The interior arrange^ 
ments are briefly these : — In the centre of the rotunda there is a 
magnificent specimen of the Latina barbonica, surrounded by a 
large group of plants with variegated leaves. These are arranged 
in a circle enclosed with gilt and painted tiles so as to give it the 
appearance of a large but elegant basket of flowers. This group is 
60ft. in circumference. East and west from this ctotre piece there 
is an avenue 6ft. wide flanked with fern trees from New Zealand, 
Port Natal, and Queensland. The eastern and western ends of 
the building terminates each in a semi-octagon. The eastern bay 
contains a basin and a foimtain surroimded by a fine collection of 
ferns, such as Dicksonia antartica, desaplula coaperi, and Leichardt- 
iana. In front of the basin some smaller kinds are planted, 
viz. : — Adiantum amabile, A. concinnum, Farley ense Gymno- 
grammas, Lomaris, Blechnums, Pteris, &c. The empty space 
between them has been planted with Lycopodiums, which now 
forms a splendid carpet. The western semi-octagon is converted 
into a grotto formed of stalactite, imported from the Black Forest, 
in Germany. It is about 10ft. high^ and 8ft. broad ; a small cas- 
cade falls from the back into a basin, over quartz and sandstone 
rocks. The top of the grotto is decorated with dracsenas, palms, 
&c., intermixed with climbing plants, the effect of which is excel- 
lent, as the creepers drop in festoons over the stalactite. The 
inner wall of the grotto is planted with philodendron, daguense, 
melanochrysum, pothos, argyTase macrophylla, &c., which, growing 
on the stalactite itself, spread their leaves most symetrically. Ihe 
walks are enclosed with ornamental borders, two feet high, made 
of bricks and cement, with a tasteful coping, and the floor is 
coyered with red and black octagon tiles, which have a very good 
effect. The brackets which support the roof and the sides of the 
wings of the house have been planted with choice climbing plants, 
which now help to shade and cool the house. As far as the Palm 
House itself is concerned, it may be regarded as being as perfect 



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BOTANIC GARDEN. 14^3 

as it can be made. It has, however, one fault, which the 
abundance of material ayailable for furnishing it, soon made 
apparent. It is too small. If it were twice the size all the space 
could be used to advantage, and it seems not impossible that it 
will be found absolutely necessary to make further provision for 
exhibiting the noble collection of plants, &c., which now are neces- 
sarily placed in situations where the public at present have no 
access to them. The Palm House was completed in 1873, and it 
forms one of the prominent objects in the garden, and its contents 
one of the most attractive. The total cost of the building has 
been about £4,000. 

The necessity for providing a new museum for the reception of 
specimens of plants and their products, models of fruits, fungi, &c., 
was pressed upon the legislature in 1877, and in that year a grant 
was sanctioned by the Parliament for a suitable building. This 
was the origin of the Museum of Economic Botany, which has now 
been constructed and furnished. Before this building was begun 
a considerable addition was made to the stovehouse, which had 
been erected in the previous year. It was 45 feet long by 25 feet 
wide, but it was extended to a length of 71 feet, so as to find room 
for 600 additional plants. Besides this a new entrance gate, of a 
highly ornamental character was placed on North-terrace. It is 
designed in good taste, and forms one of the most striking features 
of the terrace, leading, as it does, immediately to the brook walk, 
which runs down the centre of the garden. There is not a more 
elegant entrance gate to any domain in the colony. It was im- 
ported from England, and the cost was most moderate. 

The new Museum of Economic Botany was designed by Mr. 
E. J. Woods, Architect-in-Chief, and built under his superintend- 
ence. It is in the Greek style, and the first of the kind in South 
Australia. It is 104 feet long by 40 feet wide, and 25 feet high. 
It is entered through a portico reached by a flight of six steps. It 
is lighted by six windows on the north, and the same number on 
the feouth side of the building, and by three in the western end. 
These are all eight feet high, and proportionally wide, so that the 
light is excellent. The ceiling is beautifully decorated. Between 
the windows the show cases are placed ; these are fixed at right 
angles to the windows, and are nine feet in height, thus both sides 
of the cases can be made available. Under the windows, and in 
the recesses formed by these cases, other covered dkses in the form 
of tables are placed lengthwise, and two rows of show cases rest- 



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144 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

ing on tables extend down the centre of the room from east to 
west. At the eastern end of the building a separate room has 
'been set aside for the Herbarium. I'he plants which compose it 
are contained in portfolios arranged in shelves, and each portfolio 
is labelled on the outside with the orders and genera it contains, 
4910 that any particular genus which may be wanted can be found 
without difficulty. 

The objects collected in this museum are of the most varied and 
useful as well as of an interesting nature. No justice can be done to 
the labor and pains by means of which the museum has been 
finished, nor to the scientific and intrinsic value of these specimens. 
A mere catalogue of its contents would convey a very inadequate 
notion of what it really is. It may be stated that a more instruc- 
tive and attractive exhibition of the products of the vegetable 
kingdom, and of the uses to which they are applied, cannot be 
found in any other colony in Australia. 

There are many thousands of objects arranged in the museum, 
and they are continually on the increase. The value and attrac- 
iiTeness of this museum is probably greater than that of any other 
part of the garden. 

The ground surrounding the museum has been laid out in lawns 
and flower parterres which are designed in the Greek style in 
order to harmonise with the building itself. Statues, which repre- 
sent the four seasons, have been placed on the lawn surrounding 
it. The collection in the Economic Museum has robbed the old 
museum of none of its valuable features, the cases and shelves of 
that building being well filled, and offering in their own way much 
for the amusement and instruction of visitors. The Economic 
Museum was opened to the public in 1880. 

From that year down to the present time there has been little 
undertaken in the development of the garden which requires 
special mention. Small improvements in various directions are 
continually going on, which to the constant visitors do not attract 
much attention. A few months absence, however, soon shows 
what has been done in the interim, for although the garden itself 
does not now admit of extension, the constant additions and small 
alterations that are made to and in the portions of the area which 
are already occupied show that the work of improvement and 
ornamentation is increasing. 

To the outsi&e observer the garden looks merely as if much 
money and pains had been devolved to the laying out and arrange- 



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BOTANIC GARDEN. 14&- 

ment of extensiye pleasure-grounds, and that the Govemmenir 
which supplied the funds had been laudably and liberally solicitous- 
for the instruction and amusement of the inhabitants of Adelaide- 
and its visitors. • 

This, perhaps, is the least praise that can be bestowed on the 
establishment, because it is the most common ; but the establish- 
ment of the Botanic Garden, whatever might have been the original 
inception of its founders, has developed higher aims and more 
solid results than could have been expected from the modest scale* 
on which the first operations were undertaken. If the very 
moderate grants of public money which have annually been voted 
for the use of the committee which imdertakes from year to year 
the general responsibility, are considered — if the fluctuations in 
the prosperity of the colony are duly weighed, and the difficulties^^ 
of contending with trying and uncertain seasons are fairly regarded 
— it will not be denied that an amount of success has attended the- 
exertions of those who have been intrusted with the care and 
control of the garden, which could scarcely have been anticipated. 

This, so far, is a matter of congratulation to the colony, but it 
does not rest at that point. The garden has not only formed a 
centre of cultivation, but it has been the source from which reliable 
and valuable information has been disseminated over the whole 
colony. The reports which have been published from year to year 
have been to some extent taken up by details which related to the 
actual work performed in forming and extending the garden, but 
the greater portion of those reports has consisted of descriptions of 
new forest trees, shrubs, and plants (medicinal and otherwise), 
vegetables of various kinds, grasses, cereals, orchids, and plant 
flowers useful for making perfumes. These descriptions have been 
supplemented by directions as to the methods of cultivation, the- 
times of planting, the soil and climate best suited to their habits 
and constitution. Such descriptions, followed as they were by 
timely and judicious distributions of the seeds, trees, &c., have 
been the means of diffusing knowledge of the most valuable and 
varied character, and have brought to the agriculturists, market 
gardeners, and others, a knowledge of many resources of the highest 
value. Up to the present time, the really useful work that has 
been performed in this way has been great, though the results are- 
not quite so apparent as they might have been expected to be. 
This may be attributable in some measure, to the very long cycle 
of dry and otherwise unfavorable seasons which have been so in- 



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146 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

jurious to every kind of agricultural pursuit. The serious com- 
mercial depression has also contrihuted its share in restraining 
experimental productions, because, with a restricted money market 
and scarcity of capital, new enterprises have necessarily been kept 
in the background. The real success of the gardens in all respects, 
encourages those who manage its affairs to hope that every future 
year will be able to furnish evidence of progress, both in the garden 
and in the colony, even greater than that recorded in the year of 
jubilee. 

It is entirely due to the efforts made through the management of 
the garden, that the public attention has been so thoroughly 
awakened to the advantages and profits which may be derived from 
the systematic cultivation of the wattle. A small pamphlet on this 
subject has been printed and circulated by this means. Before 
this, mention had frequently been made of the subject, es- 
pecially in a paper read before the Chamber of Manufactures on 
*' Forest Tree planting." In the colony of Victoria, the matter 
vfBs considered so important that the Government appointed a 
board especially to inquire into it. The board collected a vast deal 
of valuable information, which has been made public. The know- 
ledge and suggestions circulated by means of the directorate of the 
South Australian Botanic Gardens, has been to promote and stimu- 
late the planting of the wattle on a large scale by private persons, 
and more recently the matter has been taken in hand by the 
Government, which is now about to establish wattle plantations in 
various parts of the colony. The full effects of the efforts now 
called forth to establish the wattle industry cannot at the present 
moment be properly estimated. A few years must elapse before 
substantial results can be ascertained. It is certain, however, that 
a valuable industry has been established which will render one 
branch of agricultural cultivation in the colony a solid investment, 
instead of a speculation depending upon the uncertainty of the 
early seasons. 

Another matter which goes to show the great value of the garden 
as a means of public instruction, which should not remain unnoticed, 
is a sketch such as this. Other productions have been introduced 
and distributed by the director, and thus brought into consideration 
in South Australia. Few except those who have cattle to provide 
for can estimate the value of some of the grasses which have been 
brought here through the Botanic Garden. Some, it is true, have 
not succeeded ; others, however, have answered all the expectations 



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BOTANIC GARDEN. 147 

formed of them, especially the various kinds of sorghums or millets, 
including the hroomcom, which has been introduced from Califor- 
nia. All kinds stand the dry weather and hot winds well, and 
provide a nutritious summer fodder. Previous to their introduction ' 
there was only one variety of the sorghum grown in the colony, 
known as the *' Farmer's Friend." 

A most important addition to our wheat plants has been made 
by the introduction of "DuToit's" wheat, otherwise known as 
African bearded wheat. The accounts which have been received of 
the success of this cereal are most satisfactory, and it is now recog- 
nised as the most reliable of the varities of wheat which the farmers 
possess. This variety was brought here by the Government and 
distributed by the garden, which had called attention to its great 
Talue. 

Several important and useful varieties of fibre plants have been 
■experimented on and distributed, though, probably owing to the 
general scarcity of water, their cultivation has not reached any large t 
•dimensions. 

It would occupy too much space to enumerate all the plants — 
medicinal, dye, and others — which have been placed at the disposal 
of the farming industries through the agency of the garden. A 
beginning has, however, been made, and it is hoped that the 
efforts of the direction to encourage cultivation will bear sub- 
stantial fruit in the near future. The results so far as they have 
been ascertained may not at present be great, but they have fully 
established the fact, that for successful agriculture there is no 
longer any necessity for farmers to rely, as many of them have done, 
upon the uncertainty of the cereal products in such dry seasons as 
we have recently passed through. 



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148 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



NATURAL PRODUCTS. 

Cereals. 

The great extent of land in South Australia suitable for the 
production of cereals made wheat raising one of our chief indus- 
tries. It was engaged in by many who, without any pre>'ious 
knowledge or training, took up our \irgin soil, and preferred to 
cultivate that crop which gave the least trouble to settlers inade- 
quately provided with implements suited to the climatic conditions 
of a new country. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, they suc- 
ceeded in making for themselves comfortable homesteads, and 
gathering around them the luxuries, as well as the comforts and 
pleasures of life. 

From ^he establishment of the colony until 1850, when the 
first exports of wheat were made, only sufficient was grown to 
supply the wants of the inhabitants; but in the year 1845, Ridley's 
Adelaide stripper revolutionized the method of reaping, and 
enabled our farmers to indefinitely extend the area of appropriate 
land suitable for wheat-culture. Later on, the stump-jumping 
plough and the muUenizer further materially assisted in the 
process of extracting from the soil, with a limited expenditure of 
time and labor, a maximum of profit, until our exports for 1886, 
which may be considered a very low average year, because of the 
drought, were of the value of £2,205,249, including — Barley, 
£424 ; bran and pollard, £20,351 ; flour, £585,640 ; oats, £1,628 ; 
wheat, £1,576,873; meal, £141 ; hay and chaff, £20,192. 

Owing to the dry, sunny climate of South Australia, the per- 
centage of gluten in our wheat is much greater than in that of 
any other grown, either in the Australian colonies or India; and 
hence Adelaide wheat fetches the highest price in the market. But 
the markets of the world have undergone much change during the 
last fifty years. We are now in daily or hourly communication with 
each other by means of railways, steamships, or the electric tele- 
graph lines ; therefore, if there be local deficiencies in one part of 
the world, they are quickly supplied from the surplus stores 



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NATURAL PKODUCTS. 149 

available elsewhere. Hence, for the kst few years, a uniform 
price in the London markets has been steadily maintained, and I 
see no reason for afiticipating a prospect of permanent increase in 
the market price of wheat. Competition is so keen through- 
out the world, and all the surplus supplies find their way to 
England from the wheat-growing districts of America, India, and 
Australia, from whence they are distributed throughout Western 
Europe, that it would only be by a total failure of the crops in one 
or other of the grain-producing coimtries that an immediate 
advance in price could take place. 

This competition, however, has had a beneficial effect upon our 
agriculturists. Adversity has forced them to rely no longer exclu- 
sively on wheat-raising, but to combine mixed agriculture with 
stock and dairy farming, fruit culture, and vine growing. 

Oats are grown in very limited quantities where the climate is 
cooler and moister than the average. Seldom for sale in the 
Australian markets, but principally for use as hay» and for feeding 
purposes. 

Barley yields very good crops of excellent quality, but there is 
not enough grown to supply the wants of the local brewers. 
The barley from Kangaroo Island is in good repute, and most 
of our brewers have encouraged its production with such success 
that soon we hope to be independent of importations. 

Maize grows luxuriantly at the north ; and at the Hergott bore, 
where irrigation has been applied, some splendid specimens were 
grown; but in any part of the colony where water is plentiful, 
there feed is abundant. 

In the south-east comer of the province, where the drained 
lands reclaimed from the marshes are planted with root crops, 
nearly 100,000 acres have been sold at an average of £2 per acre. 
In the Mount Gambler district potatoes are grown, averaging from 
nine to thirteen tons per acre. Beetroot, mangold, and all root 
fodder plants thrive luxuriantly south* of Adelaide; and, under the 
beneficent system of water conservation and irrigation, all kinds of 
fodder crops can be raised throughout the settled districts of the 
north. 

The ignorance which had existed of the capabilities of our 
colony is exemplified in a most remarkable manner by the facta 
which have come to light relative to the so-called *' desert." That 
calumny was effectually cleared away during the construction of 
the overland railway line, and just lately there has been shown in 



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150 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Adelaide specimens of several kinds of cereals, grown by the 
officers of the Woods and Forests Department, at a place which 
" so-called " experts stated would not bear a blade of grass* 

The first exhibit on the right of the main entrance to the 
Exhibition building is one most interesting and instructive. Within 
the compass of a few feet are shown a formation of wheat, beans, 
peas, millet, and maize ; the supports of the superstructure being 
made from woods grown on Yorke Peninsula. Upon these rest 
cases containing dried fruits, currants, raisins, figs, prunes, &c. ; 
specimens of the finest Brandis almonds grown in the colony ; pure 
and delicious transparent olive oil, silk cocoons, fleeces of wool, 
bimches of grapes, specimens of the carob bean, all tending to 
prove the truth of the opinion expressed by the Executive Com- 
missioner of the Exhibition, Sir Samuel Davenport, that "We 
*' live in a country flowing mth milk and honey, wine and oil, and 
" that it is our own fault if we do not cultivate the gifts the gods 
'* provide us." Another eminent authority. Sir Robert Dalrymple 
Ross, Speaker of the House of Assembly, states that " Within 
" sight of Adelaide city, on the Mount Lofty Ranges, there is 
" room for a million of souls to obtain a comfortable living." 

Olive Oil. 

The Olive has for a long time been grown near Adelaide. As far 
back as 1851, samples of the oil were shown at the great Exhibition 
in London, and obtained honorable mention. At Philadelphia in 
1876, at Paris in 1878, at Sydney in 1880, at Melbourne in 1881, 
at Calcutta in 1883, and at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition 
last year, olive oil from South Australia invariably carried o£E 
the premier prize. At present the price it fetches per gallon is 
10s., and most of the production is sold for distribution in this and 
the adjoining colonies. 

Honey, 

In South Australia bee-keeping has become an important in- 
dustry. Our extensive forests of eucalypti growing on the ranges 
near Adelaide favors its development, and much assistance was 
given by the Chamber of Manufactures in importing Ligurian bees 
to be kept at Kangaroo Island, from^ which Australian bee-keepers 
can draw their stocks. The report of the expert at the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition states, " Some fine samples of honey were 
'^ exhibited in the court of this colony." 



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NATURAL PRODUCTS. 151 



Silk, 



The following information is extracted from the report of the 
expert appointed by the Royal Commission for the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition, Thomas Wardle, Esq., F.C.S., states — 

" An excellent exhibit of white cocoons was made by Dr. W» 
'' Lennox Cleland, Resident Medical Officer of the Parkside Lunatie 
*' Asylum. These cocoons had been sent oyer in considerable 
'^ quantity, and I imdertook to have them reeled, and the resulting- 
'^ raw silk made into silk fabrics. I obtained 31bs. 14ozs. of raw 
'' silk, and Messrs. J. Birchenough and Sons have thrown and 
"manufactured it into a beautiful series of handkerchiefs, &c., 
" and have sent me the following report of it:— 'The silk reeled 
at Leek from Australian cocoons is on the whole very satis- 
' factory. As a winding silk it is superior to China silk, and 
' about equal to a good Japan or Italian. Its elasticity is not 
' so good as the last two classes of silk, and in places the thread 
has a tendency to split, and where this occurs the result is- 
'' ' disappointing. There seems to be an absence of gum, which 
" ' will account in some degree for this slight fault. The silk is- 
"* clean, and would be passed as a good silk for a throwster, 
there being an absence of slubs, knibs and dirt, which is- 
' greatly in its favour. The general sizes seems to be 16 to 20 
' deniers, but it will range from about 10 to 24 deniers, single 
thread. As to its value, it is difficult to assess it until it ha» 
" * passed through every process ; but to judge from the present 
" ' appearance and values, it should be worth about 20s. per lb.' 
" The cocoons were reeled by the«French reeler who was sent over 
*' to the Exhibition by the kindness of the Chamber of Conmierce 
" at Lyons, through the instrumentality of Monsieur J. Dusuzeau,. 
" Directeur of the Laboratoire de Sericiculture of Lyons. After 
*' the close of the Exhibition the reeler came down to Leek and 
" reeled the cocoons in the adjoining house to my own, where I 
"had daily opportunities of observing the work. The reeling- 
" machine used was similar to that employed at the Exhibition, 
" but of a more simple and economical construction. I have had 
" it made to send out to India as a Government pattern, and would 
" strongly recommend its adoption to ihose in Australia who wish 
'^to reel cocoons. It contains all the elements of the best 
"appliances of Italy, the use of which I have studied, but so 
" simplified as to be capable of cottage use, for which purpose ixk 



u c 



(( ( 



cc c 



(( ( 



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152 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



'' India I have designed it in order to give so agreeable an occu- 
'''pation to the women there whose caste customs of almost 
-** perpetual indoor life are well known. 

*' Many particulars respecting this method of reeling, and of the 
** silks of silk-producing countries will be found in my Descriptive 
'** Catalogue of the Indian Silk Culture Court above referred to. 

*^ The following is the result of my laboratory examinations of 
'*^ the cocoons before-mentioned, exhibited in the South Australian 
-" Court :— 

Species of cocoon and Colony in which it is produced, — Mulberry-fed 
«ilkwonn cocoon (Bombyx mori)y South Australia. ^ 

Description of cocoon,— -Yovmi elliptical-oblong with slight medial de- 
gression. Color: white. Texture: compact. Beeling: good. Bave 
^oomposed of two cylindrical structureless brins. 

Weight of cocoon, — 0'366 gramme. 

Dimensions of cocoon, — 35 x 16 millimetres. 

Length of have reeled, — 497 metres. 

Weight of have reeled, — 0*162 gramme. 

Titre of bave, milligrammes per 600 metres, — 163 milb'grammes. 

"Titre of have, in deniers, — 3*06. 

Jdean diameter of tov^.— 0*0473 millimetre. 

Mean elasticity, — 24*07 per cent. 

Mean tenacity, — 13*43 grammes. 

Percentage of silk reeled from the cocoon, — 44*26 per cent. 

" Trials of the have — (i.) 10 meters from the end at the outside 
*** of the cocoon; (it.) at the middle of the cocoon; and (m) 10 
"^ meters from the end at the inside of the cocoon. 



Diameter of bare in ten-thousandths of ) 
a millimetre • j 

Fercentag|e of elasticity. Average of sii ) 
estimations ] 

Tenacity or breaking strength in grammes. \ 
Average of six estimations \ 



I. 


II. 


483 


608 


25 


27*5 


13*6 


15-4 



III. 

427 
19*7 
11*3 



height in milligrammes of ekchN 
100 metres of have reeled from i 
the cocoon, commencing at the > 
end of the have which is at the I 
outside of the cocoon / 



I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 

r97 metresi 
remained, i 


30 


32 


36 


37 


< weighing > 
1 27 milU- 
L grammes. J 



VI. 



** I must not conclude my notice of this Court without mentioning 
** my indebtedness to Sir Samuel and Lady Davenport for their 
^* great courtesy and kindness during the Exhibition, and the 



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NATURAL PRODUCTS. 15S 

"affability with which I was always received when making 
"inquiries for this report. The interest they take in silk culture 
" is such that South Australia pramises one day to be an important 
" silk-producing colony. 

" Whether all the circumstances which are favourable to such a 
** consummation offer sufficient inducement to emigrants acquainted 
'* with sericiculture I am unable to decide, but I think the subject 
*' well worth consideration, especially as the objection which I 
" heard put forward so frequently in 1878 at Paris, I have 
" fortunately been able to meet. It was then said that although 
" the climate and country were quite favorable to the culture of 
*' the. silkworm, labor was scarce and too dear for its application to 
" cocoon-reeling to be thought of. This objection also held good 
*' with regard to other parts of Australia. 

" Feeling this obstacle in itself to be insuperable, I set about 
" casting for a remedy, and my visit to India supplied one, which 
" was as follows : — Australia need not trouble itself with cocoon- 
*' reeling at all, but should export the cocoons as raw produce to 
*' the reeling districts of Bengal, where they can either be reeled 
" by commission, or, what is better, bought outright. I found in 
** Bengal a non-continuous state of silk-reeling owing to the bunds 
*' or cocoon harvests haying their respective reeling seasons imme- 
** diately following them, notably after the July or rainy bund, and 
" the November, or cold-weather bund. 

" Briefly, the natives are only occupied six months in the year, 
** and they would gladly welcome arrivals of cocoons from Australia, 
*' or other sources, to give them continuous employment. 

" I have it on the authority of the extensive firm of Messrs. 
*' Robert Watson & Co., through their agent and director Mr. 
*' Morey, who has the management and control of their numerous 
*' filatures in the Rajshahi district, where a considerable proportion 
" of the population is employed in cocoon-reeling, that it would be 
" a very great help indeed if they could be supplied with cocoons 
" to keep their factories or filatures going all the year round, instead 
** of about six months only out of the twelve as at present. 

" Mr. Morey informed me that importing cocoons from China 
*' could be made to pay, and that their factories could take all the 
*'' cocoons which the colonies could produce for some time, as the 
** very best qualities of silk could be reeled from them. 

" As regards the value of cocoons reared in the colonies, at the 
** present prices of raw silk — Italian 22s. fid. per lb., China 15s. 6d. 



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154 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

"per lb., Bengal 158. per lb., French 228. 6d. per lb., Japan 198. 
" 6d. per lb. — it would not be less than 2s. 6d. per lb. in the dried 
" state. 

" The best arrangement would probably be to pay so much per 
"lb. for the silk, allowing the reelers a fair profit; but, at any rate, 
" there would always be a market for the cocoons, the chrysalides 
"having been first killed, and the cocoons well dried before 
" packing. 

" For two parcels of cocoons, which I have had to buy from 
" Marseilles for the Royal Commission of the Colonial and Indian 
" Exhibition, for the unbroken continuance of the cocoon-reeling 
" in the Indian Silk Culture Court, I had to pay os. per lb. 

" Silkworm eggs can be easily obtained from any of the countries 
" the price of whose raw silk is above quoted. 

" The yield of raw silk from lib. of cocoons is about 1 Joz. 

This information, coming from such an eminent authority, ought 
to call attention to the importance of sericulture in our colony ; 
and the further extract from Bairon von Mueller may be of advan- 
tage to those desirous of engaging in silk culture, an industry 
most suitable for ladies and children. 

" Superior varieties of mulberry can be grafted with ease on 
"ordinary stock. Jf. Indica, L., M. macrophylla, Moretti, M. 
'* Moreitiana, Jacq., M. Chinesis^ Bertol., M. lati/olta, Poir., 
" M» Italica^ Poir., M, Japonica^ Nois, M. JByzantina, Sieb., M, 
" nervosa, Del., M, pumila, Nois., M. toriuosa, Audib., as well as- 
" M. Constantinopolitana, Lamarck, with which, according to Prof. 
" C. Koch, is identical M: mullxcaulis of PeiTOttet, are merely 
"forms of M, alba, to which probably also M» Tatar ica, L., and 
" M, pahularia, Jacquin, belong. The variety known as M, Indica 
" produces black fruits. The raising of mulberry trees has recently 
" assumed enormous dimensions in C^alif omia, where between seven 
" tod eight millions were planted since 1870. The process of 
"rearing the silk insect is simple, and involves no laborious 
" exertions. The cocoons, after they have been properly steamed, 
" dried, and pressed, readily find purchasers in Europe, the price 
" ranging according to quality from Ss. to 6s. per lb. The eggs of 
"the silk moth sell at a price from 16s. to £2 per oz. In 1870, 
" Japan had to provide two millions of ounces of silk ova for 
"Europe, where the worms had extensively fallen victims to 
** disease. As an example of the profit to be realised, a Califomian 
" fact may be cited, according to which £700 were the clear gaiik 



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NATURAL PRODUCES. 155 

"from 3 1 acres, the working expenses having been £93. The 
" Commissioner of Agriculture of the United States has estimated 
" that, under ordinary circumstances, an acre should support from 
"700 to 1,000 mulberry trees, producing, when four years old,. 
" 5,000lbs. of leaves fit for food. On this quantity of leaves can 
" be reared 140,000 worms, from which ova at a net profit ranging 
" from £80 to £240 per acre will be obtained by the work of one 
" person. Mr. C. Brady, of Sydney, thinks the probable proceeds- 
"of silk culture to be from £60 to £150 for the acre. The dis- 
" crepancies in calculations of this kind are explained by differences- 
" in clime, soil, attention, treatment, and also rate of labor. 

"The results of Mr. Brady's experience on the varieties of 
" Morus alba are as follows : — In the normal form the fruits are 
" white, with a purplish tinge more or less deep ; the bark is pale ; 
" the leaf is also of a pale hue, not very early, nor very tender, nor 
" very abundant. It may be grown on moist ground so long as- 
*' such is drained, or it will live even on poor, loose, gravelly soil, 
"bordering on running water. The Cevennes variety is a free 
" grower, affords a large quantity of leaves, though of rather thick 
" consistence ; all varieties of the Morus^ Bomhyx like these leav^s^ 
" whether young or old ; it is also called the rose-leaved variety ; 
" the silk which it yields is substantial in quantity, and also good 
" in quality ; it does best on rich dry slopes. The bushy Indian 
" variety has a fine leaf of a beautiful green, which, though light 
" in weight, is abundantly produced ; it can be cut back to the 
" stem three or four times a year ; the leaves are flat, long, and 
" pointed, possess a fine aroma, and are relished by every variety 
" of the ordinary silk insect, though all do not thrive equally well 
" on it ; the silk derived from this variety is excellent, but not 
"always so heavy in quantity as that produced from the rosy 
" variety ; it prefers rich, low lying bottoms, is a greedy feeder, 
"but may thus be made to cover an extraordinary breadth of 
" alluvial or manured land in a marvellously short space of time. 
" At Sydney Mr. Brady can provide leaves from this Indian variety^ 
" all through the year by the removal of cuttings, which will strike 
" their roots almost at any season ; it also ripens seeds readily, and 
"should be kept at bush size ; it requires naturally less space than 
'^ the other kinds. A fourth variety comes from North China ; it 
" has heart-shaped, flat, thickish leaves, which form very good food 
" for the silkworm. Mr. Brady, as well as Mr. MarteUi, recom- 
" mend very particularly the variety passing under the name of 



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156 SOUTH AUSTRALIA* 

** Morus muJticauUa for the worms in their earliest stages. The 
" former recommends the Cape variety also ; the latter wishes 
** likewise the variety called Morus Morettiana to be used, on 
'* account of its succulent nutritious foliage, so well adapted for 
*• the insect while yet very young, and also on account of producing 
** the lai'gest amount of food within the shortest time. The Manilla 
** variety, above mentioned as Morus multicaulisj comes into bear- 
*^ ing several weeks earlier than most other sorts, and should 
" therefore be at hand for early hatched worms. An excellent 
" phytological exposition of the numerous varieties of the white 
•" mulberry tree is given in Be Candolle's Prodomus, xvii. 238-245 
"(1873)." 

Since the foregoing appeared in print I have been informed by 
Dr. Clelandthat:— 

" As carrying out Mr, Thomas WardWs suggestions respecting 
*^ India as being a likely and suitable market, you will be pleased 
*^ to hear that communications have been opened up with certain 
•** leading people in Calcutta by Messrs, Harrold Bros,, and that I 
*^ have promised my next year's crop of cocoons as an experimental 
^* shipment. These will be -dispatched next January "• 

Waffle Bark. 

The exports of wattle bark during the last ten years have 
amounted to £421,078. In 1886 the value of shipments amounted 
to £51,176. Over the hill sides, in the plains, on the Murray 
£ats, and in fact all over South Australia, the indigenous wattle 
<»n be grown, and become a source of revenue for our farmers, 
squatters, and others interested in the development of the country. 
The poorest land upon the hill sides of Adelaide ranges will well 
repay any attention which may be given to it. 

For the information of South Australian growers and shippers, 
I have extracted the following from the report of the expert 
appointed by the Royal Imperial Commissioners for the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition at London last year : — 

'^They have an admirable tanning agent in the bark of the 
' *^ acacia mimosa, or ' wattle,' as it is spoken of in the country. 
''^The leather produced by this bark is some of it of bright 
** color and high excellence, and large quantities are sent to 
''England, where it sells as readily as the production of their 
''' tanyards. The black wattle bark is the richest in tanning pro- 



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NATURAL PRODUCTS. 157 

" perties, and the best is that shipped from Adelaide, where the 
*' chopping, grinding, packing, &c., is as well done as it is capable 
" of being. 

" The manufacture of extract from both the wood and bark of 
" the mimosa was mentioned by one of the representatives of the 
" Australian courts as having been commenced, and if successfully 
" carried out, it might be the means of economising freight on 
" such a long sea voyage. Otherwise tanners in this country are 
" very well satisfied with the bark, whether chopped or ground, 
" sent by the best known shippers ; and the skilful combination of 
" this most valuable tanning agent with English oak bark, myra- 
" bolanes, and valonea, has enabled experienced tanners to produce 
" sole leather little inferior to that made from pure oak bark, in 
" half the time, and at a material reduction of the cost of tanning 
" compared with that of the old system." 

The Conservator of Forests, Mr. J. E. Brown, estimated — 

*' Profits to he derived' from Wattle cultivation. — We now come 
" to consider the most important subject of this report, namely, 
" that of the profits which may be derived from the cultivation of 
" the wattle tree. 

" At the distances apart which I recommend the trees to be 
" grown — namely, 4ft. to 6ft. — there will be an average of 1,200 
" trees to the acre. In order, however, to make due allowance for 
" blanks, I shall base my calculations upon there being 1,000 only 
" to each acre. 

" At the present time, bark is selling at £7 10s. and £8 per ton, 
" and there is every chance of a still higher price being obtained 
" for it during the next few years. Still, to be on the safe side, 
" I will put its value down at £5 per ton only. 

" I give £5 per ton as the probable yield per acre. That this is 
'• a low estimate will be admitted, when it is considered that this 
" only allows for lOlbs. of bark to be taken from each tree. 

" I shall now give a tabulated statement of the probable revenue 

" and expenditure during a period of seven years, in connection 

*' with a wattle plantation, formed upon 100 acres of land specially 

"purchased for the purpose, and upon which wattles had not 

"previously grown." 

Revenue. 

To value of property increased and improvements, say 400 
" " 600 tons of bark at £5 per ton 2,600 

£2,900 



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158 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

EXPEKDITURE. 

£ t. d. 

By purcluue of 100 acres, at £Z per acre 300 

** cost of substantial fence all .round, fay 1^ miles, at 

£60 per mile '. 76 

** plouf^hing 100 acres, at Ss. per acre 40 

'' cost of SOlbs. of seed, at Is. per lb 1 10 

'Mrtbor sowing the seed in rows, say at OS. per acre.. 26 

'^ scarifpng between the rows twice, at 48. per acre. . 20 
" thinnmg and pruning for two years, at 10s. per acre 

per annum 100 

** forming firebreaks during the third to seventh year, 

say £5 per annum 26 

** sundries 50 

" interest on money expended during the seven 

years, say 280 

*^ cost of stripping 60u tons of bark, at 25s. per ton. . C26 ' 

** cost of carting same to market, at U's. per ton .... 250 

Balance, being clear profit 1,108 

£2,900 

Industrial Fibres. 

The fibres sent by the Government of South Australia to the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition were analysed by that eminent 
chemist, G. F. Cross, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn Fields, whose report 
was so satisfactory that the Executive Commissioner, Sir Samuel 
Davenport, instructed his firm to test the samples in a practical 
manner, for the purpose of finding out those natural products 
which, from their abundance, might be adapted to the require- 
ments of the colony. I append the report, as follows : — 

" The South Australian Commissioners exhibited two fibrous 
*' substances— *Mullett's' fibre, the long sword-shaped leaves of 
*• the Lepidosperma gladiatum^ and ' Porcupine Grass.' 

** These fibres on analysis yielded the following percentages of 
** cellulose respectively : 34-4 and 36-5. The Lepidosperma ex- 
" amined in transverse section under the microscope, was found to 
*• contain a fair proportion of fibrovascular bundles, of which the 
*• constituent bast fibres have an average length of 1*5-2*5 mm. 

** These results were such as to justify a paper-making experi- 
•* ment, for which, with commendable foresight, the Commissioners 
** had brought a sufficient quantity. The raw material was sent to 
*' the well-known paper mill of Ivlr. E. Joynson, of St. Mary Cray, 
*• Kent, he having kindly volunteered to personally superintend the 
** work of converting it into paper. The substance was * pulped ' 
*' by the process of boiling, at 401bs. pressure, with basic sulphite 
*• of soda (20 per cent.) ; afterwards washed, bleached, and beaten 
^' in the ordinary way. A small portion was made into sheets on a 



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NATURAL PRODUCTS. 159 

" band frame, and yielded a paper of a slight yellowish colour, 
" which left nothing to be desired in point of strength. 

" The bulk was run on the machine, the operation being wit- 
'* nessed by Sir Samuel Davenport and Mr. Scott. Here also an 
" excellent paper was produced, exceptionally strong, and taking a 
** good finish in the glazing rolls. The result was altogether 
" satisfactory, and Mr. Joynson asked to be supplied with sufficient 
*' raw material for making a ton of paper, in order farther to de- 
*' monstrate its paper-making qualities. This request has been 
" complied with, and a quantity of three tons is now on its way. 
" It is intended to make this into paper for exhibition in Adelaide 
*' this year. The Porcupine Grass having been found on preliminary 
" investigation to be more nearly allied to the well-known Esparto, 
" was pulped on the usual plan of treating the latter, viz., boiling 
*' under pressure with caustic soda solution. The grass, however, 
" having been collected by amateurs, and therefore with a plentifid 
*' admixture of roots and seeds, yielded a very unpromising mixture. 
" By carefully picking over a small portion, and beating it in a 
" model beater, after bleaching, some excellent pulp was obtained 
"and made into -sheets on the frame. In this way the paper- 
" making qualities of the fibre was satisfactorily demonstrated. 

" In these two raw materials, theiefore, the colony has a supply 
" of good paper-making fibre : their value will of course be 
" determined very much by local considerations. The papers 
" which they make are similar to those obtained from Adansonia 
" and Esparto respectively, the yield being some 10* 15 percent. 
" less. This will convey a better idea of their market value than 
" an attempted money estimate, which would probably be mis- 
" leading. 

Fresh Fruits, 

The Commissioners appointed to arrange for the representation 
of this colony at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London 
last year wisely expended several himdred pounds in making 
experiments to show whether our surplus stock of fresh fruits 
could be exported with profit to the grower. 

The authorities in London erected a market within the Exhibi- 
tion, and there each shipment, as it arrived, was placed and sold. 
Hundreds of thousands of English people realised for the first time 
that Australia was a country so extensive that all the fruits of a^ 
temperate cUmate, and most of those of a tropical or semi-tropical 



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160 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

character, were grown here ; and the fruitgrowers of South Aus- 
tralia saw the possibility of an unlimited extension of orchards 
nestling amongst the ranges near Adelaide, the produce of which 
would , always command a profitable market in the Old World. 
There are upwards of 600 market gardeners with holdings ranging 
from three or four acres up to fifty, of which the united acres^e 
exceeds 12,000; but in view of the successes which attended the 
experimental shipments of apples, pears, and oranges last year, it 
may confidently be looked for that the vast area of uncultivated 
lands lying within easy distance of a shipping port will rapidly be 
planted with fruit trees which will come into bearing, the produce 
of which can be delivered in London at a season when there is no 
other fresh fruit available of a similar kind. 

Judging from the open market returns, as seen at the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition, the average price realised for a case of 
apples or pears is 25s., provided the fruit is properly selected, 
packed, and shipped in cool chambers. The report of the expert 
states : 

" This colony made a ver)^ successful show of fresh fruits. Its 
" grapes, apples, and pears were of special interest, not so much 
" for what they were in themselves, as for the possibilities which 
" they foreshadowed, and the promise which they held out of an 
" extensive and prosperous fruit trade between the Australian 
" colonies and the mother country. The resources of civilization 
" in this instance are evidently being directed to a comparatively 
" unworked field ; and there is no reason why this trade' in fruit 
" should not grow into permanent benefit alike to producer and 
" consumer. The special points wherein some shipments failed 
" have already been pointed out by Mr. D. Tallerman, who had 
" charge of the Colonial Market, and it is unnecessar}^ to repeat 
"them here. The knowledge, so far gained, will be of great 
" benefit in arranging for future consignments. In packing fruit 
" it is suggested that 'the cases for fruits should be of the ordinary 
" ' flat shape, with one or two partitions. I find,' says Mr. Taller- 
" ' man, ' that the fruit from Adelaide, in the old-fashioned cheap 
*' * Tasmanian cases, with the apples papered, has arrived in good 
•' * condition. Some South Australian shippers simply line the 
" * cases with paper, and pack their apples loose, and they have 
" * arrived equally well; but I recommend that all large and choice 
" * fruits be papered.' 

Another method of packing is that successfully adopted by Mr. 



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NATURAL PRODUCTS. 161 

Jno. Bowman, of Auckland, New Zealand, some of whose fruit 
was twelve weeks on the voyage : 

''His mode of packing seems to have resulted satisfactorily. 
'' Mr. Bowman's apples were packed in a close case of Kauri pine, 
'' with no holes for ventilation. Each apple was wrapped in tissue 
" paper, and completely surrounded with chaff, so tightly packed 
" that the fruit could not shake about. The apples were from 
'' one-and-a-half to two inches apart at the nearest point. Each 
" layer of apples was separated by a wooden shelf. The chafi^ 
'* was not dried artificially before packing. On opening the case, 
" from 10 to 13 per cent, only were found unfit for use, the rest of 
'' them being in perfect condition, and still retaining their bloom. 
'' The apples had not sweated at all. nor had the dampness front 
'' the bad fruit.affected the good cases near them. The fruit being- 
'' large and fine attracted great attention from visitors, and when 
'' placed in a glass case in a prominent part of the Court, wa» 
''generally taken for models similar to those shown by the 
" Australian colonies. 

" Although packed in the colony three weeks before subsequent 
" arrivals, some of these apples were still good in the case after 
" three weeks' exposure here. Mr. Bowman's apples are stated to- 
" have been packed in the last week in March, or more than three 
" weeks before those of other exhibitors. A small barrel had 
" been' packed nearly twelve weeks when it was opened, and from 
" the apples being wrapped in tissue paper and closely packed in 
" chaff, only 14 per cent, of the contents were damaged." 

Dried Fruits, 
The report of the expert on these articles states : — 
" The dessert raisins, Zante currants, and Sultana raisins, shown 
"in the South Australian Court, were of a most interesting 
" character, and compared very favorably with the best qualities 
"usually impoi-ted into England. It is evident that South 
" Australia, no less than the Cape of Good Hope, can supply both 
" the European and American markets to a large extent with these 
" dried fruits, and they have done weU to display in so enterprising 
" a manner their special capabilities." 

There is no doubt as to the capability of this colony to produce 
both raisins and currants, and especially almonds. It is now 
known that no part of Australia is more favorable to the growth 
of the almond than the neighborhood of Adelaide. At the present 



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162 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

time the production of currants is only a sixtieth^ art of the 
requirements of the colony, and there is no reason why they should 
not be grown and exported to all the Australasian colonies and to 
England. All these industries can be carried on with very little 
outlay in money, and by the families of small holders of land. 

Wines. 

One of the most important industries of the colony is that of the 
-culture of the vine. The area of land available which, by soil and 
'Climate, is capable of producing good wine is unlimited. Nature 
has been very generous in her gifts to us, and we have not fully 
availed ourselves of the advantages offered. At the present time 
there are only about 600,000 gallons of wine annually produced in 
the colony. By the latest statistics, up to 1885 there were 4,850 acres 
planted ; but during the lasiT few years vine-planting has been so 
-extensively carried on that within two or three years the output 
^11 be very largely increased, and the success of South Australian 
wines at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, where they were 
placed before the public, pure and adulterated, will so stimulate 
viticulture that we may confidently look forward to a time when 
our exports of wine will rank in importance with those of wool 
•and wheat. But the risk of inducing farmers and small holders of 
land to plant vines must not be forgotten. Unless they are satis- 
fied that a market for their grapes is immediately available, the 
inducement to plant will fail, and the reaction will be worse than 
disastrous to the colony, if those who have planted vineyards find 
that there is not a ready sale for their grapes. The Government 
might fairly give their moral support— and some part of the 
material support— in the initial stage of establishing a Joint Stock 
•Company for the purpose of purchasing grapes and crude wines 
^om vignerons, storing it until properly matured, employing 
skilled labor to treat the wines in the cellars here, and further 
4iS6ist to establish agencies abroad. 

The British Government are holders of £4,000,000 worth of 
ishares in a commercial undertaking — the Suez Canal. Our 
. ^Government might legitimately assist in the establishment of a 
South Australian Vineyards' Association in a similar way. The 
^consumption of our own wines is gaining favor here every day ; 
persons who had never before kept any but foreign wine in their 
-cellars are now using South Australian wines in preference to the 
• imported. The exports to the Old World, New Zealand, and the 



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NATURAL PRODUCTS. 163 

•other colonies liave increased in a surprising degree, because that 
adversity has taught our vignerons a bitter lesson, which they have 
profited by. There are fewer vdnemakers in the colony now than 
there were in 1866, when the acreage under vine cultivation was 
•6,629, and the number of gallons of wine made was 895,000, but the 
quality in 1887 is much better. The practice of our larger wine- 
•rmakers buying the produce of the small grower of grapes has 
enabled them to ship wine of a uniform character year after year, 
which has attained a standard of excellence in the market of the 
Old World. The initial difficulty of introducing Australian wines 
has been overcome, and their repute is such that every effort 
. ought to be made to extend the trade. 

The ravages of phylloxera in France have decimated the vine- 
yards there, and we have now an opportunity to take advantage of 
the feeling in the mother countr^ in favor of a trade federation 
with her colonies ; and the prestige gained for Australian wines at 
the exhibition clearly points out to us a plain duty — that of en- 
couraging, by all the means in the power of the Government of 
this colony, an extensive culture of the vine, which may be done 
in many ways. One is the appointment of a Professor of Viti- 
-culture in connection with the present Agricultural College, whose 
duty it would be to analyse the soils of proposed vineyards, advise 
the class of vine to be planted in that particular soil, instruct our 
farmers and small holders in the proper method of planting, prun- 
ing, and rearing the vines, procuring the most approved methods 
of pressing the grapes, and generally advising intending vignerons 
•on the management of the cellar. 

What is wanted is men from the southern countries of Europe, 
rfrom climates similar to our own ; men who have been brought up 
from their infancy in the culture of the vine, and the drying and 
preserving of the grape and other fruits. Special inducements in 
grants of land might with advantage be made to a few well selected 
men to emigrate to this colony. With a competent Professor of 
Viticulture in connection with the Agricultural College, who should 
be required to advise small landholders what land is suitable for 
planting to vines and fruits, and the kinds best adapted to different 
localities ; when all this is done, we shall have assisted in rearing 
in our midst a yeoman race of farmers working their own land, 
growing grain, raising cattle, poultry, and dairy produce, and 
living contentedly beneath their own vine, fig, and olive ees. 



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164 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



MANUFACTURING IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Although manufacturing has not been recognised as one of the 
leading interests of South Australia, it has, nevertheless, been au. 
important factor in its development. The great producing interests 
of the colony have been largely indebted for their extension and 
development to the special machines, implements, and tools, which 
our colonial machinists and engineers have devised for their use. 
The squatter, the miner, and the farmer, have each called in the as- 
sistance of local artizans to make convenient and suitable appliances 
for performing many of the operations connected with their occu- 
pations; the squatter obtains excellent engines, boring tools, pumps, 
and windmills, to help him to find that greatest of all wants of our 
interior, water ; wool scouring and drying machines, and wool 
presses for station use, the bullock dray, the wagon, and the buggy, 
are all found to be indispensable requirements. The miner avails 
himself of the services of the large engineering establishments in 
which every detail of plant required for this important industry are 
obtained; powerful steam engines with the winding and pumping 
gear, down to the simplest tool used by the miner, are supplied by 
these works ; and there are several improved machines which have- 
attained a more than local reputation, on account of the economy 
and efficiency obtained by their use. In an especial degree the 
farmer has been indebted to the inventive genius of the local 
machinist for the production of implements and machines for his 
use ; it was only by reason of the invention of the Ridley reaper,, 
or as it is better known outside the colony, the Adelaide stripper, 
that wheat can be ^rown profitably in South Australia. Without 
this machine it would have been impossible for the farmer to 
• have gathered in the golden grain — which has been pronounced 
' to be the finest in the world — from the immense area of ground 
which he cultivates. *To those acquainted with the slower methods 
of harvesting followed in the older countries of the world, the value 
of this machine will be apparent when they are told that one man. 
can reap and thrash ten acres of wheat in a day by its use. 

There are a large number of factories for the production of 
agricultural machines and implements in the colony; hardly a town- 



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MANUFACTURING. 16.5 

«hip but has its blacksmith's and machinist's shop, where not only 
repairs are executed, but in most of them a considerable amount of 
new work is done. To some of those small shops the colony is in- 
debted for the invention of novel and valuable implements, such as 
«tump- jumping ploughs, mullenisers, and some most efficient 
grubbing machines, all of which are specially designed for cultivat- 
ing the scrub lands of the colony. Winnowing machines, mowing 
machines, ploughs, scarifiers, harrows, &c., are all made in large 
numbers, and adapted by our manufacturers to the new conditions 
imder which much of the farming operations of this colony are con- 
ducted. 

Although generally the tendency is for manufacturing establish- 
ments to become centralised, yet we have workshops of considerable 
magnitude in most of the large towns, such as in Port Adelaide, 
Gawler, Kapunda, Mount Barker, Strathalbyn, Balaklava, Port 
Augusta, Quorn, and others. 

In this iron age, engineering works and iron foundries are 
necessarily prominent amongst the factories of any country. To give 
even a brief sketch of the iron works of the colony would occupy 
a much larger space than can be devoted to it here. Suffice to say 
we have more than one forge capable of turning out forgings 
of five or six tons in weight, steam hammers of varying capacity 
are at work in dozens of factories, railway carriage axles and buffers 
are being made by the hundreds, and hea^'y forgings for miUs, 
steamers, dredgers, &c., are turned out whenever the demand is 
made for them. Our iron foundries are not behind the forges in 
their capacity for producing good work ; castings weighing up to 
eight tons have been made, and the light castings will hold their 
own for excellency of design and finish when compared with the 
productions of older countries. Cast-iron pipes are extensively made 
in more than one establishment, and in the largest factory of this 
kind an output of £8,000 per month can be maintained through- 
out the year. 

The whole of the requirements of the colony in connection with 
the various schemes for water conservation and irrigation are 
being met by our local factories. Workshops for the construction 
of boilers, bridges, viaducts, girders, and other riveted work are also 
carried on in our midst; leviathan punching and shearing machines 
and hydraulic riveters are in use in several of them ; and a number 
of large contracts for iron bridges and other works have been suc- 
cessfully carried out. All the ironworks referred to are replete with 



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166 SOUTH AUSTRALIA.; 

machine tools for turning, planing, slotting, and shaping the work 
produced in them, most of those tools having been imported from 
firms having a world-\nde reputation for the excellency of their 
productions; at the same time, we find here, as in other directions,, 
our artizans frequently design and make special tools suitable for 
the economical production of the work they are called upon ta- 
supply. It is a matter of surprise to many visitors to find suck 
costly machinery in use in the works, but the comparatively higlK 
standard of wages here requires the manufacturers to study how ta- 
obtain the best possible return from the wages paid. 

At Fort Adelaide there are a number of shipbuilding establish- 
ments, which are capable of meeting any demand that may be made 
upon them by vessels visiting the colony. Several steamers and 
sailing ships have been built, both in wood and iron, and, just 
lately, one of the intercolonial iron steamers was cut in the middle,, 
and lengthened 40ft. Beautifully finished and fast-sailing yachts 
have also been, made for the yacht clubs. The slips are capable 
of taking up any vessels trading to our ports ; there is also in 
course of construction a dry dock, by the old-established and enter- 
prising shipbuilder, Mr. Fletcher, which will accommodate any of 
the large ocean-going steamers. There are also Government 
yards situated at Fort Adelaide, under the management of the 
Marine Board, where dredgers and barges for the deepening 
operations have been made, at prices that compare favorably with 
the cost of imported work of the same sort. 

The Government have extensive workshops at Adelaide and 
Islington, for the manufacture and repair of railway rolling-stock. 
In those works all the repairs are effected, and a considerable- 
number of railway carriages, first, second, and third-class, as well 
as trucks of all descriptions for carriage of goods, are made. A 
number of carriages and trucks have also been made by private 
firms for the use of the railways of the colony. Fractically, the 
whole of the rolling-stock in use on our railways is now manufac- 
tured in South Australia, with the exception of locomotives. 
Several of these have been re-built, but none have yet been con- 
structed throughout, although there is no doubt but ^vithin the • 
next few years this work will also be undertaken. 

Fassing from the construction of vehicles for railway purposes 
to those for ordinary roads, we find every variety of carriage, either 
for business or pleasure, produced by our colonial builders, from 
the stately four-in-hand drag, replete with all the conveniences and. 



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MANUFACTURING. 167 

comforts for both the inner and outer man, down to the homely 
village cart, and from the family carriage of our American cousins, 
the rockaway or carryall, to the spider-like trotting sulky. All are 
produced by our local makers, riYalling, in style and excellence, 
the famous productions of Longacre, London, or Broadway, New 
York. Our Australian carriage-makers are gradually developing 
a, style of their own, which partakes in part of the English and 
American ; avoiding on the one hand the weight of the English 
carriage, and on the other the excessive lightness of the American, 
they produce vehicles suitable for the country and climate, and to 
stand the work required of them. 

During the last ten years we have followed the admirable system 
of tramway communication initiated by America, and the Tramway 
Companies are now supplied with cars made in the colony, equal 
to those used in the birthplace of this institution. 

Although amongst our natural productions we do not find much 
timber suitable for manufacturing or building purposes, yet, as 
nearly all the timber used in the colony comes in bulk, a number 
of sawmills have grown up, in which sawing, planing, moulding, 
and many other operations in preparing timber for use, are carried 
on; timber bending for wheelwrights and carriage builders is also 
done here; and in our joiners, carpenters, and cabinet-makers 
workshops much of the work is of a very high class, and is suitable 
for withstanding the very hot and dry climate of this country. 

Visitors to the colony are favorably impressed with the excellency 
of the designs, and the artistic and substantial character of the 
workmanship shown in our public buildings, our banks, and 
business premises in Adelaide and the principal inland towns. 
There are also many gentlemen's residences in the city and suburbs, 
in the hills, and at the seaside, which display a high degree of 
skill and taste on the part of the designers and artizans. 

The quarries of this province have experienced serious vicissi- 
tudes, and are comparatively undeveloped. The leading quarry of 
freestone was the celebrated Teatree Gully quarry, from which the 
stone for the Town Hall, Post Office, portion of the Bank of South 
Australia, King William-street, and the Imperial Chambers, besides 
innumerable private residences, was obtained. In respect to 
durability and uniformity of color, this stone is of the best 
standard; and the district of Houghton and surrounding neigh- 
borhood abounds with similar deposits, should the demand for it 
revive. Many of the earlier-built houses were bidlt of a slate 



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168 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

formation, from the long-established Glen Osmond quarries, upon 
whose property is an abundant ' supply of indurated sandstone, 
which largely supplies road metal for city and district roads. In 
this, and the output of building stone, these quarries may be said 
still to be inexhaustible. Large freestone quarries have also been 
opened at Mitcham, from one of which handsome buildings in 
Pirie-street, besides various churches and private residences, were 
built. At Stirling East there are also very extensive freestone 
formations, much in use in Adelaide and the suburbs, and of which 
the Wesleyan Church at Norwood is a fair specimen. 

At Port Adelaide the buildings are chiefly built of a very handy 
and durable indurated sandstone, which is procurable in large 
quantities in handy-sized blocks, with natural bed and face, in the 
neighborhood of Dry Creek. In these quarries is also a large 
output of metal. The chief quarry, for both building stone and 
metal, is worked by stockade labor at the Dry Creek Prison. 
There is also a very large deposit of coraline limestone underlying 
the southern portions of the province, cropping out on southern 
Yorke Peninsula in cliffs forty and fifty feet in height, with 
natural beds ten to eighteen feet apart, and capable of turning out 
stone of the largest dimensions, requisite for any work. The same 
formation crops out again on the bank of the Murray, and joins a 
siimilar one near Geelong, and from which the Anglican Cathedral 
in Melbourne is being erected. This formation would no doubt 
develop into a valuable adjunct in cheap building, if the demand 
for building stone were to revive. The Post Office at Largs Bay, 
the Wesleyan Church, Port Adelaide, the stores of the South 
Australian Company; and a large house at Walkerville, the 
property of T. S. Horn, Esq., are built of this stone. Recently a 
valuable quarry of freestone, which was first used for the viaduct 
of the Strathalbyn to Goolwa railway at Currency Creek, has again 
come into favor, and is now being very satisfactorily used in the 
handsome building in course of erection at the comer of King 
William-street and North-terrace for the Bank of New South 
Wales. Granite is also being profitably worked from the quanies 
at Port Elliot, from whence the chief of the kerbing in the city, 
and pitchpaving for crossings, is obtained. It is capable of carry- 
ing high finish, and has been very successfully used in the base of 
the new Parliament Houses now in course of erection, and the 
Bank of Australasia. In the latter building are noticeable two 
very handsome columns the whole height of the doorway, which 



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MANUFACTURING. 169 

-are evidence of the capabilities of these quarries to turn out stone 
of any dimension. Marble, too, is very abundant in various parts 
of the province, chiefly near Kapunda and Angaston. It is worked 
for building and ornamental purposes ; and the various hues, from 
black to a pure white, have already insured for these quarries a repu* 
i;ation for excellence which warrants the hope that they will find 
-customers outside the province. The facade of the new Parliament 
Houses is built of marble from the Kapunda quarries, and the 
carvings of the capitals of the columns, under the skilful hand of 
the sculptor, Mr. Maxwell, will demonstrate the excellence of the 
stone for monumental work. The capital of the chief column 
weighs nearly five tons. Marble is also much used in the city 
for pavements, much of that newly laid being of this material. 
There are also at Mintaro and Willunga very large deposits of 
•slate for flagging, which is also used by the city corporation; 
and especially large flags are procurable from these quarries. The 
Willunga quarries have established a reputation in the V ctorian 
market for roofing-slate, and no doubt this industry might be very 
much augmented if persons building would use this system of 
jooting in preference to so much galvanized iron. 

There are many specimens of architectural merit in the city 
and suburbs, in which the talent of the architect, the skill of the 
workman, and excellent quality of the materials used must vie 
with one another for meritorious appreciation. Notably may be 
mentioned the National Building Society, Victoria- square, with 
base of Melbourne bluestone, and superstructure, as regards 
facade, of Sydney freestone ; the Supreme Court, built of a very 
excellent stone from near Government Farm ; the Public Offices, 
Victoria-square, with base of Melbourne bluestone, and facade of 
Sydney freestone ; Stow Church, of Dry Creek sandstone, and 
Teatree Gully facings ; the Bank of Adelaide, of Teatree Gully 
base, and Sydney freestone; the Bank of Australasia, of Port 
Elliot granite base, and 6maru (New Zealand) stone for the super- 
structure; the Bank of South Australia, of Teatree Gully, and 
'Carvings of Sydney stone; the National Bank, and Imperial 
Chambers, of Teatree Gully stone ; the Australian Mutual offices, 
of bluestone base, from Victoria, and superstructure of Sydney 
«tone ; the English and Scottish Bank, of Sydney stone. All these 
buildings, and many others, such as the University, and the Public 
Library and Museum, although chiefly built of imported stone, 
4speak unmistakably of the talent of the architects, and the excelr 



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170 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

lent handicraft of the artizans, thus illustrating the great strides 
we have made in such matters since the time when some of the 
older houses on North-terrace and in Hindley- street were once the 
chief buildings of the city, and the residences of our leaders of 
society some thirty or forty years ago. 

At Kapunda there is a magnificent marble quarry, from which 
an unlimited supply of this beautiful material can be obtained. 
The new Parliament Houses are now being built with this stone. 
Very expensive and complete plant is used for getting the stone 
out. It is obtained in large blocks, some of them weighing 
7 tons. Slate is obtained in different parts of the colony, princi- 
pally at Willunga and Mintaro ; the Mintaro slate especially is of 
an excellent quality, being unsurpassed in the world for evenness 
and finish, and is suitable for tops for billiard-tables, and other 
work requiring first-class slates. 

Brickmaking is carried on in many parts of the colony. Several 
companies and private firms employ very complete machinery for 
this purpose, and Hoffman's kilns, and several modifications of 
them, are used for burning. Bricks are produced suitable for the 
very best buildings, and also for tanks, and other work requiring 
the highest quality. 

Terra-cotta work is made in several places in the colony, and one 
of ,the finest exhibits in the South Australian Court is that 
designed and executed by Mr. Shearing, of Hindmarsh. 

Brickmaking is an industry largely carried on at Hindmarsh, 
where several factories are in existence, turning out all classes of 
bricks, white, red, and black, as well as glazed bricks and tiles,, 
suitable for all designs. Firebricks are now manufactured from ai 
mixture of Hindmarsh clay with Teatree Gully kaolin, and are said 
to be equal to the imported article. The industry also embraces 
the manufacture of all kinds of wine-jars, jam and pickle pots^ 
water-coolers, airbricks, and retorts for gas-making, together with 
the necessary drainpipes required for the extension of the sanitary 
system of deep drainage. Of late the aesthetical tastes of the- 
people have been gratified by the establishment of a manufactory- 
for terra-cotta work. It is only another instance of the wisdom of 
the ancients, for where we read of the disentombment of buried 
cities we find at the same time records of designs in the imperish- 
able clay brought to light after many centuries ; here in a new 
country, where art and skilled labor is at a premium, the establish- 
ment of a terra-cotta manufactory points to an advancement in the- 
new path of art and industry. 



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MANUFACTURING. 171 

Earthenware pipes are also produced for our own requiremenls, 
the demand for which is very large, on account of the extensive 
works in connection with deep drainage of the city and suburbs, 
unlimited supplies of excellent clay being obtainable for this 
purpose. 

The tanning industry has been in existence for a good many years' 
in South Australia. Of late years great improvements have been 
effected in the plant and machinery used, and a much better article, 
a greater output has resulted therefrom. Works of this character 
are of especial value, because they utilise a material which is- 
entirely a South Australian product ; and the wattle tree, which is- 
also a South Australian product, is largely used in the operation of 
tanning. Every description of sole and dressed leather is made in« 
large quantities, and considerable success has also been attained im 
the production of light leather and moroccos ; the only kinds not 
yet attempted are enamelled and japanned. Scouring machines arc 
used for doing the wet and dirtiest part of the tanner's work ; and 
band-splitting machines capable of slicing a hide into three pieces^ 
are also used. Our South Australian leather obtains a high 
reputation both in the colonies and England. The value of bark 
of the wattle tree for tanning purposes is well known, and it has- 
for years formed an article of export to England from this colony. - 
Within the last few years a new industry has sprung up in the- 
colony which promises to become of great importance and value ; 
instead of waiting until the tree is from seven to ten years old 
when it becomes profitable to strip the bark, by the new process 
the tannin can be profitably extracted within two years of the tree- 
being planted. The process consists in taking the whole tree, 
timber, bark, branches, and leaves, and slicing them in a machine 
into shavings, and by steam and pressure extracting the tannin,, 
which is obtained in a liquid form like treacle, the use of this^ 
material being said to produce better results than the bark itself. 

Boot and shoe factories. — There are a large number of boot pjid 
shoe factories in Adelaide and other towns in the eolony. All the- 
most recent machinery for the economic production of these indis- 
pensable articles are in use in them, and they give employment to 
a large number of persons of both sexes. 

Although, on account of the limited population of the colony, 
special factories for the production of one article do not obtain to 
so large an extent as in older countries, yet many articles are made- 
to order by our local manufacturers, which could not be carried oi> 



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172 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

as a separate indastry. Such things as billiard-tahles, lookmg- 
glasses, pianos t glasscutting, and many others, demanding skill 
and taste in their production, are successfully produced by our 
mechanics. 

Factories for the manufacture of iron and tinplate goods are now 
thoroughly established, and produce fire and burglar proof safes 
and doors, ranges, ovens, bedsteads, galvanised-iron work, tinware 
and japanned ware, in all their respective branches, equal in every 
respect to imported goods — one factory alone, that of Messrs. A. . 
Simpson & Son, giving employment to nearly 200 men and boys. 
This enterprising firm has spared no expense in introducing the 
latest improved machinery for the production of their various goods, 
and have succeeded in being able to supply other colonies — the 
fire-proof doors for the new Government Offices, Hobart, and the 
Town Hall, Albany, being supplied by them. Not least amongst 
the industries carried on by Messrs. Simpson is the manufacture of 
jam, tea, and coffee tins, and packages of all kinds, and the 
work of galvanizers and tinners. 

Two organ building factories. — Several churches and other in- 
stitutions have been fitted with organs by our local firms, which, 
by their excellent design and workmanship, afford pleasure to the 
•eye as well as the ear. 

Jewellery and silverwork is manufactured in all styles and 
-designs, and compares very favorably with the imported article. 
Mounting emu eggs in sterling silver is an industry in which South 
Australia is not equalled by any other colony, and great numbers of 
-these eggs are sold to English and European buyers. Silverton 
silver is used for all silversmiths' work, and such articles as tea and 
-coffee services, trays, salvers, cups, claret jugs, &c., &c., are made 
to equal, if not to surpass, anything imported. Jewellery is made 
in great variety, and of better quality and strength than that im- 
ported. Stone-setting is also carried on with great success. 
Altogether the industry promises to grow to a large scale, and 
will, when times improve, give many men employment. 

There are at present in the city five cooperages, and several 
smaller ones in the coimtry districts, turning out casks and vats for 
vignerons, from the usual quarter-cask size to that of the large 
vats with a holding capacity of upwards of 5,000 gallons. The 
-timber used is chiefly oak, but of late years a species of native 
blackwood has been tried with success. The very large vats used 
in the wine cellars are mostly made of red gum, of which one with 



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MANUFACTURING. 17a 

a holding capacity of 10,200 gallons was lately manufactured. The 
principal uses for casks are as follows: — Wine, beer, oil, tallow, 
beef, pork, butter, &c. 

Soap and candle works have been in existence since 1840, 
turning out an average of 35 tons weekly of household soap for 
washing purposes, 30cwt. of fancy soaps for the toilet, and 1,500 
boxes of candles. Of late years, with the advantages of protection, 
the soapmakers have been enabled to provide themselves with 
machinery to supply nearly two-thirds of the demand of the colony 
in soaps, candles, lubricating oils, and axle -grease, of a quality 
such as may fairly compete with that of the imported. 

The manufacture of confectionery has made considerable advance 
of late years, and is now firmly established in the colony. There 
are a number of factories, giving employment to about 100 hands. 
The larger factories are fitted with the most improved and com- 
plete machinery, and are producing not only the ordinary but also 
the higher-class confections, equal in quEllity to the imported 
article, and at an advantage in price to the consumer. A great 
portion of the machinery used in the manufacture of confectionery 
has been designed and made in the colony, thus advancing the 
interests of others not directly connected with this industry. 



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174 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



NORTHERN TERRITORY. 

This immense tract of comitry is bomided on the south by the 
26th parallel of south latitude, on the east by the 138th and on 
the west by the 129th meridian of east longitude, and stretches to 
the Indian Ocean. It contains an area of 35,116,800 acres, and 
was provisionally annexed by royal letters patent to the Province 
of South Australia in 1863. In the next year settlement was 
commenced, and 2o0,0(i0 acres were sold (half in Adelaide and 
half in London), at 7s. 6d. per acre, in sections of 160 acres. 
With each section a town allotment of haH an acre was sold at 
the same price. In April, 1864, the first party left for the Terri- 
tory, under the command of the Hon. B. T. Finnish. The party 
disagreed as to the site of the settlement, and Mr. Finniss was re- 
called. But little progress in colonization was made till 1869, 
when the Surveyor-General was- dispatched to complete the survey 
of 600,000 acres of land, and to lay out the site of Palmerston, 
the present capital. 

In 1872 the great undertaking of uniting Adelaide and Port 
Darwin by an overland telegraph line was completed. This work, 
which cost upwards of half a million of money, was carried out 
entirely by South Australia. In the neighborhood of Pine Creek 
the men employed in making the telegraph line discovered gold. 

Gold. 

In 1873 a most unreasonable gold mania started in Adelaide. 
Companies were floated and mismanaged. Much money was 
lost by the shareholders. Beefs now known to be as rich as 
any in the world were abandoned. The auriferous character 
of the country, however, still attracted attenticm, and in 1880 
the Government Resident reported there were 150 Europeans and 
1,500 Chinese engaged on the reefs and alluvial diggings, and 
that fully £20,000 worth of gold was exported during the year, 
half of which found its way to Hongkong. 

The present Government Resident, in his report at the close 
of 1884, writes: — "The export of gold during the year reached 
"21,675ozs., of the value of £77,935. Considering the meagre 
" amount of capital invested, the g^eat natural difficulties which 



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NORTHERN TERRITORY. 175 

*' impede travelling and carting, the enormous cost of provisions, 
" and the primitive appliances, this may be accepted as an authori- 
" tative indication that rich deposits of gold exist in the Northern 
" Territory. When Pine creek is within a ten hours* journey 
" from Port Darwin and the auriferous country will be traversed 
" by the railway, the Government Resident who writes the report 
" for the year after the railway has been opened will have a 
" different record to give." 

In the early part of 1886 the Hon. J. L. Parsons visited the 
goldfields, and writes a follows : — " At Bridge creek I was shown 
*' handsome nuggets from the alluvial diggings, where men had 
'• been making £ 1 2 per week. At the Howley I saw 50ozs. of coarse 
'-'gold bought from a Chinaman. At Burgan's creek the bark 
*' huts of a large Chinese digging population indicated they were 
" still getting gold. Of course it is useless to ask a Chinaman if 
" he is getting gold. He invariably replies, ' Me catchee no gold,' 
*' or ' Me catchee little bit,' with a melancholy shake of the head 
" as if he were much to be pitied, when, perhaps, he is making 
*' his fortune, and looking forward to being in China in a few 
*' months. Passing through the old Fountain Head, the Chinese 
" were scattered over the workings, and busily employed at 
"Grove-hill and the Twelve. At the Union I heard the grati- 
"fying news of a crushing of two tons of quartz from No. 3 
" North Union which had yielded 37ozs. of gold ; and news also 
*' of several other claims turning out rich stone. At Pine creek 
" Mr. Olaf Jansen had just struck on a rich leader, some fine 
" specimens of which I picked out from the ground myself, and 
" a splendid specimen from which, at Mr. Jansen' s request, I 
*' forwarded to the Hon. the Minister of Education. At the 
** Christmas claim there was a stock of stone which Mr. Jansen 
" assured me would go 1 lozs. to the ton. I also visited Fitz- 
*' gerald's claim, but even stone yielding 3ozs. to the ton was not 
" sufficient to detain him from the Kimberley. 

** Leaving Pine creek we crossed over rough country and 
*' camped on the Driffield. The next night our camp was at the 
" Edith. From the Edith, on the following day, we made . the 
" Katherine station, and were hospitably received by Mr. and 
"Mrs. Murray. Even the casual and amateur observer cannot 
'* fail to see the indications of probable mineral wealth extending 
" beyond our known metalliferous area. Granite, slate, quartz, 
" diorite. are conspicuous* and the whole stretch of country up to 



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176 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

*' the tablelands will, when the railway comes near Pine creek, be 
"diligently prospected, and carry, I feel sure, a large mining 
"population. At the Katherine river I was given a handsome 
"nugget, rich gold in quartz, which had been obtained on the 
" Stow creek by a small prospecting party, but the immense cost 
" of getting stores to the place had compelled them to relinquish 
" further search. Of the existence of good gold from the country 
" between the Daly and Fitzmaurice all roimd under the table- 
" lands, no experienced miner who has travelled over the country 
" has the slightest doubt." 

The testimony of the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods, F.G S., &e. 
— a very high authority '— is of the most encouraging character. 
He says — " The gold in the Territory is found in exactly the same 
" manner as in other parts of the world. It is needless to repeat 
" what these conditions are. The stone in those reefs which have 
" been worked is rich, and would pay well to work in any country 
" but this, where wages and cartage are so enormously high. The 
" gold generally is of high standard. The total amount exported 
"from August, 1880, to September, 1885, is 121,779oz8., of the 
" value of £432,959. This, of course, is not by any means a full 
" statement of the gold obtained in the Territory. The amoimt i» 
" large, but divided amid the number of mines worked, and the 
"number of miners employed, it is relatively very large, and 
" shows the richness of the country. 

" Of two things I am convinced — first, that not one of the mines- 
" hitherto worked or abandoned has been exhausted of the gold ; 
" secondly, not 25 per cent, of the auriferous reefs of the coimtry 
" have been fairly tested. If a prospector does not get a good 
" assay from a bagful of stone, which he digs from the top of the 
" ' blow,' the whole is condemned. The test, of course, is utterly 
"insufficient. The chances are much against the prospector 
" striking on the shoot of gold at the first blow of his pick. Who* 
" does not know the thousands of instances where rich mines have 
" lain idle for years from bad prospecting ? A slight examination 
" convinces one that many of the reefs in the Territory contain 
" rich metal, even though the prospector has turned away fronk 
"them. The gold in most of the reefs is remarkably clean 
" and pure, with little sulphur or arsenic or other troublesome 
"minerals. 

" Some mines are an exception, and the sulphurous tailings in 
*^ them are considerable. It would be well if the miners would 



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NORTHERN TERRITORY. 177 

"follow an important piece of advice, wluch has reference to 
" tailings. They should be stacked like compost heaps» with 
" equal quantities of leayes, branches, grass, or any decaying 
" vegetable matter. In a couple of years the pyrites will be con- 
'^ siderably or completely decomposed, and can be treated in the 
" mill without any roasting. Pyrite heaps are often very rich in 
" gold, and will soon pay for their keep. 

'' It may certainly be said that the quartz reefs of the Northern 
" Territory have never had justice done them by first-class ma- 
"chinery. Indeed, it is stated that the Union reefs have been 
" brought to ruin by the battery employed, which let large quan- 
*' tities of amalgam go down the creek ; but with small capital, 
"enormously high wages, and equally high cartage, it could 
** hardly be otherwise. When these shall have been adjusted to 
" the rates of the value of the quartz, then the day of the mines of 
"the Northern Territory will have come. Everything is hoped 
" from the railway to bring this about ; there is plenty of material 
" to work upon. I regret being imable to give the proportion of 
" gold produced to the quartz crushed. I believe the average is 
" high, generally over an ounce. Some of the crushings of the 
"top stone have been enormously rich. Thus, at the extended 
" Union, in 1877, 40 tons of quartz yielded 740ozs. of gold. This 
" is exceptional^ and belongs to the returns which miners always 
" expect to obtain from the capping of reefis, where the gold lies, 
" which has weathered out of the stone through countless ages. 

" In reference to this, I have been asked to give an opinion as 
" to whether deep sinking will give increased returns. For in- 
" creased returns, I should say that there is nothing peculiar in 
" the groimd which would lead one to expect it. In those mines 
" where the shoots of gold have a tendency to form pockets of 
" metal, the groimd may become richer at any moment, especially 
" where the quartz lode is intersected by veins of diorite ; here 
" rich gold will nearly always be found, and often as much in the 
" diorite as the quartz. All questions connected with deep sinking 
" are best answered by the diamond drill, but seeing how few of 
" the mines are able to pay for an efficient battery, it is hardly 
" to be expected that they could pay for drill exploration. Be- 
" sides, the question of deep sinking is not important. Just now 
" there is plenty of payable stone within easy reach in most of the 
" mines if labor and cartage were only obtainable at a price com- 
" mensurate with the value of gold. 



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178 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

** In the alluvial workings the conditions are precisely similar to 
•" alluvial gold in other parts of the world — the sinking is shallow, 
" sometimes mere surfacing, and the gravel scarcely waterwom. 
** This is the more extraordinary as the rainfall is much greater 
""here than in Victoria or New South Wales, where the drift 
•** gravel is so much rounded, but the elevation is much greater. 

" The alluvial diggings are generally in shallow valleys with low 
■** ridges on each side. Curiously enough, rich gold has been found 
^* in valleys where on the ridges forming the valley not a trace of 
■*' a quartz reef could be found Finely-divided gold, no doubt, 
" exists to some extent in the slates, and this must be the ex- 
" planation of fine gold in alluvial far from any reefs, just like 
** stream tin. True stream tin is not derived from reefs or lodes, 
" but from finely-disseminated particles of tin in granite. Nuggets 
-" are not common, and never of very large size. The very fine 
■" geld would appear to be inexhaustible, as the Chinese always seem 
"" able to make a living, no matter how often they turn over the 
^' old headings. 

*' It only remains to say that, as the reefs containing good gold 
"** are far from being all discovered in the Territory, so it is with 
-" the alluvial. There are gullies and flats innumerable which 
** have never been even prospected ; they are all connected with the 
** auriferous slates, and even with quartz reefs. To name them 
•** would be endless, but I especially mention the country between 
" Moimt Wells and Mount Dougkis, amid the ranges on the east 
-*' side imtil the ranges fall away, a distance of between forty and 
-* fifty miles." 

The quantity of gold exported through the Custom-house during 
the past six years may be set down as Jive tons weight, and valued 
-at half a million sterling. 

Other Minerals. 
But the Territory abounds in other minerals. At Moimt Wells, 
Mount Shoobridge, and the Finniss River the deposits of tin are 
-extensive and rich. This metal, in the opinion of the Rev. J. E. 
T. Woods, will eventually be one of the great sources of mineral 
■riches in the Territory, especially as it occurs in the form of reef 
tin, which is so comparatively rare. The most of the tin dis- 
•coveries in Australia have been made in stream tin, which is never 
of a permanent character. The Port Darwin Tin Mining Company 
have done a great deal in the way of building, erection of ma- 



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NORTHERN TERRITORY. 179 

rchinery, and construction of dams. After many disappointing 
-delays, the company is about to commence in earnest the dressing 
^ of ores from their lodes. 

The copper mines haye so far been confined to those on the 
Biver Daly. The Wheal Banks Mine promises the owners a good 
return, even with the present low price of copper. In one spot a 
lode is reported 2ft. wide, discernible on the surface. A shaft 
80ft. deep has been sunk, still carrying the lode, which increases 
from 5ft. to 6ft. in width. The ore is the grey or vitreous copper, 
red oxide, and green and blue carbonates. What has been 
recently raised looks equal to 40 per cent., and a great portion 
of it to over 50 per cent. As these mines are situated near 
the place of shipment the profits will, of course, be correspond- 
ingly higher. 

Recently much attention has been given to the silver deposit, 
. and large areas have been taken up under licences at the Mary, 
Grove Hill, and the Union. About thirty miles to the east of the 
•Union is the Eveleen Silver Mine. Here expensive smelting 
.machinery has been erected, and large quantities of silver 
moulded, while thousands of tons of ore are at surface waiting to 
be dealt with. This mine is believed to be one of the richest in 
Australia, and will doubtless, if properly managed, yield splendid 
returns to the company. 

Very little is yet known of the vast mineral resources of the 
iNorthem Territory. The Rev. Tenison Woods says it is excep- 
tionally rich in minerals, only a small portion of which has been 
made known to the public. He believes the same quantity of 
mineral, veins of gold, silver, tin, copper, and lead will not be 
found in an equal area in Australia, and doubts if many provinces 
will be found in any country so favored as Amheim's Land, in 
j'espect to mineral riches. 

Pasforal. 

The pastoral interests of the Territory have how assumed large 
proportions. Pastoral blocks of land, not exceeding 400 square 
miles, can be leased for twenty-five years at a rental of fid. per 
square mile for the first seven years, and 2s. 6d. per square mile 
-for the remainder of the term. Pastoral lands must be stocked 
•within three years of the date of application for lease at the rate 
of at least two head of great cattle or ten head of small cattle for 
.every square mile. More than one-half of the whole area of the 



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180 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Territory is now held by pastoralists, and 183,883 square miLesi 
have been declared stocked to the extent required by the terms of 
the lease. The reports of the condition and increase of stock 
from all directions are highly satisfactory. Every year the- 
country improves, and, when the natural rank grasses are fed 
down, its value will be greatly increased. The Austral Down&- 
and Herbert river districts are well suited for sheep. It is- 
estimated the flocks already number 60,000. Writing of the- 
Avon Downs clip, Mr. Little reports that the wool from Mr. 
Guthrie's station was of so good a quality that it brought 16d. per- 
pound in a very low market. Mr. Little, who is thoroughly 
acquainted with the coimtry, estimates that the tableland to the- 
south of the McArthur, when improved, will carry from 4,000,000- 
to 5,000,000 of sheep. 

The Government Resident, says : — " Pastor«Q occupation, om 
*' large areas, principally for cattle-raising purposes, is also attended 
"with considerable success. Mr. C. B. Fisher and other pas— 
*' toralists who have stocked country have, after overcoming initial 
" difficulties, met with encouraging results. Station-ownei*s in the- 
" Territory are beginning to get over the difficulties of acclimatiz— 
*' ing stock brought from Queensland, and are stocking freely,. 
" while the strip of country fi*om McArthur river to the head. 
" waters of the Victoria river has been declared stocked. The 
" sheep are doing well on the Herbert river blocks and elsewhere. 
" The pastoral industry has reached such a stage that the pressing 
" necessity for finding a market for the surplus stock is obvious- 
" to all interested in pastoral pursvdts, and it is to be hoped that in 
" addition to obtaining access to the markets of the East for the- 
" live stock, that the proposal to establish meat-freezing works oni 
" the Adelaide river will be successful." 

No doubt the central and southern part of the Territory will* 
become an extensive horse-breeding district, and that a ready 
market will be found in India for well-bred animals, suitable for- 
remounts and general use. 

Rivers, and Agricultural Land. 

A large and valuable amount of information as to the extent 
of the rivers and the character of the land on their banks has^. 
been obtained by Captain Carrington, commander of the Govern- 
ment steamship Palmerston. In April, 1884, he steamed up the 



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NORTHERN TERRITORY. 181 

McArthur twelve miles, the Palmer ston drawing lift. 3in. Be- 
yond that the river has to be navigated by vessels of less draught. 
The newly surveyed township of Borroloola is situated thirty- 
seven miles from the mouth of the river. There is good agricul- 
tural country in the neighborhood. 

Later on in that year the Palmerston explored the Victoria 
aiver. Captain Carrington reports it navigable for vessels of the 
largest class for fifty miles from the sea. This river is the natural 
outlet for about ninety thousand square miles of splendid pastoral 
country. 

ITie Daly, the entrance to which is two miles wide, was next 
examined. The rise of tides at springs varies from 18ft. to 21ft, 
The river can be entered by vessels drawing 18ft. at high water 
■ordinary springs. For some distance from the mouth the land is 
admirably adapted for cultivation. The banks are a series of 
jungles and grassy plains. The soil is good, easily worked, and 
well fitted for the growth of sugarcane. Liberian coffee and in- 
•digo would also grow well. A grant of 10,000 acres, about fifty 
miles from the entrance to the river, has been made to a company 
subject to the condition of the plantation clauses of the Northern 
Territory Lands Act. These conditions are that the cultivation 
•of the land must be commenced within three years; that there 
shall be planted with sugarcane or other products suitable to 
the climate not less than 200 acres ; that the siun of £5,000 shall 
be spent in cultivation and the erection of machinery, and that 
not less than 250 tons of merchantable sugar, or other agricultural 
or horticultural products of equal value be obtained from the 
land. Upon these conditions being complied with the company 
will obtain the fee-simple of the 10,000 acres. 

After examining the Roper, Goyder, Blyth, Liverpool, and King 
rivers. Captain Carrington explored *the Alligator rivers. The 
•South Alligator was ascended for sixty miles, and the Palmertton 
taken up thirty miles. On each side of the river the jungle is a 
•dense mass of luxuriant tropical vegetation, consisting of large trees 
with a dense undergrowth. The East Alligator was traced for a 
•distance of fifty miles, and the steamer taken up fifteen miles. The 
river is navigable for small crafts drawing eight or ten feet forty 
miles. The plains that border this river, with the jungle lands 
beyond, differ in no particular from those of the South river. The 
West Alligator was traced a distance of twenty-two milea ; it is 
fringed with dense mangroves throughout. The South and East 



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182 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Alligator rivers were subsequently visited by Mr. Holtze, the- 
Government gardener, who gave his opinion that the lands bor- 
dering these rivers are particularly well suited for the cultivation - 
of rice. 

The Adelaide, the nearest large river to Palmerston, is a splendid^ 
stream, navigable for eighty miles, and so regular and deep that 
vessels can lie and discharge within a few feet of its sides. The 
land on its banks is suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane, 
banana, pine apple, coffee, indiarubber, and indigo. There is a 
coffee plantation at Beatrice Hills where the plants are growing 
remarkably well. The first picking will be made this year, and a 
good exhibit shown at the Jubilee Exhibition. 

The Government Resident (Hon. J. L. Parsons) has recently 
visited China and the East, with a view of collecting information 
regarding tropical products suitable to the Territory. Hongkong* 
Canton, Macao, Saigon, Singapore, and Batavia were visited with 
this object, and he states : — 

" The result of careful observations at the places I have men- 
" tioned is, that I am confident that rice, Liberian coffee, sugar, 
" millet, ginger, tapioca, and a gre^it variety of other tropical pro- 
" ducts may be cultivated with the utmost success in the Territorj. 
*' At present, owing to the diffictdty of obtaining suitable labor and 
^' other causes, very little progress has been made in the cultivation of 
" tropical products ; but if any arrangements can be made for the 
** introduction of coolie or other cheap labor, there is no reason, so 
" far as I can see, why the agricultural interest should not be de- 
" veloped with the most beneficial results to all the southern 
" colonies. The principal sugar plantation, which is being worked 
^*by South Australian capital, is not accomplishing such good 
" results as were looked for ; but this is owing to the unsuitability 
" of the land selected. The &op of sugar, however, which we saw 
" at the new Government garden at Palmerston, is finer than any 
" we saw elsewhere during our trip. There are thousands of 
** square miles of good sugar-growing land obtainable on the banks 
" of the various rivers." 

The land laws of the Territory are liberal in the extreme.. 
Twelve hundred and eighty acres can be selected on credit at a- 
rental of sixpence per acre, with a right of purchase at twelve and 
sixpence per acre, and any lessee who bona fide cultivates 640 acres • 
with tropical products during the first five years of his lease is 
relieved from further payment of either rent or purchase-money ^.. 



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NORTHERN TERRITORY. 18a 

and is entitled to a grant of the 1,280 acres in fee-simple. Any 
area in excess can be purchased at auction at the upset price of 
twelve shillings and sixpence per acre. There are now open for 
selection or sale for cash 240,000 acres. 

Railways. 

The Palmerston and Pine Creek railway, which is now in course 
of construction, is 145 miles in length. It is on thp 3ft. Gin. gauge 
— the same gauge as the northern lines of South Australia and 
the colonies of Queensland and Western Australia. The sleepers 
throughout are of steel. It will traverse the centre of the known 
metalliferous country. It will reduce the cost of working gold and 
other mineral claims by at least fifty per cent., and will give. cheap 
and certain carriage for passengers and goods between Port Dar- 
win and the mines at all seasons of the year. It will also lessen 
in the same proportion for the 145 miles of railway the cost of 
station supplies, and materially contribute to the pastoral occupa- 
tion of the Crown lands. 

A Royal Commission is now sitting to collect evidence and make 
a recommendation as to the best means of completing the Trans- 
Australian railway ; and it is confidently expected that before the 
completion of the line to Pine creek, another section at least will 
be undertaken. The contract for the construction of the Palmers- 
ton and Pine creek railway was taken b;^ Messrs. C. & E. Millar, 
for £605,424, the class of labor being at the option of the contrac- 
tors. Port Darwin, which will be the terminus of the Trans- Aus- 
tralian railway, has the largest and safest harbor on the north coast 
of Australia. During the past dghteen months H.M.S. Myrmidon 
and Flying' Fish have made a careful survey of the harbor itself 
and of the approaches from the east through Clarence and Dundas 
Straits. As the terminus of the overland telegraph line and of 
the two cables from Java, Port Darwin is a place of great im- 
portance. The attention of the Imperial Government has been 
called to the natural facilities which it offers for an Imperial station 
for coals aad munitions of war. In addition to the necessity of 
protecting telegraphic communication, the steamers in the Aus- ^ 
tralian and China trade make Port Darwin the first place of call, 
and the last port of departure. In view also of the large trade 
which must arise out of the Trans- Australian railway, and the 
strategic position of Port Darwin, it must be the chief port of 
North Australia. 



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184 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



(A Brief Outline y by y, G. Knight, Commissioner for N.T. Exhibitors.) 

JloTB. — The Northern Territory Court is on the Promenade, down the first 
flight of steps at the hack of the main huilding,. 

Port Darwin, the principal harbor for shipping in the Northern 
Territory, is situated in latitude (of Fort Hill) 12° 28' 30" south, 
and longitude 130° 52" east. The harbor is fine and spacious 
comprising many square miles of water, varying from four to 
£fteen fathoms. Spring tides from IGft* to 24ft. 

The principal cattle stations already established are those of the 
North Australian Pastoral Company on the Daly River, Glencoe, 
and the Victoria River, the latter comprising 35,435 square miles 
of country ; W. J. Browne's Spring Vale Station, on the Katherine, 
and Delamere Downs, the latter covering 2,848 square miles; 
Acres & Suttor, north of Roper River, 6,450 square miles ; 
Amos, Amos, & Broad, south of Gulf of Carpentaria, 19,033 square 
miles ; Buchanan, W. F., Wave Hill Station, Sturts Creek, 4,570 
square miles; Campbell, Lewis, & Wreford, Coburg Peninsula, 
1,250 square miles ; Carandoth Pastoral Company, on Queens- 
land boundary, 1,600 square miles; Chewings, Chas., near Alice 
Springs, 4,145 square miles ; Chisholm, J. Wm., & Broad, A., 
north of Herbert River, 3,162 square miles ; Christian, J. B. and 
W. M., near Anthony Lagoon, Walhallow Downs, 2,510 square 
miles ; Christian, J. B., 1,000 square miles; Costello, John, Roper 
River, 16,084 square miles ; Douglas, Walter, Powell's Creek Run, 
16,705 square miles ; Fisher, C. B. (North Australian Pastoral 
Company), Victoria River, 35,435 square miles ; Gardiner, C. F., 
and Co., north 6f Herbert River, 2,065 square miles; Sides, 
Hatten, Gibson, & Robertson, Limmen Bight River, 2,336 square 
miles; GQbert, Joseph, near Alice Springs, 1,200 square miles; 
Youl, Gordon, & Willoby, near Charlotte Waters, 8,620 square 
^ miles; Grant-Thorold & Stokes, east of Alice Springs, 2,600 
square miles ; Guthrie, T., Herbert River, 600 square miles ; 
Hay, Adam, on the Field River, 1,600 square miles ; Hodgson 
Downs Pastoral Association, north of Daly Waters, 4,707 square 
miles; Lamb, Ed. Wm., 780 square miles; Lee, Lionel Wil« 
liam,near Tennant's Creek, 1,000 square miles; Tennant, Love, 
and Love, near Alice Springs, 5,240 square miles; Macartney, 



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NORTHERN TERRITORY. 185 

J. A., Arnheim Land, 11,342; Macpherson, E. A.; Maher, 
McKinnon, Power, Cochrane, & Todd, east of Powell's Creek, 
2,400 square miles ; Mclllwraith, Forrest, k Collins, north and 
south of Herbert River, 13,042 square miles ; Mercantile Bank 
of Sydney, near Creswell Creek; 3,015 square miles ; Melrose, 
George, south of' Alice Sprinj^s, 2,563 square miles ; Murray, 
David, Barrow's Creek Run, 12,293 square miles; The Musgrave 
Range Pastoral Company, south of Victoria River, 6,220 square 
miles ; Panton & Osmand, west boundary of province, 2,100 
square miles; Patterson, D. W. H., on the Palmer and the Elsie 
Station River, 3,416 square miles; Walker & Parke, Henbury, 
Finke River, 2,195 square miles ; Richardson, T. L., near Herbert 
River, 4,017 square miles ; Rocklands Pastoral Company, north 
of Herbert River, 975 square miles ; Macdonald, Smith, & Co., 
Creswell Creek, 7,281 square miles ; Tyson, Jas., jun., near Gulf 
of Carpentaria, 1,500 square miles ; Warburton, R. E., Erldunda, 
970 square miles. 

Some of these stations are devoted to the breeding of horses. 

Sheep thrive on the Herbert River, Austral Downs, and Doon 
Downs Stations, while the flocks of ration sheep at the various 
telegraph depots keep in good condition and increase in satis- 
factory ratio. 

The cultivated lands grow sugar-cane, rice, cotton, yams, sweet 
potato, maize, tobacco, coifee, cassava,' arrowroot, ginger, castor 
oil plant, millet, sorghum, tacca, pea nut (for oil), teal seed (for 
oil), manila and sun hemp, and many other like products of com- 
mercial value. ' 

Indigo and cotton are spreading over Palmerston like weeds, 
and seem to thrive on hard rock as well as on good soil. 

Tropical fruits, such as the pineapple, banana, plantain, papaw, 
&c., grow in abundance, and are remarkably cheap. The orange, 
lemon, pomelo, custard apple, mango, and other fruits peculiar to 
warm climates are cultivated with success. 

Vegetables in great variety are grown by Chinese gardeners 
wherever there is any settlement, and the Chinese also supply 
Palmerston with fish daily, from the waters of Port Darwin. 

The average rainfall is about sixty-five inches. The wet season 
extends from October to April and the dry one from May to 
September. During the north-west monsoon the maximum tem- 
perature in the shade is 96^ in the day, while the minimum in the 
night is 65^. With the south-east monsoon the maximum tern- 



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186 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

perature in the day is 89° and the minimum at night is 56°. The 
above figures refer to temperature near the coast ; as we leave the 
seaboard the climate becomes drier and colder, until in the centre 
of the continent the thermometer falls below 30°, and the average- 
annual rainfall is about thirteen inches. 

The country is rich in minerals, and during the last fourteen, 
years has yielded a large quantity of alluvial gold, the ground,, 
more or less auriferous, extending from Bridge Creek to Hous- 
childt's rush, a distance of about ninety miles. 

Gold bearing reefs of considerable extent have been opened at 
the Stapleton, the Howley, the Britannia, Bridge Creek, Yam 
Creek, the Fountain Head, the Twelve Mile, the McKinlay, the- 
Union, the Extended Union, the Lady Alice, and Pine Creek, the 
distance between the first and last named places being about 
eighty-seven miles. 

Gold is also now being found at the southern extreme of the 
Northern Territory, viz., at *' Alchebugana," fifteen miles north 
of the Peake. It is also knoAvn to exist at Alice Springs, in the 
Todd, at Short's Range near Tennant's Creek, and doubtless 
whenever systematic prospecting takes place gold and other 
valuable minerals will be found in many parts of the interior of 
the country. 

Copper is abundant, particularly on the Daly River, which seems 
to be its home, the percentage of metal being so high that, not- 
withstanding the present low price, two mines, viz., the Daly River 
Copper Company and Wheal Danks, are being worked at a good 
profit, and steps are being 4;aken to erect smelting works on the 
ground. 

Good deposits of copper have also been found at the Howley, 
within a short distance of the railway now in course of con- 
struction. 

The Government railway from Palmerston to Pine Creek (145- 
miles), now being vigorously pushed on by Messrs. Millar Brothers,, 
will prove to be the greatest boon ever conferred upon the Terri- 
tory by reducing the cost of carriage to and from the mineral 
districts, and thereby lessening the cost of production and also of 
living. At present, during the rainy season, wheeled traffic is- 
absohitely suspended, and teamsters have to turn out their horses 
and bullocks for more than a third of the year. 

The section of the railway now in hand must be regarded as 
part of the transcontinental line destined to be extended south- 



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NORTHERN TERRITORY. 187 

ward, just as that to the Peake must be extended northward, till 
the two extremes meet to form a union between Adelaide and Port 
Darwin. This being achieved South Australia will command two 
great outlets for commerce, one at the north and the other at the 
south ends Of our vast Australian continent, and will then possess- 
advantages for trade far beyond those of any of the other colonies- 
of Australasia. 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 18^ 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN EXHIBITS. 

MAIN BUILDING fEasf and West of Main Entrance J. 

[Numbers commence at Western extremity.] 

ybte, — The numbers placed opposite the namee in catalogue indicate the numbers 
marked on exhibits, 

1 Bible Stand — ^Bibles and Testaments in different languages. 

2 0. C. Hawker, The Briars, Medindie— Cases containing seaweed. (West 

gallery.) 

3 Harper ft Co., Fnlteney-street, Adelaide — Tea, coffee, condiments, &c. 

4 Cawthome ft Co., T.M.C.Ak Buildings, Oawler-place — Hand-painted 

plaques, Poonah painted. 

5 Government Printer — 

Case of letterpress and stationery binding. • 

Stand, with two books, containing specimens of lettei'preas and 

lithographic printing (for inspection throughout). 
Pamphlets on stands on case, of which visitors are invited to take 

one. 

6 Boyal Commissioners for South Australia-— Case of furs and skins of 

native animals, &c. 

7 W. B. Cave ft Co., Lipson-street, Fort Adelaide — Ostrich feathers and 

eggs from birds bred and reared in the colony. 

8 Br. Sohomburgk, Botanic Oardens — Herbarium. (West gallery.) 

8a F. H. Burchell, Water Consenration Office, Government Offices- 
Designs, plans, and description of canalization adapted to the Eiver 
Murray, showing proposed improvements to surrounding country, 
&c., &c. 

9 W. Kennedy, Hoarlunga— Carving on slate. 

10 ** ** Carving on Oamaru stone. 

11 Hammer ft Co., Bundle-street, Adelaide— Photographs. 

12 Hiss E. B. Aird, Henley Beaoh—rVelvet mantel drape, inlaid T^-ith water- 
color i)ainting on porcelain. 

[ W. H. Heddle, West Hilton, c/o Hansen, Evans, ft Co. — Two carved 
marble picture frames. 

15 Various Decorations on Wall, descriptive of Australian flora, executed 
by the Misses L. Field, L. Eobinson, Sophie Bagot, and Mr. Eobinson. 

16 Hiss E. F. Broad, West-street, XJnley — Hand-painted mirror (bird and 
waterlilies). 

17 Hiss Humberstone, Hount Bat, Torke's Feninsula— Case of conework. 

18 Geo. Watson, Hount Gambler— Photographs. 

19 J. E. Brown, J.F., F.L.S., Conservator of Forests— Collection of 
lithographs, illustrating the Forest Flora of South Australia ; 
indigenous timbers, timbers of exotic trees grown in the colony; 
herbarium specimens ; seeds and seed vessels. 

Lithograph, showing leaves, flowers, seed-vessels, and bark of— 

1 Eucalyptus odorata, peppermint gum 

2 '* paniculata, panicle -flowered gum 

3 Acacia decurrens, black wattle 

4 Eucalyptus corynocalyx, sugar gum 

5 Acacia pyenantha, broad-leaved wattle 

6 Eucalyptus leucoxylon, blue gum 

7 * * Foreet Flora " title page 



18 \^ 
14/ 



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190 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

•OoBservator of Forefti— continued. 

lithograph, showing leaves, flowers, seed Teasels, and hark of— 

8 Bankbia ornata, scrub honeysuckle 

9 Eucalyptus cosmophylla, scrub gum 

10 Eucalyptus leucoxylon (var. macrocarpa), red-flowering blue gum 

11 Casuarioa distyla, scrub sheaoak 

12 ^* '^ (female flower), scrub sheaoak 

1 3 Eucalyptus viminalis, manna gum 

14 Dodonaea microzyga, small4eaved native hop 

15 Acacia longifolia, long-leaved wattle 

16 Bursaria spinosa, native box 

1 7 Eucalyptus paniculata, panicle- flowered gum 

18 Acacia Spilleriana, long flower- stalked wattle 

19 Eucalyptus odorata, peppermint gum 

20 Eremopbila oppositifolia, opposite-leaved eremophila 

21 ** altemifolia, alternate-leaved eremophila 

22 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, box gum 

'I'i ** pauciflora, south-eastern white gum 

24 ** viminalis, manna gum 
Slab of wood of — 

25 Eucalyptus leucoxylon, blue gum 

26 ** rostrata, red gum 

27 Acacia decurrens, black wattle 

28 Casuaiina quadrivalvis. sheaoak 

29 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 

30 Acacia homalophyUa, myaU 

31 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle 

32 Eucalyptus corynocalyx, sugar gum 

33 Acacia salicina, Broughton willow 

34 Eucalyptus capitellata, string^rbark 

35 Erythrophlaeum Laboucherii, inmwood (from N.T.) 

36 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

37 Melaleuca leucadendron, milkwood 

38 Albizzia procera, tee-coma 

39 Hard white wood (from N.T.) 

40 " " (side of case) 

41 Eucalyptus odorata, peppermint gum 

42 ^* viminalis, manna gum 

43 Melaleuca leucadendron (stained), milkwood 

44 Casuarina glauca, black oak 

45 Melaleuca squarrosa, bottlebrush teatree 

46 Eucalyptus Stuartiana, Stuart's gum 

47 Livistona australis, the cabbage palm 

48 Acacia homalophyUa, myall 

49 Pinus halepeneis, Aleppo pine 

50 " 

51 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 

52 Acacia aneura, mulga 

53 ** pycnantha, broad-leaved wattle 

54 Bursaria spinosa, native box 

55 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle 

56 Eucalyptus odorata, peppermint gum 

57 Ezocarpus cupressiformis. native cherry 

58 IHttosporum phill}'racoides, poison^berry tree 

59 Kobinia pseud-acacia, white acacia 

60 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, box gum 

61 Eremophila longifolia, long -leaved eremophila 
t2 White cedar (from N.T.) 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 191 

Consenrator of Forests— continued. 

Slab of wood of — 

63 Eucaljrptus goniocalyx, bastard box gum 

64 Callitris robusta, native pine 

65 Hard white wood from N.T. (side of case) 
Herbarium specimens of — 

66 Gasuarina quadrivalvis, sheaoak 

67 Eucalyptus amygdalina, messmate gum. 

68 Melaleuca paiTiSora, teatree 

69 Eucalyptus oleosa, mallee 

70 Myoporum insiilare, blueberry tree 

7 1 Eucal5T)tus incrassata, wakery gum 

72 Acacia aneura, mulga 

73 Eucalyptus viminalis, manna gum 

74 Callistemon coceineus, bottle-brush 

75 Kttosporum pbillyraeoWes, poison-berry tree 

76 Eucalyptus odorata, peppermint gum 

77 Melaleuca squarrosa, bottle -brush teatree 

78 Acacia decurrens, black wattle 

79 Eucalyptus Gunnii, white swamp gum 

80 ** corynocalyx, sugar gum 

81 " capitellata, stringy bark 

82 ** hemiphloia, box gum 

83 Acacia saHcina, Broughton willow 

84 Gasuarina glauca, black oak 

85 Acacia pycnantha, broad-leaf wattle 

86 Eremophila longifolia, long-leaved eremophila 

87 Banksia omata, scrub honeysuckle 

88 Eucalyptus pyriformis, large- fruited mallee 

89 Exocarpus cupressiformis, native cherry 

90 Eucalyptus leucoxylon, S.A. blue gum 

91 ** cosmophylla, scinib gum 

92 " pauciflora, white gum 

93 Eremophila oppositifolia, opposite-leaved ei'emophila 

94 Dodonaea microzyga, small-leaved native hop 

95 Gasuarina distyla, scrub sheaoak 
9h Eucal}7)tu8 gracilis, red mallee 

97 Santalum acuminatum, sandalwood 

98 Eucalyptus obliqua, common sttingybark 

99 Gailitris robusta, native pine 

100 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

101 Acacia retinodes, silver wattle 

102 Bursaria spinosa, native box 

103 Eucalyptus rostrata, red gum 

104 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle 

105 Santalum lanceolatum, sandalwood 
Veneer of — 

108 Gasuarina quadrivalvis, common sheaoak 

107 Eucalyptus corynocalyx, sugar gum 

108 Gailitris robusta, native pine 

109 Eucalyptus obliqua. stringybark 

110 Iron wood (from N.T.) 

1 1 1 White cedar (from N.T.) 

112 " 

1 1 H Ironwood (from N.T.) 

114 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 

115 Gailitris robusta, native pine 

116 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle ' 



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192 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Conservator of Forests— continued. 
Veneer of — 

117 White cedar (from N.T.) 

118 *; " 

119 Bonksia marginata, honeysuckle 

120 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 

121 ** rostrata, red gum 

122 Eucalyptus obU^ua, stringybark 

123 Casuarina quadriyalvis, sheaoak 
124 

125 Eucalyptus corynoealyx, sugar gum 

126 *• obbqua, stringybark 

127 '* rostrata, redgum 

128 ** obliqua, stringybark 

129 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

130 ** '* 

131 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 

132 Ironbark (from N.T.) 

133 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle 

134 Eucalyptus corynocalyX) sugar gum 

135 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

136 " ** 

137 Eucalyptus corynocalyx, sugar gum 

138 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle 

139 Ironwood (from N.T.) 

140 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 

141 Casuarina quadriyalyis, sheaoak 

Lithograph showing leaves, flowers, seed-vessels, and bark of — 

142 Casuarina quadrivalvis, sheaoak 

143 Eucalyptus leucoxylon, blue gum 

144 ** " (var. macrocarpa), white-flowering blue gum 

145 " " blue gum 

146 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

147 Acacia Spilleriana, long flower-spiked acacia 

148 Eucalyptus gracilis, mallee 

149 *' viminalis, manna gum 

150 *^ gracilis, mallee 

151 Exocarpus aphylla, native cherry 

152 Pittosporum pmllyraeoides, poison-berry tree 

153 Eucalyptus Gunnii, white swamp gum 

154 ** pauciflora, white gum 

155 Hakea multiliiieata, crimson-spiked hakea 

156 Eucalyptus paniculata, panicle-flowered gum 

157 ** odorata, peppermint gum 

158 Bursaria spinosa, native box 

159 Eucalyptus gracilis, white mallee 

160 Eremophila longif olia, long-leaved eremophila 

161 Acacia Spilleriana, long flower-spiked acacia 

162 Eremophila altemifolia, alternate -leaved eremophila, 

163 Melaleuca squarrosa, bottlebrush teatree 

164 Eucalyptus cosmophylla, scrub gum 

165 Bodonaea microzyga, native hop 

166 Acacia longifolia, long-leaved acacia 

167 Dodonaea lobulata, native hop 

168 Bursaria spinosa, native box 

169 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, box gum 

170 ** pyriformis, red-flowering mallee ^ 

171 '* odorata, peppermint gum 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 19^ 

Conservator of Forests— K^ntmued. 
Lithograph showing leaves, flowers, seed-yessela, and bark of — 

172 Eucalyptus paniculata, panicle-flowered gum 

173 Myoporum insulare, blue-berry tree 

174 Dodonaea microzyga, native hop 

175 Callistemon coccineus, bottlebrush 

176 Acacia decuiTens, black wattle 

177 Melaleuca squarrosa, bottlebrush teatree 

178 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, box gum 

179 Acacia decurrens, black wattle 

180 Eremophila longifolia, long-leaved eremoplula 

181 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle 

182 Acacia longifolia, long-leaved acacia 

183 Hakea multilineata, crimson- spiked hakea 

184 Myoporum insulare. blue-berry tree 

185 Eremophila oppositifolia, opposite-leaved eremophila 
Slabs of — 

186 Acer pseudo-platanus, sycamore 

187 " 

] 88 Crataegus nigra, black hawthorn 

189 ** ** 

190 Apple, No. I 

191 Apple, No. 2 

192 Ceratonia siliqua, carob tree 

193 ** •* 

194 Frazinus ezcehdor, English ash 

195 « " 

196 Laurus camphora, camphire tree 

197 " " 

198 Ulmus campestris, English elm 

199 *< " 

200 Salix viminalis, osier 

201 " »* 

202 Quercus pedunculata, English oak 

203 " '* 

204 Quercus Robur, English oak 

205 " 

206 Juglans regia, walnut 

207 '* ** 

208 English oak 

209 Macluiu aurantiaca, osage orange 

210 English oak 
211 

212 Larix Europaea, English larch 

213 . " . . ** 

214 Acacia salicina, Broughton willow 

215 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

216 Ironbark (from N.T.) 

217 Bursaria spinosa, native box 

218 Acacia salicina, Broughton willow 

219 ** retinodes, silver wattle 

220 '* aneura, mulga 

221 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, box gum 

222 Acacia pycnantha, broad-leaved wattle 

223 £ucal}i)tus Stuartiana, Stuart's gum 

224 Pinus pinea, stone pine 

225 Banksia marginata, honeysuckle 

226 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 



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194 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Conservator of Forests— continued. 
Seeds of — 
22Y Eucalyptus corynocalyz, sugar gum 

228 '' capitellata, stringybark 

229 Bohinia pseud-acacia, white acacia 

230 Pittosporum phill3rraeoides, poison-berry tree 

231 Eucalyptus rostrata, red gum 

232 Grevillea robusta, sUky oak 

233 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

234 White cedar (from N.T.) 

236 Tee-coma (from N.T.) 

^ 236 Eucalyptus iDcrassata, mallee 

237 '* viminalis, manna gum 

238 Acacia homalophylla, myaU 
Oumof — 

239 Xanthorrboea Tatei (gum), Kangaroo Island grass tree 

240 " (flower spike), Kangaroo Island grass tree 
Slab of — 

241 Eucalyptus corynocalyx, sugar gum 
Bark of— 

242 Acacia pycnantha, broad-leared wattle 
Slab of— 

243 Eucalyptus rostrata, redgum 
Bailway sleeper of — 

244 Eucalyptus bemipbloia, box gum 
Transverse section of — 

245 Eucalyptus rostrata, red gum 

246 " " 

247 '' odorata, peppermint gum 

248 ** corynocalyx, sugiar gum 
Bailway sleepers of — 

249 Euddyptus corynocalyx, sugar gum 
260 *^ rostrata, red gum 

Seed vessels of — 

251 Eucalyptus globulus, Tasmanian blue gum 
262 ** comuta, yate gum 

253 Biota orientalis, Chinese arbor vitas 

264 Finus tuberculata, tuberculated-coned pine 
266 ** contorta, contorted or twisted-branch pine 

256 Melaleuca hypericifolia 

257 Guflandina Bonducella 

258 Bhus rodanthma 

259 Hakea leucoptera 

260 Cassia Brewsterii 

261 Cupressus torulosa 

262 Lagunaria Pattersonii 

263 Elaeodendrum australe 

264 Clerodendron tomentosum 

265 Eucalyptus Lehmanni 

266 Pinus Sabiniana, Sabine's pine 

267 Tristania conferta 

268 Sterculia 

269 Eucalyptus calophylla, W, Australian red gum 

270 Pinus muricata, Bishop's pine 

271 Sequoia sempervirens, Califomian red wood 

272 CaUistemon speciosus, red bottlebrush 

273 Grevillea heliosperma 

274 Casuarina humilis 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 195 

Conseryator of Forests— continu6d. 
Seed vessels of — 

275 Acacia cyanophylla 

276 Cupressus sempervirens, common erect Cyprus 

277 Pinus halepensis, Aleppo pine 

278 Pinus grandis 

279 Quercus pedunculata, common British oak 
:i80 Eucalyptus passiflora, white gum 

281 Pittosporum phillyraeoides, poison-berry treo 

282 Hakea multilineata, crimson- spiked hakea 

283 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, box gum 

284 Dodonaea microzyga, small-leaved native hop 

285 Pinus insignis, remarkable pine 

286 Gedrus deodara, Indian cedar 

287 Pinus pinea, stone pine 

288 Eucalyptus incrassata, mallee' 

289 Acacia Spilleriana, long flower-stalked acacia 

290 Calletris rhomboidea, native pine' 

291 Dodonaea lobulata, lobe-leaved native hop 

292 Casuarina quadrivalvis, sheaoak 

293 Acacia decurrens, black wattle 

294 Eucalyptus pyriformis, large-fruited mallee 

295 * * corynocalyx, sugar guin 

296 " ■ gracilis, white mallee 

297 Casuarina glauca, black oak 

298 Juglans regia, common walnut 

299 Eucalyptus leucoxylon, blue gum 

300 ♦* odorata, peppermint gmn 

301 Quercus Bobur, sessile-fruited British oak 

302 Bursaria spinosa, native box 

303 Callistemon coccineus, bottlebrush 
;304 Casuarina distyla, scrub sheaoak 

305 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

306 Santalum lanceolatum, native sandalwood 

307 Araucaiia excelsa, Norfolk Island pine 
Seeds of — 

308 Acer Negundo, Canadian maple 

309 Sterculia, heterophylla, flame tree 

310 Platanus acerifolia, maple-l6aved plane 
Sll Betula alba, white birch 

^12 Aceropalus 

313 Acacia sentis 

314 Euginia Smithii 

315 Sterculia aoerifolia 

316 Tilia americana 

317 GreviUea robusta 

318 Eucalyptus paniculata, panicle-flowered gum 

319 «« leucoxylon 

320 Araucaria excelsa, Norfolk Island pine 

321 Hakea multilineata, crimson-spiked hakea 

322 Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood 

323 Exocarpus cupressiformis, native cherry 

324 Pinus pinea, stone pine / 

325 Achras sapota, common sapota 

326 Acer pseudo-platanus, sycamore 

327 Fraxinus excelsior, English ae^ 

328 Catalpa speciosa 

329 Gedrus deodora, Indian cedar 



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196 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Conservator of Forests— continued. 
Seeds of — 

330 Eucalyptus rostrata, red gum 

331 Ceratonia sHiqua, carob tree 

332 Melaleuca squarrosa, bottlebrusli teatree 

333 Casuarina quadrivalvis, sheaoak 

334 Finus insignis, remarkable pine 

335 Eucalyptus passiflora, white gum 

336 Acacia homalophylla, myall 

337 Pinus balepensis, Aleppo pine 

338 Acacia pycnantba, broad-leaf wattle 

339 Callistemon coccineus, bottlebrusb 

340 Eucalyptus corynocalyx, sugar gum 

341 ," var. macrocarpa, lai^-fruited^blue gum 

342 Sequoia gigantea, WeUingtonia 

343 Betula excelsa, birch 

344 Abies Douglasii, Douglas fir 

345 Eucal^tus odorata, peppermint gum 

346 Banksia omata, scrub honeysuckle 

347 Melia Azedarach, white cedar 

348 Casuarina glauca, black oak 

349 Myoporum insulare, blue-berry tree 

350 Eucalyptus capitellata, head-flowered string^bark 
361 Eremophila longifolia, long-leayed eremophda 

352 Bobinia pseud-acacia, white acacia 

353 ** " apricot 

354 Madura aurantiaca, osage orange 
356 Acacia decurrens, black wattle 
356 Eucalyptus obliqua, stringybark 

367 '' Gunnii, white swamp gum 

. Note. — ^All the exotic timbers represented were obtained from Highercombe^ 
the property of Sir B. D. Boss. 

20 Bobt. Walsh, Woodville— Exhibit of carving with penknife, consisting- 

of fans, screens, &c. 

21 Mrs. W. Marks, Thebarton— Case of wax flowers and fruits. 

22 Mayfleld & Sons, Bundle-street, Adelaide-rSuite of bedroom and 

dining-room furniture. 

23 F. Simpson, O'Gonnell-street, N.A.~ Suite of drawing-room furniture. 

24 T. S. Beed, Chairman Destitute Board ^Bamboo garden table and wall 

bracket. 

25 C. Matte, Stepney-street, Stepney — Inlaid table. 

26 P. Wilhelm, Eastwood— Specimens of tumerj% 

27 W. P. Evans, Tork Hotel, Adelaide— Fretwork pierglass and dressing- 

lable, hand made. 

28 Thos. Kerr, Company-street, Kew»-Walking sticks, hand made. Each 

stick represents 160 to 412 different Austredian woods. 

29 Boyal Commission — Stand containing walking sticks, made from myalL 

wood. 
80 P. Wilhelm, Eastwood — Turned cup on standi ornamented with ivory. 

31 O.E. & S. Best, O'Connell-street, K. A.— Specimens of riveted glass and. 

china, umbrellas, appropriately styled ** Patients from the China and 
Glass Infirmarj'.'* 

32 J. H. Bobertson, Chowilla — Three violins, made by on amateur. 

33 H. Huwald, Pirie-street —Walnut card table. 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 197 

:34 OLD COIiONISTS' COTJRT. 

HIRAM MILDRED. Honorary Secretary. 

HasmLer & Co., Adelaide, Exhibitors — 

1 Group of Old Colonists ; about 700. 

H. T. Morris, Esq., J.P., Kapunda, Exhibitor— 

2 Early settlement of Port Lincoln — Oil painting. 

3 Portrait, Geo. Milner Stephen, first Acting Governor. 

4 Photo, of Governor Sir John Hindmarsh. 

6 Portrait of John Hill, boatswain of the BuffcUo, 

6 ** Captain Thos. Lipson, EN., Ist Harbormaster, 1836. 

7 Portrait in oils, Sir John and Lady Hindmarsh. 
H. J. Moseley, Exhibitor— 

8 Group of Pioneers, 1836. 
Kapimda Institute, Exhibitor— 

9 Portrait of Frederick H. Button. 

Sir Henry Ayers, K.C.M.O., Exhibitor— 

10 Eight views of the Burra and Mine. 

11 Sample bags. Nobs and Snobs. 

12 Seven medals in re Burra Mine and Exposition, London and Paris. 

13 Cards, notes, orders. 

14 South Australian News, 1841. 

<0. Oerard Shaw, Exhibitor— 
Fortraita — 

15 Rev. J. Gardner. 

16 Sir J. H. Fisher. 

17 John Lazar. 

18 Bentham Neales. 

19 Eobert Sanders. 

20 Capt. Wm. Allen. 

21 Dr. Chas. Everard, pioneer, 1836. 

22 F. 8. Button. 

23 John Monk. 

U Mr. and Mrs. J. W. BuU. 

25 Thos. Bastard. 

26 Capt. Lipson, E.N. 

27 Sir E. E. Torrens. 

28 Capt. Dashwood, E.N. 

29 Capt. Douglas. 

30 Mr. J. W. Lewis. 

31 F. J. Sanderson. ' 

32 Samuel Chapman. 

33 M. B.Gaxlick. 

34 Mrs. Barnes. 

35 Alexander Watherstone. 

36 Mr. and Mrs. J. Chambers. 

37 Dr. Cotter. 

38 John Brown. 

.39 Sir G. S. Kingston. 

40 John Eapid Hoaxe. 

41 Mrs. Morgan, nee Fanny Finniss. 

Sketchea-^ 

42 Eailway Hotel, Port Adelaide. 

43 Moonta Mines. 

44 Matta Matta Mines. 



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198 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Old Colonists' Court— continued. 
Sketches — 

45 Eurilla Mines. 

46 Duryea Mine. 

47 Port Adelaide in 1846. 

48 Part of Adelaide in 1845, from north- west- 

49 St. John's Church. 

50 S.A. Go's. Mill, Torrens River. 

51 Hindle^- street, 1845, looking east. 

52 Elemzig Village. 

63 Government Offices, 1846. 

54 Frome Bridge. 

65 Hindley-street, looking west. 

66 City Mills. 

57 Government House and North-terrace. 

58 Crawford's Brewerjr, Hindmarsh. 

59 Old Colonial Celebrities, by Glover. 

Helies — 

60 Col. Light's first encampment. 

61 First Adelaide steeplechase. 

Seliea — 

62 Original Customs book, 1838. 

63 Correspondence re seizure Ville de Bordeaux, 1811.. 

64 Adelaide Examiner. 

65 Original ship's register or certificate. 

66 Original land grant. 

67 Journal of Lady Auffusta, up Murray. 
J. B. Adamson, Exhibitor — 

68 Oil painting, Hart*B settlement, Port Adelaide. 
Hiram Mildred (Pioneer), EzMbitor— 

Bookt, ^e.— 

'69 "Thursday's Review," 1860, by A. H. Davis* 

70 Fortonian, 1872, by Moodie. 

71 Mercury y iMiper, 1850, W. £. Hammond. 

72 Sixteen old books, almanacs, and directories. 

73 Scrap book and early records of New Holland fiwn 1787* 

74 " Land of Promise," 1838, bjr ** One Who is Going." 

76 "Voyages and Adventures^ in South Australia during 1 836-7-8, *"* 
by W. H. Leigh. 

76 " Colonial Sketches ; or, Five Tears in South AustraliLa/' by Robert 

Harrison, 1862. 

77 Government map of sections to 1860. 

78 Late Capt. Charles Sturt's sketches (46) on bis exploratory trip 

down the Murray and back in 1829>30 ; also, in some book,, notes 
of travel — Laidless Ponds, &c. 

79 South Amtralian^ newspaper, 1841 — Account of opening of new 

Port, list of colonists mvited, &c. 

80 Adelaide Guardian, October 12, 1839, printed in black margin — 

Colonel Light's funeral and procession. 
Belies-^ 

81 Bush knife, pipe, sail-hook, and rubber of the late Thomas Warriner, 

Babbage's exploring party. 

82 Tooth of first kangaroo caught by Wm. Cooper and native women. 

Sail and Doughboy (interpreters to Col. Light),, at Rapid Bay, 
Sept., 1836. 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 199 

Old Coloniiti' Court— continued. 
Helies — 

83 Piece of tree under which Burke and WilU died. 

84 Nardoo seeds, upon which they subsisted. 

85 Notice to attend Col. Light's funeral, October, 1839. 

Fainting — 

86 Encounter Bay, 1837, wrecks of Solwayj South Australian, and 

John Firie, near the whale fishing station, painted by the late- 
Henry Mildred, M.L.C. 
Portraits, Photos — 

87 Group of pioneers, 1836, consisting ,of late Admiral W. J. S.. 

Pullen, Wm. Jacob, his late son Charles Jacob, late Alfred Barker,, 
late George Mildred, R.N., late Rev. T. Q. Stow, late Henrv 
James Smith, late Henry Mildred, late Henry Hay, late W. 
Peacock, W. C. Crane, C. £. Goode and wife, late Bishop Short, 
George Davies, 0. Smith and wife, Hiram Mildred, and others. 

J^lies — 
8S Five colonial tokens (and two medals) used in early days of South 
Australia. 

Photo, Portraits^ 

89 Cabinet photo, of His Worship the Mayor, E. T. Smith. 

90 Robert Gouger, first Colonial Secretary. , 

91 Osmond Gilles, first Colonial Treasurer. 

92 Sir George Kingston, Surveyor-General. 

93 Sir James Hurtle Fisher, John Chambers and wife. 

94 NWhaniel Hailes (" Timothy Short "). 

Relies — 

95 Rush basket, made by native women. 

96 Two emu eggs. 

97 Girdle worn by Northern Territory natives. 

98 Silver model, old gumtree, property of Old Colonists' Association. 

99 Fossil shell, from the Stony Desert. 

100 Two fossil stones, from Central Australia. 

Sketches — 

101 Sketch, late Robert Gouger's tent, Glenelg, site of Proclamation. 

102 Adelaide, looking east, from Hindley-street west. 

103 Congregational chapel, near Kensington. 

Relies— 
. 104 First corporation seal (impression) of Adelaide. 

105 Programme on silk - First races, 1838 (lent by Miss Marian Fisher}. 

106 Coiuthard's canteen. This explorer perished at the Elizabeth, 

north-west of Port Augusta, in 1858, and was close to water at 
the time. His sufferings are scratched in detail by him on the 
canteen. 

Mrs. Wilson, Ezhibitor— 

107 Portrait of late Stephen King, S.M., one of our early sheep 

squatters. 

108 Portrait of late Stephen King, jun., one of J. McD. Stuart's party. 

109 Adelaide, in 1840. Sketch, primitive buildings. 
S. J. Skipper, Exhibitor.— 

110 Old Government House, by Gill. 

111 Graham's Castle, in 1849, by Gill. 

112 Pioneers at work. 



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iOO SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Old Cfolonisti' Court— continued. 
Sketehea— 

118 A bygone bridge. 

114 Old gumtree, 1836. 

115 Late Bobert Thomas's hut, at Glenelg, in 1836. 

116 Cottage in early days, in 1844. 

117 Hut, near Brighton, in 1850. 

118 Ship Buekinghatnthire, 

119 Views of early Adelaide. 

120 Old Port and road to Adelaide. 

121 Oil painting, South Australian scenery. 

122 Landing-place, old Port. 

123 Old Port, in early days. 

124 Sketches of natiyes. 

125 Natives in European garb. 

126 Glenelg in 1840. 

127 Adelaide in 1841. 

128 Portrait of J. M. Skipper, in 1836. 

129 Four sketches by Colonel Li^ht. 

130 Port Adelaide and shipping, m 1838. 

131 Encounter Bay whaling station. 

132 Tankalilla, in old times. 

133 Boad to Port Adelaide in 1836. 

134 Benjamin Pain, Regitter runner, his horse and dog; more com- 

monly known in the past as ** The Admiral." Copied by S. J. 
Skipper, from the original in Mr. Bundey's possession. 

G. W. Cole, EzMbitor— 

135 Bust of the late Bey. T. Q. Stow, first Congregational minister of 

South Australia. 

— Flint (of Saliflbory), Exhibitor— 

136 J. McD. Stuart's prismatic compass. 

137 Photo, copy J. McD. Stuart holding British flag on the shores of the 

Indian Ocean, Northern Territory. 

138 S. A. Goyemment Gold Beceipt Escort Book. 

Beliet — 

139 Old pocket globe, celestial and terrestrial, made in 1783 — 104 years 

old. Beautifully made and in excellent preservation, by J. 
Newton, London. 

140 Portraits of the late Mr. and Mrs. Barton Hack. These worthy 

pioneers* names still remain green among a gi-eat many colonists. 
Mr. Hack was our first merchant (Hack, Watson, & Co.), who 
built the premises in Hindley- street known as McLean, Kigg's 
warehouses and shops. 

Osmond Oilles, nephew of the late Osmond Oilles, first Colonial 
Treasurer — 

141 Osmond Gilles' sword, from Vietoryj 101 years old ; served under 

Lord Nelson at the battle of the Nile ; also London watchman's 
rattle. 
Caire, Exhibitor — 

142 Hendrickson (portraits] Mr. and Mrs. 

143 Native Weapons. 

John Stock, of Bosewater, Tatala, Exhibitor— 

144 Four walking sticks. These are carved out by the exhibitor with 

simply a pocket knife. 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 201 

Old Colonisti' Court — continued. 
Itelies— 
Mr. Newman, Exhibitor— 

145 D. D. Hergott*s diary. Xorthem explorations, and sketches taken 

by him on crossing the continent with J. Met). Stuart. 

A. T. Hodson's Victorian lUastrationB — 

146 Scrap book, Burke and "Wills, and a variety of newspaper en- 

gravings, referring to the Burke and Wills departure on exploring 
trips, Leichardt*s, and others. 

Mrs. C. A. WUson, Exhibitor— 

147 Sketches of Stuart*s expedition, by Stephen King, jun. A very 

intei-esting collection. 

148 ♦Portrait of late C A. Wilson, Prothonotary of the Supreme Court, 

in crayons, by his daughter, 1838. 

149 Portrait of late Stephen King, of Kingsford. 

150 Adelaide in 1840, by A. J. Bale. 

151 ♦Mr. Chas. Algernon Wilson, was known as Amaturae Naturae. 

Mrs. B. 0. Thomas, Exhibitor— 

152 Portrait, Mrs. R. Thomas (pioneer), 183C. 

153 Portrait, Mrs. R. G. Thomas (pioneer), 1836. 

154 Col. Light's pocket compass. 

Mrs. B. H. Bobinson, Exhibitor— 
156 Portrait, late J. M. Skipper (pioneer). 
Mr. Billiatt, Glenelg, Exhibitor — 

156 Flags of welcome to J. McD. Stuart, on his return from Port 

Darwin, N.T. 

157 Chip of mangrove upon which Stuart hoisted flag at Northern 

Territory, 1862. 

158 J. W. Billiatt*s pipe, used in 1861-2 across the continent. 

159 Quart-pot, bags, tinder-box, knife and spoon. 

160 Belt, seeds, shells. 

161 Fourteen pencil sketches taken en route j in frame. 

162 Pocket sketchbook of remarkable places and incidents en route to N.T. 

163 Piece bark of tree, Northern Territory ; McDouall Stuart's initials, 

from t^ie shores of the Indian Ocean. 

0. Bag^enhardt, of Orroroo, Exhibitor — 

164 Original copy of second number of South Australian Gazette and 

Colonial JUgister^ being an excellently preserved copy of the 
first paper printed in the colony; each sheet has been fixed 
with two glasses in three frames, hinged together. 
Adams, Exhibitor — 

165 Late C. B. Howard's Bible and Prayer-book, first Colonial Chap- 

lain, and presented to his clerk, Mr. Adams. 

William Oarson, Exhibitor — 

166 H.M. ship Buffalo. — This is a rough oil painting, by a midshipman 

of the Buffalo, young Pearce. 
Relies — 
Mrs. Colonel Barber, Exhibitor — 

167 Nine native spears. 
108 Two boomerangs. 

169 Two pipestems, mounted in silver ; bird's leg bones, albatross legs. 

170 Two Northern Territory necklaces and native bangles. 



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202 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Old ColoniBts' Court— contiiiued. 
^lict — 
Jaxoei Scott — 

171 Copy of Adelaide ■ Examiner f 24tli September, 1842, by George* 

Denane, one of oiir early papers, somewhat outspoken in character. 
Cnstoxos Department, Port Adelaide, Lent by—Portimta of Collectors 
of Customs from 1836, viz. : — 

172 Capt. Thomas Lipson, R.N. 

173 Sir R. R. Torrens. 

174 Capt. G. F. Dashwood, R.N. 
176 Capt. B. Douglas. N.T. 

176 J, W, Lewis, Esq. 

177 F. J. Sanderson, Esq. 
Port Adelaide Institute— 

178 Old order, promise to pay two and sixpence change. 1852. John 

Carruthers. These orders were used by some country settlers as a 
substitute for change. 
William Shakeshaft, painter, of Kapunda— 

179 John Hill holding flag at proclamation of the c(dony, Glenelg, 

December 28, 1836. 
O. W. Cole, Exhibitor— 

180 Bust late Rev. T. Q. Stow, by G. Cole, sculptor. 
J. H. Angas— 

181 Oil painting, portrait late Georj^e Hamilton, formerly Commissioner 

Police, eany settler and overlander. 
Wm. Bains- 

182 Portrait, William Rains, pioneer. 
Boyal Commissioners — 

183 Sample wax figures of lubra and piccaninnies, and male figure of 

. aborigine, at entrance of Court. 



35 0. A. Bogerson, Exeter— Piano, made by the Exhibitor. 

36 8. Solomon, Adelaide— Stand, &c. Contractor for photography to the 

Exhibition. 

37 P. and 0. Steam Navigation Company (Elder, Sihith, k Co., Agents, 

Adelaide)— Model of P. and 0. ss. Mosetta. 

38 Edmond Elonmond Lefever, \ v^vav;*.. / Bronze statue, "Cinder- 

68, Bue Josaphat, Schaer- i ^^ \ ella." 

39 Clia8.Brunin,271,BueBogier, i 7?if!f^ I A souvenir of Venice^ 

Brussels. J ^^^^- \ " Pigeons of St. Mart;." 

40 P. and 0. Steam Navigation Company (Elder, Smith, & Co., Agents, 

Adelaide) —Model of steamer representing the P. and 0. Company's 
four new vessels, viz.:— the Vietoriay £ritanntaf Oeetmia, and 
Arcadia. 

41 Heniy Schiekel, Bundle-street — ^Exhibition bookstall. 

42 J. W. Barnes, Oeorge-street, Norwood— Architectural modelling, ** A 

Tribute to Apollo ; ** vase and pedestal and capital of column in pencil. 
48 Bedford Wells — Carved table upon which previous exhibit stands. 
44 Aerated Water and Brewing Company, Axigas-street, Adelaide — Sltow- 

case containing aerated watei-s, cordials, liqueurs, bittei-s, &c. 
46 W. H. Burford & Son, Sturt-street, Adelaide— Showcase containing 

candles, busts in stearine, samples of glycerine, margarine, pitchy 

oleine, oleic acid, &c., &c. 



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EXHIBITS—MAIN BUILDING. 205 

46 Boyal Conmusflioners— Turnery sx>ecimens in Australian wood. 

47 J. Turner, Xnightsbridge— Wooden cliain, without joints, carved out 

of solid apple wood. 

48 H. H. Wallenstein, Oouger-street— Natural formation of willow- tree. 

49 W. J. Kott, Blanohetown— Veneer of honeysuckle. 

iO Adelaide Crystal loe. Company, 45, Exchange, Adelaide —Samples of 
rice starch, of two varieties, cornflour, and liquid ammonia. 

51 Boyal Conunisaioners— Ostrich eggs and carved walking-sticks. 

52. Arthur Hardy, H.F., Mount Lofty — Samples of' cork-bark and acorns,, 
chestnuts, and filberts, grown by him at Mount Lofty. 

53 Wm. Andrews, Arcade, Adelaide— Kubber stamps and specimens of 

stamping. 

54 J. H. Earner, Orenfell Chambers, Orenfell-street— Engravings on 

brass salver, designed and executed by the exhibitor. 
55. Heyers ft Sons, Korth-terraoe- -Specimens of dentistry, T\ith set of f als& 
teeth in motion. 

56 E. Margetts, Farkside— Tomato and Worcester sauces, pickles, &c. 

57 W. ft H. Kimher, Weodleigh Gardens, Clare— Home-made jams. 

58 C. J. Hamilton, c/o Byan ft Co., Oray-street, Adelaide— Tomato and 

"Worcester sauce. 

59 7. Wurm, Stansbury— Specimens of dried fruits, consisting of raisins, 

currants, dried apples, flgs, prunes, apricots, and peaches, almonds^ 
olive oil, silk cocoons, carob beans, cereals, wool, and agricultural 
seeds. 

80 Hall ft Son, Korwood— Cordials, liqueurs, and aerated waters. 

61 Wm. Murray, Olen Osmond — Jams and marmalade, in glass jahi. 

82 Wilkinson ft Hason, 71, King William-street— Samples of the follow- 
ing wines from the celebrated vineyai'ds of Sir R. D. Boss, Sir Thos^ 
Elder, Sir Samuel Davenport, Hon. John Crozier, Auldana vineyard, 
Mr. Wm. Gilbert, Mr. Thos. Hardy, Messrs. Smith 3c Sons, Messrs. 
S. ft W. Sage, Mr. Wm. Jacob, Mr. B. Seppelt, Messi-s. Penfold and 
Co., and Mr. J. Crompton, viz. : — Claret, riesling, chablis, saturne, 
grenaohe, shiraz, tokay, burgundy, muscatel, constantia, frontignac, 
sherry, and port. 

63 B. Forth, Bridge-street, Kensington— Oil, olive, produce of the years 

1886-6-7. 

64 Walters ft Co., Freeman-street, Adelaide— Apiaiian appliances, cone^ 

foundations, fumigators, and section frames. 

65 B. Seppelt, Seppeltsfleld, P.O., Oreenook— Trophy of wines, spirits,. 

cordials, liqueurs, bitters, and vinegar ; photograph of establishment ;. 
medals and diplomas ; various specimens of export packages, barrels, 
cases, &c. 

66 Byan ft Co., Gray-street, Adelaide — Aerated waters, ginger wine and 

brandy, bitters, limejuice, raspberry vinegar, quinine champagne, 
bottled ale and stout, tomato and Worcester sauces. 

67 0. L. Barnard ft Co., Walkerville — Numerous samples of olive oil. 

68 Mem ft Co., Wakefleld-street, Adelaide— Trophy of biscuits. 

69 John Hood, Bundle-street, Adelaide — Six enlargement photographs,. 

hand-painted ; water-color painting (church). 

70 Mrs. Strawbridge, Magill -Painting of wild flowers from Kangaroo 

Island. 

71 0. Kinderman ft Son, Bundle-street— Trophy of brides' cakes, con- 

fectionery, and table decorations in sugar. 

72 Mr. J. F. Mellor, Holinfirth, Fulham— Vase of flowers, made from flsb 

scales, decorating an emu egg. 
78 Mrs. Teakle, Oolden Grove— Vase of shell flowers. 



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:^04 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

74 H. Bnring, Firie-street, sole agent for Spring Vale lllneyard ; pro- 

prietor, J. M. Biehman, Esq.— ^ropby of wines, consisdng of 
madeira, claret, mataro, sheiry, port, grenache, palomino, bianco, 
reisling, old sherry, and showing cup awarded to J. M. Bichman for 
full-bodied light wine, 1875, by the Royal Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society. 

75 Calder ft Balfonr, Bnndle-street, Adelaide — Trophy of biscuits of 

yarious descriptions. 
78 Crowder ft Co., Franklin-street, Adelaide— Aerated waters, raspberry, 
eucalyptus, and other bitters, quinine wine, lemon syrup, and -sarsa- 
parilla. 

77 Stephen ft Co., Wajrmonth-street, Adelaide - Bottled ale and stout, 

limejuice and syrups, bitters, ginger wine and brandy, currant wine, 
and other varieties. 

78 Angaston Court, represented by— 

S. Smith ft Sons, Angaston —Photographs of Angaston and neigh- 
borhood. 

Henry Marshall, Angaston — Dried fruits, mineral collection, and 
marble. 

Sibley, Angaston Harble Co., Angaston — Mineral collection and 
marble. 

Smith ft Son, Talnmba Vineyard, Angaston — Canned fruits and 
tomatoes, fresh fruits; trophy of -^Tnes — consisting of port, 
sherry, claret, reisling, irontignac, constantia, and muscatel ; 
medals and diplomas and silver cup. . 

Dayey ft Sons, Angaston — ^Trophy of wheat and its products, to 
the finest silk-dressed flours. P&otograph of mill, and residence 
of the proprietor. 

79 Charles Todd, C.M.O., Fostmaster-Oeneral, Adelaide— Tel^raphic tele- 

phone apparatus, showing the old systems and modem improvements. 

1 Post, telegraph, telephone, and money-order office, showing system 

of private-lock boxes 

2 Telephone exchange 

3 Bichards' self-recording barograph and thermograph 

4 Cook & Wheatstone's first five and one needle telegraph instruments 

5 Henley*8 magnetic double and single needle instruments 

6 Morse telegraph instruments of all kinds, including Siemens' 

recorders, ink-writers, and embosser 

7 Sounders 

8 Sending keys for open and closed circuits 

9 Belays, various— bi-polar, polarised, and differential 

10 Lightning arresters 

11 Switches and commutators 

) 2 Transmitters or pole changers for double-current lines 

13 Automatic repeaters 

14 Single, duplex, and quadruplex instruments 

15 Wheatstone's alphabetical telegraph instruments 

16 Siemens' ** ** •* 

17 Henley's " ** 
Instruments for testing electrical circuits — 

18 Sir Wm. Thomson's mirror reflectiDg galvanometer 

19 " " marine galvanometer 

20 M. Duprez dead beat reflecting galvanometer 

21 British post office tangent galvanometer 

22 Siemens Bro's. universal testing galvanometer 

23 " astatic "Wheatstone bridge galvanometer 

24 Large astatic differential galvanometer 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 205- 

FMtmaiter-Oeneral— continued. 
Telegraphio telephone apparatus — 

25 Sensitive horizontal 

26 Galvanoscopes, different forms 

27 Besistance coils, different forms, from 1 ohm to 250,000 ohms 

28 Large resistance set, arranged as Wheatstone bridge 

29 Small testing set for telephone lines 

30 Keys for testing purposes 

31 Electric clock 

32 Instruments for testing electrical circuits 

33 Watchman's time detector 

34 Electro-motors 

35 Experimental apparatus of various kinds 

36 Batteries foi different purposes 

Telephones— 

37 Receivers (80) of different kinds arranged as a trophy 

38 Telephone sets, complete, mounted on board over telephone eas-- 

change 

39 Telephone cable connecting box 

40 Cable specimens— submarine, subterranean, and aerial 

41 Postage and duty stamps 

42 Postal notes 

43 Thermo-electric pile 

44 Browning's automatic spectroscope 

45 Maclean's star spectroscope 

46 Star maps, showing all stars down to the 5th magnitude above the 

horizon at Adelaide, at 9*30 p.m., in the middle of each month 

47 Improved Stevenson's thermometer screen, with dry and wet bulb- 

maximum and minimum thermometers 

48 Bain gauge 

49 Bichard Fr^re's barograph and thermograph 

Exhibits lent to the Telegraph Department by the Eastern Extension^ 
Australasia, and China Telegraph Company, Limited: — 
Saunders* fire-alarm system' including — 
60 Beceiving box of six vibrators 

51 Electro-magneto reply box 

52 Alarm boxes (5) 

53 Case cable specimens 

54 Exchange Telegraph Co's. type-printer 

65 Photograph of type-printer transmitter 

66 Saunders' automatic Morse register 

67 " " cable transmitter 

68 " translation switch 

69 ** Morse curb-current key 

60 Bullock's Morse sounderets, in cases (2) 

61 Saunders' double-fine wire lightning guard 

62 Allan & Brown's small relay 

63 " large ** 

64 Sii- "Wm. Thomson's cable recorder, complete 

65 Saunders' cable sending key 

80 Aerated Bread Co., Waymouth-street, Adelaide— Trophy of biscuits. 

81 Alex. Murray ft Son, Coromandel Valley— Trophy of preserved jams, 

biscuits, brides* cakes, and confectionery, also medals and diplomas for- 
the same. ~ 

83 T. Dnryea, Bnndle-street, Adelaide— Photographs and enlargements. 



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i06 SOUTH AUSTRALIA- 

88 Otto Boettger, Flinders-street, Adelaide— Scientific instruments, 
theodolite and level of latest designs and newest improvements, 
specimens of gear cutting and pantographs; also testimonials from 
Surveyor-General (G. W. Goyder), Oswald Brown (late Hydraulic 
Engineer), and J. W. Jones, Conservator of Water. 

84 K. E. T. Kaines, Cnrrie-street, Adelaide— Showcase containing variety 
of South Australian wines (sherrj^, port, burgundy, claret, reiding). 

35 Meteorological Society of S.A., Adelaide — Instruments used in 
meteorological surveys. 

86 Boyal Commission for 8.A. — Showcase of olive oils, from the plantations 
of Sir Samuel Davenport, Beaumont; Wm. Jacobs, Moorooroo; Stefano 
Alberto. Adelaide; A. & S. Monte, Glanville; Her Majesty's Gaol, 
Adelaide ; G. L. Bamai-d, Walkerville; Anderson & Co. ; Kobertson, J. 
Angas-street ; also essential oils prepared by G. A. Goyder, Surveyor- 
General's Department — extixicted from S.A. plants— prepared and 
exhibited by direction of Hon. Conmiissioner of Crown Lands. 

SI Thos. Hardy, Bankside Vineyard^Large vat, capable of holding 4,000 

gallons, made of Tasmanian blackwood, and executed to order of T. 

Hardy, by J. F. Gumer, cooper, Adelaide, the interior of which is 

decorated with medals, diplomas, cups, &c. ; also a display of wine of 

the following: — Reisling, doradilla, old red, moolaroo (red and 

w^hite), oomoo (red and white), Angaston sherry, frontignac, ver- 

deilho, sweet white, old white, Nos. 1 and 2 claret, carbonet, old 

shiraz, sweet red, i^ngaston port, Australian port, and constantia; 

also, olive oil, pickled oUves, almonds ^of five vaiieties), dried 

apples and fruits, muscatels, Valencia and omer, raisins, currants, &c.; 

views of Tintarra vineyard, looking north and south. 

38 \ 

eg I Boyal Commission for 8.A.— Agricultural and horticultural trophies. 

"90 Bojral Commission f6r 8.A.— Wax model of blackfellow producing fire 

by friction. Modelled by A. Saupe. 
"91 W. P. 8tokes— Neptune's cup, from Straits Settlement, found under 30 

fathoms of water. ^ 

92 United Vigneron Trophy, representing wines from the following vine- 

yards: — Highercombe, Birksgate, The Grange, Holmsdale, Bankside, 
Saltram, Beaumont, Oaklands, Moorooroo, Auldana, Spring Yale, 
Yalumba, Pewsey Vale, and Seppeltsfield. 

93 T. B. Bobson, Heotorville — Dried raisins, currants, almonds, and 

unfermented wine. 

94 Boyal Commission for 8.A.— Bottled fruits, jellies, and preserves. 

^5 Edwin Smith, Clifton Hnrsery— Flower stand, with right to sell 

bouquets and plants. 
^ Boyal Commission for 8. A.— Wax models of fruits, taken from original 

sizes, modelled especially for the Commissioners by Mrs. George Gray 

and Mrs. EofPe Searcy. 
^7 E. B. Heyne ft Co., Bundle-street - 

1 ( 'OUection of dried and everlasting flowers and grass. 

2 Collection of garden and agricultural seed. 

^ Boyal Commission for S.A.— Large case. Transparencies of South 

Australian fi-uits. This handsome case was made by Messrs. Mac- 

Dougall & Gow. 
^ Hiss Lanra Campbell-^Vase, containing wax models of fruit. 
100 Kiss Pitzpatrick, Horth-terraee, Adelaide— Carving in sepia; bridal 

bouquet wreath of orange blossoms, and coat of anus carved from cuttle 

fish. 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 207 

101 E. ft W. Haekett, Bundle-street, Adelaide — Showcase, eontaining 

' collection of cereals, gaitlen seeds, native peach stones, almonds, chest- 
nuts, horse chestnuts, evening primrose seed (the plant of which is 
used very much as fodder), walnuts, acorns, oobnuts, filberts, and 
basket of agricultural fodder plants (dried) ; this showcase was made 
hj Messrs. Mayfield & Son. 

102 Pettfold ft Co.— Collection of wines from Grange vineyard. 

103 Oeorge Cflark, William-street, Norwood — Eight-day skeleton ^[uarter 

chime clock ; eight bells ; dead beat escapement ; all wheel-cutting and 
pinion-making and entire mechanism is the personal work of exhibitor. 

104 H. A. Evans, Evandale — Specimens of various dried fi-uits, tastefully 

and neatly arranged ; decorated with photograph of orchard and vine- 
yard of proprietor, and men and women at work in the process of 
preparing apples for drying. Agent in Adelaide, D. Comrie & Co., 
Gilbert-place, Adelaide. 

105 Coleman ft May, Fairfield Apiary, Mount Barker— Honey, in glasis jars, 

for tabic purposes, and in tins especially made for keeping and export ; 
section boxes, containing honey, beeswax, &c. ; photograph of apiary. 

106 J. F. Lorraine, 109, King WUllam-street— Glass showcase, containing 

clock, mounted on model of the " Old Gum Tri3e,*' Glenelg. . 

107 8. Schlank, Freeman-street, Adelaide— An assortment of jewellery, 

neatly arranged. — Archbishop's staff, claret jug (with chased design 
representing the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition), two 
inkstands, emu and kangaroo, Adelaide coat of arms. These articles 
have been purchased by the Archbishop of Adelaide for transmission 
to the Papal Exhibition of Rome. 

108 A. LBmnkhorst, Bundle-street, Adelaide — Showcase, containing 

jewellery of aU descriptions, epergnes, cups and vases, tankards, 
mounted emu eggs, tea and coffee services, inkstands, &c., &c. 

109 8. A. Ooyemment, represented by the Hon. Commissioner of Crown 

Lands — A splendid display of gold in nuggets and specimens of gold- 
bearing quartz, obtained at the Teetulpa and other goldfields, and 
representmg the following nuggets : — 

. No. Description. Weight. 

Ozs. dwts. grs. 

1 Nugget, Brady's Gully 19 7 6 

2 ** " 13 12 22 

3 " ** 4 16 6 

4 " ** 10 1 

6 " ** 10 8 6 

6 •* " 4 14 

7 " " 3 16 

8 '« " 2 12 

9 '* " 4 

10 " " 14 18 8 

11 ** " 3 3 12 

12 ** ** 6 12 22 

13 " Goslin's Gully!!!! !!!!'.'!!!!'.'..*.!! s is O 

14 " Brady's GuUy 11 7 7 

16 " Goslin'sGuUy 6 4 16 

16 " Brady'sGuUy 8 7 18 

17 " ** 8 14 

18 " Goslin's Gully.... 7 1 12 

19 «* ** 11 9 19 

20 " " 7 19 11 



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2C8 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

S. A. Ooyemment— continued. 

No. Description. height. 

Oz8. dwts. gr», 

21 Nagget, Brady's GuUy 1 4 8 

22 " " (the "Joker") 29 15 

23 " " 21 8 12 

24 " " 10 9 

25 ** Strawbridge's Gully 5 3 15 

26 " Brady'sGuUy 7 16 G 

27 " *• 8 6 18 

28 " " 9 2 

29 " •* 5 10 23 

30 " " 7 11 

31 " ** 2 18 8 

32 ** ** , 4 9 8 

33 " Goelin'B Gully!!!!!.*!! !!!!.*! !.*.*.*!! 13 17 22 

34 ** Brady'sGuUy 6 6 18 

35 Twe specimens, Brady's Gully, quartz and gold — 

36 Nugget, Brady's Gully 3 10 

87 *' " 3 12 2 

38 Specimen, Dam Gully, quartz and gold — 

39 Nugget, Biddy's Gully 2 9 12 

40 " Dam Gully 2 4 4 

41 " Brady'sGuUy 3 12 22 

42 " " 8 13 3 

43 " Gumeraolia, Watt's GuUy 14 8 

44 Nugget, Echunga, Blackwood Gully 4 18 14 

45 ** " ** 2 6 10 

46 Specimen, quartz and gold. Windlass Hill, Teetulpa — 

47 Nugget, Echunga, Blackwood Gully 1 15 10 

48 •* Brady'sGully 1 10 

49 '* ForestBange 4 14 

50 << Echunga, Blackwood Gully 1 5 20 

5 1 Specimen, quartz and gold, German Beef, Mount 

Pleasant — 

62 Nugget, Brady's Gully, exhibited by R. Sayers 1 16 12 

53 •* DeepGuUy 12 1 6 

54 Ten specimens, quartz and gold. Ironclad Beef, 

Much & McKay — 

55 Loose gold, ForestBange, Jas. Lore's estate.. 43 9 1 

56 ** Morialta, Mrs. Baker's estate .... — 

57 " " exhibited by Mrs. Baker — 

68 Nugget, Teetulpa, with stand, exhibited by 

J. B. Can- — 

69 Loose gold, Teetulpa 117 

69 »* " 117 

59 •* " 117 

59 " « 117 

60 Ulooloo gold — 

61 Echunga crystalline gold, exhibited by V. Law- 

rence, Esq. — 

61 Do. do. — 

62 Barossa gold 2 8 3 

63 Gold in quartz, from Penryn Mine, Mount 

Pleasant — 

64 Gold in quartz, Mount Pleasant — 

65 " Blumberg — 

66 Echimga gold ; — 



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EXHIBITS— MAIN BUILDING. 209 

S. A. Ctovemment— continued. 

No. Description. l^eight. 

Ozs. dwts. gTs, 

67 Surface stone, found near Quom by Mr. White — 

68 Woodside, Brind Mine, nugget, J. C. F. J. . . — 

69 <* seven specimens quartz and gold •. . — 

70 " alluvialgold — 

71 Blumberg, gold in quartz, exhibited by Hon. — 

D.Murray — 

72 Talunga, gold in quartz, 1 3 specimens, exhibited 

by J . T. Tumbull, Esq — 

73 Mingary, quartz and gold — 

74 Forest Kange 'gold 3 3 

75 Quartz and gold, Mount Pleasant, Treloar & Co. — 

76 Nugget and specimen, Moonta daim. Ironclad 

Reef, Teetulpa — 

77 Brady'sGully 6 13 22 

78 Woodside, nugget, no weight given , — 

110 S.A. OoYernment, represented by the Hon. Commissioner of Crown. 

Lands — Showing cake of retorted gold, &c. : — 
Large cake of gold, weighing 470oz8., value £1,880, result of 24 
days* crushing in the monUi of June, 1887, obtained from 417 
tons, from Alma Mine, Waukaringa. 

111 Dr. Cleland, Farkside— Silk cocoons, educated at Parkside Lunatic 

Asylum Magnanarie; also reeled siUc and cocoons deposited by the 
worm in nests prepared for the purpose. 

112 Miss May Scott, Femleigh Cottage, Korwood— Collection of Indian 

silks in raw state. 

113 S.A. Ostrich Company, Limited, Fort Augusta— Display of ostrich 

feathers and eggs from birds reared on the farm of the company ; 
photographs showing herds of ostriches on feeding ground, also process 
of collecting feathers, &c. 

114 J. M. Wendt, Bundle-street, Adelaide— Showcase containing eper^e 

(valued at £250) and candelabras, scent caskets, prize cups ^includmg 
one presented to the S.A. Yacht Club by Lord Brassey), inkstands, 
mounted emu eggs in all descriptions, diamond sets, tea and coffee 
services ; also the celebrated spinel, tiie property of the Sev. A. 
Honnor, weighing 285 grains, the intrinsic value about £23,000^ 
supposed to have been cut 400 years ago ; gold specimens from 
Forest Range. 

115 Mrs. Higgins, Melbourne-street, North Adelaide -Patchwork table- 

cover in showcase. 

^RT GA-LLEIRY. 

A. Saupe, modeller, Kelson-street, Stepney— 
lie Bust of Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G.,L.L.D., modelled from life. 

117 Bust of E. T. Smith, Esq., M.P. 

Henry Clayton, Artist to His Excellency the Gtovemor, Albert- 
terrace, Carrington-street— 

118 Portrait of Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G., painted full length. 

in oils. 
118a Portrait of Sir W. C. Robinson, K.C.M.G. 

A. McCormac, Barton-terrace— 

119 Portrait of Sir Geo. Kingston, late Speaker House of Assembly, S.A. 

120 Portrait of Sir R. R. Torrens, G.C.M.G. 

EASTERN- G--A.LX.EJRY. 

121 H. F. Gill, principal— Collection of exhibits by artists and students of 

the School of Design. 

o 



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210 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



EASTERN ANNEXE. 

122 Surveyor-General's Department, Gh>vemment Offices, Adelaide— 

1 Map of Australia, showing railway connections, telegraphic and mail 

routes, and lines of exploration. 

2 Map of Australia, showing lands alienated and pastoral leases of S.A, 

123 J. Colton ft Co., Cnrrie-street, Adelaide— Harness and saddlery, travel- 

ling hoxes and trunks, dressing-cases, Gladstone bags, &c. 

124 F. H. Faulding ft Co., King William-street, Adelaide— Pharmaceutical 

preparations, essential oils, baking powders, perfumery, insect 
powder, &c. 
126 W. ft T. Bhodes, Bundle-street, Adelaide — Plumbing, bath and sanitary- 
appliances. 

126 S. Moss (Wirrilda Jam Factory), Wirrilda, Stirling West— Jams, pre- 

serves, and tomato sauce. 

127 Waverley Vinegar Company, West-terrace, Adelaide —Vinegar, mustard, 

olive oil, &c. 

128 D. ft J. Fowler, King William-street, Adelaide— Confectionery, blended 

teas, preserves, jams, coffee, sauces, &c. 

129 Holden ft Frost, Orenfell-street, Adelaide— Saddlery and harness. 

130 A. Simpson ft Son, Oawler-place, Adelaide — Bedsteads, kitchen ranges, 

apiarian appliances, kerosine and gas stoves, ovens, galvanized tubs 
and buckets, fire and burglar-proof safes, &c. 

131 F. Oay, Snndle-street, Adelaide— Billiard-table. 

.Qo f Mrs. J. L. Scott, Edgeware-road, Hyde Fark— Macrame lace. 

\ Mr. J. L. Scott, Edgeware-road, Hyde Fark— Specimens of turnery. 

133 W. E. Ekins, King William-street, Adelaide - Guns, revolvers, and 

fittii^s of all descriptions. 

134 Ferd. daetjens, Elbe Villa, Wakefield-street, Adelaide— Fancy fret- 

work. 

135 J. 0. Nash, Hindmarsh-sqnare, Adelaide— Specimens of turner}- in iron 

and steel. 

136 Miss M. Amey, South-terrace, Adelaide — Two leathei-work frames. 
137. W. Kennedy, Koarlnnga — Carvings on slate. 

138 Earle Bros., Yongala— Carving in bone, malachite, and silver, in cone- 

work frame. 

139 Fort Pirie State School (B. H. A. Braddock, headmaster), Fort Firie— 

Specimens of chemicals in experimental chemistr}- ; results of class 
in scientific lessons, viz., chlorine gas, sulphide of iron, hydrogen, 
oxygen, sulphate of zinc, black and blue ink, starch from wheat, 
orange oil, lampblack, plaster of paris, cement, salt, soap, matches, &e. 

140 Mrs. H. Fry, Gtover-street, Korth Adelaide— Ointment. 

141 Anton Wolf, Nnriootpa — Seaweed and seasheU frame ; also designs in 
• gum seed-vessels in imitation of carving. 

142 Miss M. Margetts, Farkside — Looking-glass in leather- work frame. 

143 F. W. 0. Schroeder, East Fallant-street, Lower Korth Adelaide— 

Walking-stick made from colonial wood. 

144 A. 0. Moeser, Lobethal— Chairs and table in cane work. 

146 Harry Gray, Tonng-street, Farkside— Inlaid pierglass and looking- 
glass, consisting of 12,700 pieces. 

146 Miss C. J. Lindo, Whitmore-square, Adelaide— Seed work looking- 
glass frame and stand. 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. 211 

147 8. Sehlank, OrenftU-street, Adelaide— Baking powder, essences of 

lemon, peppermint, vaniUii, olives, ginger, and cinnamon. 

148 Scriyens, Bros., Hindmarsh—Show case of dressed leatihers, leathers 

of yarious descriptions. 

149 J. Secombe ft 8on, Blackwood— World-famed ointment. 

150 J. W. Bilks, St. Vincent-street, Fort Adelaide— Hop bitters. 
161 F. MoUer, Adand-street— Bicycle of his own manufacture. 

152 B^are ft Co., Hindmarsh-square, Adelaide— Various specimens of 

window-blinds, Florentine, box, wire, outside, &c. 

153 Dallas ft Co., Bobe-street, Fort Adelaide— Venetian bHnds. 

154 Chas. Cross, Gawler— Indigestion drops, &c. 

155 Chance ft Co., College Fark— Jams, jellies, preserves, tomato sauce, 

ketchup. 

156 Miss Werlin, Botanic-terrace, Adelaide^ Flowers and fancy ornaments 

made from fish scales. 

157 W. Cameron, ft Co., Orenfell-street, Adelaide— Splendid assortment of 

tobaccoes of the following: — Raven Twist, St. Andrew's Twist, 
Eureka Twist, Two Seas Flatwork, Canary Bird Aromatic Flat- 
work, Eureka Aromatic Twist, and Flatwork, All the Eage Aromatic 
Twist Flatwork, Eureka Dark Flatwork, &c. 

158 C. Bishop, Brompton— Gloss bottles, &c., made at Brompton. 

159 J. T. Lapidge, King William-road, Unley— Australsomine and ochre, 

dry and in oil. 

160 Price Maurice, Adelaide— Angora goats' skins, also mats, made from 

Angora goats* skins, dyed and dressed by Mr. Carl Jahn. 

161 Mrs. Kelson ft Son, Clifton Honse, Wakefleld-street, Adelaide— Ivorine 

work, fish work, seed ornaments, lace work, and an assortment of 
fancy work, 

162 H. G. Schmidt ft Co., Nelson-street, Stepney— Large assortment of 

cigars. 

163 "Eegister" and "Observer"— Enquiry Office, and stand with daily 

papers. 

164 W. Shearing, Hindmarsh— Terra-cotta archways. 

165 City and Suburban Steam Brickmaking Company, Adelaide— Various 

specimens of bricks, splay biicks, fire bricks, &c., made at the 
Blackwood works. 

166 F. K. Bnrchell— Water Conservation Office, Adelaide — Designs, 

plans, and descriptions of canalisation and irrigation. (See main build- 
ing, No. 8a.) 

U67 G^ovjsnEiisn>/Lw.Nr£ g^e:ologhsi?s' court. 

H. T. L. Brown, F.G.S., Oovemment Geologist. 

Mineralogical map of South Australia. By H. Y. L. Brown — 

NoTRs Explaining the Geological and Mining Map. 

On this map the approximate areas occupied by rocks of different ages and 
&inds are shown. 

The stratified rocks are classified as tertiary, mesozoic, palaeozoic, and azoic ; 
"the igneouH rocks as volcanic and i^lutonic. 

2'lutonic Jioeki, — Granite outcrops in small areas near Kingston, and in 
various places in the Ninety-mile Desert, at Port Victor, Murray Bridge, 
Kansraroo island, Yorke Peninsula, near Port Lincoln, Streaky Bay to 
Powler Bay, Pidinga, Pritchard Desert, Warburton Ranges, &c. ; and in 
larger and more extensive masses in the North-East, near Boolcoomata, Thac- 
karinga, near Moimt Babbage, and Mount Adams, north of Lake Frome, and is 
reported to constitute the prevailing rof;k of the Musgrave Ranges, in the 
extreme north-west of South Australia proper. 



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212 SOUTH AUSTBALIA. 

Ctoyemment Geologist's Court— continued. 

Porphyry, felspar porphyry, syenite, granulite, and greenstone are generally 
found near or associated with these rocks — the Gawler Banges being principally 
composed of felspar porphyry. 

A decomposed amygdaloid trap occurs in the neighborhood of Wooltana, near 
Lake Frome, in connection with greenstone porphyry and serpentine rocks - 
With all the outcrops of granite rocks metamorpluc gneiss and granite are 
associated, into which ig^ieous dykes have been injected. These dykes 
are numerous in most of the old metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and 
doubtless are of many different ages. On Yorke Peninsula there are granitic 
and metamorphic rocks unconformably overlaid by beds of crystalline fossi- 
liferous marble, grit, conglomerate, &c., which are considered lo be of Lower 
Silurian age. 

In the main range, extending from Cape Jervis, in the south, to Mount 
Babbage, its northern extremity, there are dykes of granite, greenstone,, 
porphyry, &c., which have been intruded into tiie stratified rocks, -vrhic-h are 
nowhere seen to overlie them unconformably — it is probable, therefore, that the 
granitic rocks of Yorke Peninsula are of a much greater age than those of the 
ranges extending from Cape Jervis northwards. 

As a proof of the time which has elapsed between the intrusion of the various 
plutonic rocks, it has been observed that some of the old conglomerates con- 
taining granitic boulders have been pierced by veins of a more recent granite. 

Metamorphic rocks, azoic or silurian gneiss, conglomerate, micaceous and 
hornblende schists, clay and micaceous slates, crystalline limestone or marble, 
quartzite, &c., are found to occur over all the area occupied by granitic rocks, 
and in conjunction with them. Ihto these, dykes of igneous rocks and masses 
are intruded. Some of the metamorphic, gneissic, and granite rocks consist of 
x;onglomerates containing water- worn pebbles, and boulders with crystals of 
felspar. 

Silurian JRoeks. ^ThesQ consist of inclined conglomerates, grits, quartzites, 
sandstones, limestones, dolomites, clay, and micaceous slates and shales. No^ 
fossils have been observed in them generally, and so far as examined, they 
appear to be of the same age as the more highly metamorphic rocks, but ai-e less 
altered through the absence of intrusive dykes. The crystalline limestones of 
Ardroesan contain trilobites and corals which have been recognised as Lower 
Silurian. There ar0 bands of similar limestone on the eastern side of St. 
Vincent Gulf, interbedded with the slates and quartzites of the Mount Lofty 
Bange. 

West of Port Augusta, and in other places to the eastward, there are 
quartzites, shales, sandstones, and conglomerates in undulating and horizontal 
beds, which are apparently an upper series of rocks which may be of Devonian 
age, although no fossils have hitherto been observed in them. * 

The highly metamorphic, azoic, and silurian rocks extend in more or less 
continuous ranges from Kangaroo Island to Moimt Babbage, near the head of 
Lake Frome, and to near Mount Nor. -West, with a north-easterly extension in 
the direction of the Barrier Banges, in New South Wales. 

Smaller patches occur on Yorke Peninsula, the Port Lincoln District, the 
Denmson and Warburton Banges, and east of the Musgrave Banges. 

These are the mineral-bearing rocks, and in them copper, lead, gold, man- 
ganese, and other metals have been discovered, and in many cases worked, over 
a distance extending from south to north of more than six degrees of latitude. 

Mesozoic Mocks [Cretaceous or Oolitic). — A large portion of the interior north- 
ward of the main range, extending into Queensland, New South Wales, and 
Western Australia, is occupied by rocks of mesozoic age. They occupy a. 
depression, of which Lake Eyre is the lowest part. The physical aspect of the 
country is that presented by table hills and table lands, plains, and stony and 
sandy deserts, with vast salt lakes, such as Lakes Eyre, Frome, &c., into which 
discharge large watercourses and creeks, which are liable to floods during long 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. 213 

Croyemment eulogist's Court— continued. 

interv^als, sometimes for years, caused by rain which falls on the surrounding 

ranges, which in some cases are hundi*eds of miles distant. 

This region was originally a basin, which is now filled with more or less 
horizontal beds of clay, slate, limestone, gypsum, sand, gravel, &c., orerlaid in 
patches by a yellow jasper rock, known as desert quartzite, fragments of which 
are strewed over the surface of the plains and downs. 

This is the chief artesian water-bearing formation. The greatest depth at 
which a flowing or artesian well has been met with is at Tarkanina, where a 
large supply was struck by boring, at a depth of 1,200ft. 

Tertiary Rocks. — The largest portion of South Australia is covered by 
tertiary and post- tertiary deposits. 

Older tertiary rocks are found along the coast, from the Victorian border, 
near Mount Grainbier, to Eucla, on the West Australian border. They extend 
inland for a considerable distance, up the Murray Eiver, on the eastern side of 
the Mount Lofty Ranges ; and occupy smaller areas at near Fort WiQunga, on 
Yorke Peninsula, and various other places, at generally a less elevation above 
the sea, although, in one or two instances, cappings are found at a higher 
elevation. 

They consist of coralline and shell limestones, sandstone, clay, sands, 
calcareous sandstones, and argiQaceous limestones, rich in fossils. 

The NuUabor Plains, in the western portion of the province, between 
Fowler Bay and Eucla, are composed of hard crystalline lLmest«)ne, resting on 
soft chalky limestone with flints. These beds form perpendicular clifls, rising 
from 2d0ft. to 300ft. along the coast between the two places named, the forma- 
tion extending inland over 100 miles. FosslLb are very plentiful in these rocks 
wherever found. 

Middle tertiary beds of limestone, calcareous sandstone, sandstone, shell 
limestone, &c., overlie the older teitiaries along the coast. 

The volcanic rocks, consisting of basalt, lava, scoria, ash. &c., of the Mount 
Oambier district, are of a newer age than the older tertiary limestone. Mount 
Gambier and Mount Schank are two of the principal points of eruptions. 
Yolcanic rocks also occur in the Mount Burr itange, not far from Mount 
Gambier. 

Miocene Tertiaries, — Old river deposits, which appear to be of the same age 
as the old gold drifts of Victoria and New South Wales, occur as cappings, and 
covering large areas, at elevations sometimes amounting to 1,000ft. above the 
sea, at the Mount Lofty and other portions of the ranges. It is evident that 
they are the remains of an old river system. 

Where prospected, as at Barossa and Echunga, gold has been found in them. 
A very large area still remains available for this purpose in the neighborhood of 
these goldflelds and elsewhere. 

Fost Tertiary and jRecent, — All the previously mentioned rocks are, to a less 
or greater extent, covered over in patches by a varying thickness of alluvium. 
Sand in dunes, as along the coast, or in wide undulating plains and ridges, as in 
the interior. The extent of country covered by these hills and rivers is very 
great. 

The colored discs on the map are intended to indicate the chief localitieft 
where metals have been discovered and mined. 

Gold Gold 

Copper Vermilion 

Silver-lead Blue. 

The rock formations are indicated on the map as under : — 

Post Tertiary and Tertiary By a Gi*een tint 

Cretaceous and Oolitic ** Brown ** 

Silurian and Devonian ** Purple" 

Silurian Limestone '' Blue ** 



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214 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Qoyemment Oeologist's Court — contiimed. 

Silurian * ** Purple tint, with red bars 

Plutonic " Pink tint 

Volcanic " Red " 

Ice-marked rocks from Hallett's Cove. 

The locality is on the sea-coast, at a place called Hallett's Core, in the* 
Hundred of Koarlunga, and distant from Adelaide, in a south-westerly: 
direction, about eleven miles. 

The cliffs forming the northern boimdary of the cove consists of purple shales, 
slates, and quartzites, which have been contorted and twisted into an anti- 
clinal, the crown of which extends along the edge of the crown northward for 
some distance, forming a narrow strip of rock outcrop ; the latter is observed to 
be polished, and sometimes striated. 

The most southern of these exposures is immediately over the southern end of 
the anticlinal. 

Here, at a height of about 60ft. or 70ft. above the sea, on top of the elifP, 
over an area of some 30 square yards, the rock has been smoothed and striated. 
This floor dips S.S.W., at an angle of about 10°. The groovings are of all sizes up* 
to one-half ioch in width, with a depth of about one-sixteenth of an inch. The- 
ceneral direction of the grooves are from N. 30° "W. and N.W. to W.N.'W. 
The rock is a purple slatey shale. 

The second exposure is close to the edge of the cliff, about 300 yards further 
northward. Tbe polished and grooved rock is here a hard quartzose sandstone,, 
at a height of ^^bout 50ft. or 60ft. above the sea. The area exposed is some 12 
or 16 yards ; it dips west, at an angle of from 25° to 30°, and the direction of 
the grooves is north and south along it in horizontal and inclined lines. 

Boulders, pebbles, and shingle of gneiss, granite, and quartzite, sandstone, 
limestone, slate, &c., together with ragged blocks and masses of grey limestone 
and limestone boulder conglomerate, on a brittle shale and clay, are scattered 
about on the slope of the hill above the ice-scratched rock. 

The ice grooves and polishing of the rocks appear to have been caused by 
floating dnft-ice in narrow channels, or along the shore; the boulder-drit't 
having been deposited on the melting of the ice which stranded on the spot. 
168 Models of gold from— 

1 Bird-in-Hand Mine, 6,079 ozs., value, £18,669. 

2 New Era, 7,300 ozs., result of two years* work, value, £18,500. 

3 Alma Mine, 9,310 ozs., value, £34,683 3s. 4d., result of working to* 

3l8tMay, 1887. 

168a Specimens from Seefs in Teetulpa— 

1 Colleen Bawn Reef— N. and S., three shafts, 35ft., 29ft., 56ft. ;. 

^-idth of reef, 18in., 27in., 14in. Situate Goslin's Gully. 

2 Ben Lomond — N. and S., 2 miles from township ; depth, 12ft. 

3 Tucks AH — N. and S., near township ; 12ft. 

4 Star of the East— Situate Manna Hill, 15 miles from Teetulpa;. 

N. and S., reef 30ft. deep. Last crushing, 2oz. to the ton. 

5 Blue Star — 40ft., N. and S., two mUes from township. Last crush- 

ing, over 2ozs. to ton. 

6 Mariner's Hope Reef — Near Teetulpa. New reef not opened up. 

7 Iron Clad— South, depth of shaft, 45ft ; best gold on field showing. 

8 Comet — Adjoining " Blue Star." Splecimen obtained at a depth of 

30ft. 

9 Aurifera— Dam Gully, near township. Two shafts on property, both 

down about 60ft. A well and clearly defined i-eef all the way. 
N. and S. 
9a Aurifera South 

10 Eureka. 

11 J. C. Bray— Adjoining " Colleen Bawn," at a depth of 87ft.. 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. 215 

12 Jaffa— Adjoining ** Myrtle May," Goslin Gully, 87ft. 

13 Waukaringa — Reef not known. 

14 Major Mitchell — 5 miles N. of township. Obtained at depth of oOft.^ 

5dft., 70ft., 65ft., from two shafts. 

16 Lord Clyde '13 miles east of township. 

16 The Gladstone— Depth of shaft, 60ft. 

17 Elsie May. 

18 Adelaide Jubilee— Shaft 29ft. deep. 

19 Edward Parry. 

20 Bessy— 40ft. 

21 Teetulpa— 12ft. 

22 Aristides— 38ft. 

23 Warrior Reef -70ft. 

24 Cross and Crown—Manna Hill, 17ft. 

168b Specimens from Qnartz Beefii— Teetulpa and elsewhere— 

1 "Warrior Reef— Twelve feet from surlice. 

2 Shamrock Reef- Thirty feet. 

3 "Victory Reef — McFarlane & Eraser. 

4 Horseshoe Line — Ten feet from surface. 

6 Londonderry Line — Twenty-six feet from surface. 

6 Londonderry Line — Twenty-five feet from surface. 

7 Elsie May Mine. 

8 Cosmopolitan Reef — Lambman & Eielders. 

9 Jubilee Reef-W. H. Howard. ^ 

10 Blue Star Reef. 

11 Blocks of arsenical pyrites from Alma Mine, Waukaringa, also case 

with pyrites in water, and model showing quantity of gold obtained. 
Exhibited by the proprietors. 

12 Specimens of quartz and gold from Koh-i-noor Mine, Kangaroo 

Island— Exhibited by proprietors. 

13 Model showing amount of gold obtained from Bird-in-Hand Mine, 

Woodside, and photographs of buildings, &c. Exhibited by pro- 
prietors. 

14 Model showing amount of gold obtained from New Era Mine, 

Woodside. Exhibited by proprietors. 

15 Block of auriferous quartz from German Reef, Talunga — ^Exhibited 

by Mr. A. Caudan. 

169 Chamber of Manufactures, Adelaide— (1^ Specimens of strata upon 
which the city of Adelaide stands, obtained from a l)ore in the Waterworks yard. 
(2) Cubes of South Australian building stones, cut by Mr. H. Eraser, Franklin- 
street, as under : — 

1. Springbank quarry, near Mitcham. — This stone is not much used, as 
better quarries have been opened. 

2. Torke's Peninsula. — This stone can be had in immense blocks, and is 
suitable for breakwaters, as mcirine plants readily attach themselves to it. 

3 and 4. Stirling Freestone. — Two samples. The whole of this district 
consists of freestone strata.^ Much used for villa and cottage building, and also 
used as piers of railway bridges in neighborhood. 

6 and 6. Finniss freestone.— Two samples. This, although not a new 
discovery, has only lately begun to be worked, and is reported by some of tJie 
leaiding architects and others to be the best freestone yet discovered in the 
colony. 

7 and 8. Mount Gambier freestone (Oolite). — ^Two samples. From the Hang- 
ing Rocks quarry. The internal enrichments of the Adelaide University ai-e 
carved of this stone. 

9 and 10. Teatree Gully freestone.— Two samples. Main public buildings 
in Adelaide are constructed of this freestone, notably the General Post Office,. 



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216 SOUTH AUSTUALIA. 

Ooyemment Oeologist's Court— continued. 

the Town Hall buildings, the new Supreme Court, the Cathedral at North 

Adelaide, and the National Bank. 

11. Mitcham freestone. — Is largely used in house-building. 

12. Gumeracha soapstone. — Generally used in the construction of furnaces 
and OYens, and valuable on account of its fire- resisting qualities. 

13 and 14. Mount Gambier dolomite. — Two samples. From the Hanging 
Bock quarries. Not much used, as it is difficult to work. 

16. West Island granite, near Port Victor — Quarries only recently opened. 
The basement of the new Parliament Buildings is constructed of this granite. 

16. Port Elliot granite. — Not procurable in large blocks nor in great quantity. 

17 and 18. Angaston marble. — Two samples. Quarries not long opened. To 
be had in large quantities and of any size. 

18 and 19. Kapunda marble.-^Two samples. Can be had in any quantity 
and size, and in various shades of color. 

20. Bapid Bay marble. — To be had in large quantities, but is not in general 
use, as it is difficult to work. 

21. Tapley Hill rubble building stone.— Quarry not long opened, but is 
likely to come into general use in consequence of its great hardness, and its 
being easily squared with the hammer. 

22. Dry Creek stone. — From Labor Prison quarries. Much used in building 
and for road metal, of which large quantities are turned out annually by the 
•convicts. 

23. Glen Osmond rubble building stone. — The greater part of the city of 
Adelaide is built of this stone. 

24. Limestone. — Underlaying the clay upon which the city of Adelaide is built. 

25. Strathalbyn bluestone. — To be had in very large pieces. Used for street- 
kerbing, &c. 

26. Tarlee. — Inexhaustible supply of this stone. Used for street-kerbing and 
rough paving. 

27. Chinkf ord. — Flagstone, rubbed. 

28. Chinkford.— Natural face. 

29. Chinkford.— Rubbed. 

30. Chinkford.— Flagstone, natural face. 

[Note.— Chinkford is largely used for mantelpieces, shelving, and other 
purposes, being easily wrought, and yet tough and durable.] 

31. Willunga.— Flagstone, rubbed face. 

32. WiQunga.— Natural face. 

33. Willunga.— Rubbed face. 

34. Willunga. — Natural fece. 

[Note. — This stone has been much used in the paving of the footpaths of the 
«ity, verandah and kitchen floors, &c. Roofing-slates are also obtainable from 
the same quarries. A considerable trade has been established in this slate with 
the other colonies ; but for flagging purposes, owing to its close laminated 
nature, it is becoming disused, the Mintaro flagstone taking its place.] 

35. Mintaro. — Rubbed face. 

36. Mintaro. — Natural face. 

37. Mintaro.— Rubbed face. 

38. Mintaro. — Natural face. 

[Note. — Mintaro is principally used for paving, street-flagging, &c., and can 
be had in any quantity, and of immense size.] 

170 H. M. Addison, Flinden-street, Adelaide — Antimony and nickel, 
ulmanite. A mineral containing antimony and nickel occurs at Gill 
BlufP, near Mount Lyndhurst. An analysis of the ore from this locality 
gives nickel 22*91 percent. ; cobalt (trace) ; antimony, 51*71 ; sulphur, 
7*22; arsenic (trace), 0*60; bismuth, 1*45; ferrous oxide, 3*23; 
lime, &c.y 8*17; insoluble matter, 4*21. 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. 217 

^71 W. C. Barton, Quom -Manganese from Etna Mine, 6J miles N.E. of 
Gordon. 

172 Capt. Frout — Cone trophy of manganese from Hammond. 

173 T. S. Horn, Adelaide — Silver ore, from Eureka Mine, Woodside ; taken 

from ipoft. level. Assays Sjozs. and SJozs. of gold and 15ozs. silver 
to the ton of 20cwt. 

174 Boyal Commissioners for S.A., Adelaide— Tin from Northern Territory 

smelted in Adelaide. 
176 F. C. Singleton, Adelaide.— Ore from Aclare Silver Mine, situated 30 
miles east of Ad^^laide, taken from depths varying from 60ft. to llSft. 
This ore yields the following metals: — Gold, silver, nickel, lead, zinc, 
antimony, ii'on, and sulphur; the yield of silver ranging from 302ozs. 
to 67ozs* to the ton, and of gold from 3ozs. to 13dwt. to the ton. 

176 J. B. Austin, Freeman-street, Adelaide -Bocks, minerals, and mining 

products. 

177 James Hawke, Teatree Gnlly— Fireclay, pipeclay. 

178 H. Kempson, Teatree Gnlly— Pipeclay. 

179 John Martin, Hall-street, Korwood— Petrified trunk of tree and petrified 

cuttle-fish hone, fbund at junction Hamilton and Stewart's Creek and 
Jacob's Well. 

180 Boyal Commissioners. — Collection of South Australian minerals, 

prepared for the Commission by T. C. Cloud, Esq., A.fi.S.M., F.C.S., 
F.I.C. 

Graphite f Plumbago), 

1. Graphite — Port Lincoln : Government Geologist. 

Lignite, 

2. Impure lignite — Pedigna, near Fowler's Bay : Government Geologist. 

Barite fBaryteaSeavy Spar J, 

3. Massive barite — Great Gladstone Mine. J. B. Austin. 

Gypsum. 

4. Fibrous gypsum — Stuart's Bange, Central Australia : J. "Warren. 

5. Gypsum — South Australia : J. B. Austin. 

6. Crystals of gypsum, from the mud forming the shores of salt lakes, South 
Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

7. Gypsum — Nonning, Gawler Banges: Government Geologist. 

8. Crystals of gypsum, from the mud forming shores of salt lake, Yorke 
Peninsula : Adelaide Museum. 

9. Gypsum — Wirrealpa Bun, Central Australia : J. B. Austin. 

10. Gypsum — KanyaJka : J. B. Austin. 

Calcite, 

11. Calcite — Mount Coffin: J. B. Austin. 

12. Calcite, associated with copper ore— Yudanamu tana Mine : Y. Lawrance. 

1 3. Calcareous stalactite — Curramulka : Government Geologist. 

14. Calcareous tufa— Angaston Creek : Adelaide Museum. 
16. Calcite — South Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

16. Short prismatic crystals of calcite. exhibiting terminal planes of the prism, 
•coated with pyrite— Wallaroo Mine : H. B. Hancock. 

16a. Ferro-calcite — "Wheal Nitschke : Adelaide Museum. 

Aragonite, 

17. Aragonite, in chalcocite — ^Wallaroo Mine : J. B. Austin. 

Dolomite, 

15. Pseudo-morphous dolomite — Lake Eyre, Central Australia : J. Warren. 



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218 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Quariz, 

19. Quartz crystal, enclosing chlorite— Mount Lofty: V. Lawrance. 

20. Large quartz crystal, containing thi*ee cavities partially filled vitb 
liquid— near Clare : C. W. Colman. 

21. Quartz — Wallaroo Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

22. Quartz crystal— Emu Flat, near Clare ; J. B. Austin. 

23. Quartz crystal— Emu Flat, near Clare : J. B. Austin. 

24. Quartz, with chalcopyrite — Yednaluc : J. B. Austin. 
26. Quartz crystal— Coonatto: W. T. Bednall. 

26. Quartz and chalcopyrite — Yednalue : J . B. Austin. 

27. Quartz crystal— South Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

28. Silicious stalactite— North Para, near Gawler : Adelaide Museum. 

Chalcedony. 

29. Silicified wood — Gawler : J. B. Austin. 
"30. Silicified wood— Gawler : J. B. Austin. 

31. Chalcedony — South Australia : J. Phillips. 

32. Flint, from the limestone rocks at Euola : Government Geologist. 

33. Silicified wood — South Australia : J. Warren. 

Agaie, 

34. Agate — Stuart's Greet, Central Australia : Adelaide Museum. 
36. Polished agate— Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

Jaspei', 

36. Jasper— Stuart's Range, Central Australia: J. Warren. 

Opal. 

37. Common opal— Mount Crawford : J. Warren. 

38. Common opal — Mount Crawford : J. WaiTcn. 

39. Honey opal— Angaston : Adelaide Museum. 

40. Opal — Angaston: Adelaide Museum. 

41. Opal— Angaston : Adelaide Museum. 

JPyroxene fAugite.) 

42. Pyroxene, var. smaragdite — Parliamentary Mme, Woodside : Government 
Geologist. 

Amphihole fHornbUndeJ , 

43. Amphihole — Mount Crawford : J. Warren. 

Beryl. 

44. Beryl— Mount Crawford : J. Wan-en. 

46. Beryl, in quartz — Mount Crawford : J. Wan-en. 

46. Beryl — Mount Crawford (said to be the first specimen of this mineral 
found in South Australia) : J. Warren. 

47. Several specimens of beryl — Mount Crawford : J. Warren. 

48. Large beryl— Moimt Crawford : R. Snelgrove. 

49. Beryl— South Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

60. Beryl, in quartz— South Australia: Adelaide Museum. 

Chrysolite. 
51. Chrysolite, var. Olivine— Mount Gambier : Government Geologist. 

62. Chrysolite, var. OUvine— Mount Gambier : Government Geologist. 

Garnet. 

63. Garnet — Mount Babbage : Gov^ernment Geologist. 

64. Garnets in white talc — Eanmantoo : Adelaide Museum. 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN AXNEXE. 21»' 

Museovite (O^mmOH Miea) 

55. Muscoyite — South Australia : J. Warren. 

Marffarite. 

56. Margarite— Woodside : Government Geolojjist. 

OrthoeUue common {Feldspar), 

67. Portion of crystal of orthoclase — Angaston : W. T. Bednall. 

58. Large crystal of orthoclase — Angaston : J. Phillips. 

59. Portion of a large crjrstal of orthoclase — Angaston : Adelaide Museum.. 

Talc. 

60. Talc — ^Mount Crawford : J. "Warren. 

61 Talc — Barossa Eanges : Adelaide Museum. 

Serpentine, 

62. Serpentine — Mount Crawford : J. Warren. 

Xaolinite, 

63. Kaolinite—Teatree Gully : Government Geologist. 

futile. 

64. Rutile— Mount Crawford : J. Warren. 

65. Kutile — Oonatra Water : Government Geologist. 

Cassiterite (Oxide of TinJ. 

66. Stream tin — Snadden's Creek, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. . 

67. Stream tin — Mount Wells, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

68. Stream tin — Mount Wells, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

69. Stream tin — Bamboo Creek, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

70. Cassiterite — Mount Wells, Northern Territory : Grovemment Geologist. 

71. Cassiterite — Mount Wells, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

72. Stream tin — Northern Territory : Government Geologist. 

Molybdenite, 

73. Molybdenite— Yelta Mine, Yorke Peninsula : "V. Lawrance. 

74. Molybdenite— South Australia : J. B. Austin. 

75. Molybdenite, with chalcopyrite— Yelta Mine, Yorke Peninsula: E.. 
Stuckey. 

Bismuthinite (Sulphide of Bismuth). 

76. Auriferous bismuthinite — Balhannah Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

77. Bismuthinite — Balhannah Mine : J. Phillips. 

78. Bismuthinite— Balhannah Mine : J. Phillips. 

79. Bismuthinite — Balhannah ftline: B. Stuckey. 

80. Bismuthinite, with pistomesite — Balhannah Mine : J. Phillips. 

81. Bismuthinite — Balhannah Mine , J.Phillips. 

82. Bismuthinite — Balhannah Mine : J Phillips. 

Bittnutiie {Carbonate of Bismuth). 

83. Bismutite— Balhannah Mine : J. Phillips. 

S(cmatite. 

84. Block of hoBmatite, broken into three pieces, illustrating the mode of ' 
occurrence of the so-called kidney iron ore ; contains about 68 per cent, iron 
—South Australia : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

85. Micaceous haematite, containing about 65 per cent, iron — Angaston :: 
Francis H. Clark & Son. 



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220 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

86. Micaceous haematite, containing al^out 60 per cent, iron — Angaston: 
Francis H. Clark & Son. 

87. Micaceous haematite— Mount Jagged : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

88. Haematite— Pewsey Vale: Francis H. Clark & Son. 

89. Haematite — Bugle Ranges : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

90. Haematite — near Port Lincoln : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

91. Micaceous haematite — Pewsey Vale : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

92. Pseudo-morphous crystal of haematite — Lake Eyre, Central Australia : J. 
Warren. 

93. Ochreous haematite, used by the natives of the interior for anointing their 
bodies — Parachilna : V. Lawrance. 

94. Haematite, sub-species martite, in the form of octahedral crystals em- 
•bedded in micaceous haematite — Carey Gully, Mount Lofty : Francis H. 
Clark & Son. 

Zimonite {Brown Hamatite), 

95. Limonite — near Kanmantoo : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

96. Limonite — Sixth Creek : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

97. Limonite — Hindmarsh Valley : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

98. Limonite, containing 63*7 per cent, iron, 1*20 per cent, phosphoric acid, 
-and 0*42 per cent, sulphuric acid - Hindmarsh Valley : Francis fl. Clark & Son. 

99. Limonite — South Australia : J. "Warren. 

100. Limonite — Munjibbie : Adelaide Museum. 

101. Limonite — Nuccaleena Mine: J. B. Austin. 

102. Cubical Crystals of Limonite, pseudomorphs after pyrite — Mount 
Margaret : Adelaide Museum. 

103. Cubical Crystals of limonite, pseudomorphs after pyrite— Blinman : Ade- 
laide Museum. 

104. Limonite — near Mount Coffin : Government Geologist. 

Iron manufactured in South Australia from tome of the foregoing iron ores. 

106. Bar iron worked up : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

106. Specimen of bar iron twisted cold, made by the direct process in 
•crucible : Francis H. Clark & Son. 

107. Six specimens of iron, made by the direct process, in crucible : Francis 
H. Clark & Son. 

Siderite. 

108. Siderite — nearBlinman: Government Geologist. 

Fisiomesiie. 

109. Pistomesite — Balhannah Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

Fyrite {Iron Fyrites), 

110. Pyiite — ^Yelta Mine, Yorke*s Peninsula : V. Lawrance. 

111. Crystals of pyrite, in clay slate— Bundaleer : Adelaide Museum. 

112. Pyrite — Echunga Gold Mine : Government Geologist. 

113. Pyrite— Queen Gold Mine, Echunga : Government Geologist, 

114. Pyrite — Talisker Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

Oxide of Manganese, 

115. Dendritic markings of oxide of manganese on clay slate — Bundaleer 
Jlange : Adelaide Museum. 

116. Pyrolusite— Tintarra : Government Geologist. 

117. Oxide of manganese - Gordon, near Quom : G. Prout. 

118. Oxide of manganese— Gordon, near Quorn : G. Prout. 

119. Oxide of manganese - Gordon, near Quom : G. Prout. 

120. "Wad, var. asbolite— "Wooltana : Government Greologist. 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. 221 

Sphalerite {Zinc Blende), 

121. Sphalerite— South Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

122. Ore, chiefly composed of sphalerite, and containing silver— Aelare 
Mine : F. C. Singleton. 

123. Ore, composed of sphalerite and antimonial lead ore, containing silver — 
Aelare mine: F. C. Singleton. 

Cerusite (Carbonate of Lead). 

124. Cerusite in galenite— Avondale Mine, near Farina: Government 
Geologist. 

Wulfenite {Molybdate of Lead), 

125. AVuHenite— Avondale Mine, near Farina : Government Geologist. 

Galenite (Galena), 

126. Galenite— Coromandel Valley : V. Lawrance. 

127. Galenite— Talisker Mine : J. B. Austin. 

128. Galenite— Near Normanville : J. B. Austin. 

129. Galenite - Near Normanville : J. B. Austin. 

130. Galenite— Talisker Mine : J . B. Austin. 

131. Galenite - Avondale Mine, Near Farina : Government Geologist. 
[Note. — The proportion of silver in the galena from different parts of the 

colony varies considerably" ; existing in some cases only to the extent of a few 
grains per ton of ore, while some samples from the Talisker Mine have j'ielded 
90ozs. to the ton.] 

Antimonial Lead Ore, 

132. Antimonial lead ore, containing 224ozs. of silver to the ton— Aelare 
Mine : F. C. Singleton. 

133. Ore, composed chiefly of antimonial lead ore with sphalerite, containing 
silver — Aclaxe Mine : F. C. Singleton. 

TTllmannite, 

134. TTllmannite with ankerite— Gill's Bluff : Government Geologist. 

Native Copper, 

.135. Native copper — Moonta Mine : R. Stuckey. 

136. Native copper — South Australia : J. B. Austin. 

137. Native copper -Yorke Peninsula : Adelaide Museum. 

138. Large specimen of native copper — Moonta Mine : Proprietors Moonta 
Mine, Limited. 

Cuprite (Red Oxide of Copper), 

139. Cuprite, with native copper — Burra Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 

140. Massive cuprite, with native copper, and crystallized malachite— South 
Australia : J. B. Austin. 

141. Cuprite— KuriUa Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

142. Cuprite — Moonta Mines : R. Stuckey. 

143. Earthy cuprite (tile ore) — Burra Burra Mine: J. B. Austin. 

144. Cuprite with native copper — Burra Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 
146. Cuprite on native copper— Moonta Mine : R. Stuckey. 

146. Cubical crj'stals of cuprite — South Australia : J. B. Austin. 

147. Cubical crystals of cuprite, with crystalline malachite— South Aus- 
tralia : J. B. Austin. 

148. Crystals of cuprite— Moonta Mine : H. R. Hancock. 

149. Crystallized cuprite— Moonta Mine : H. R. Hancock. 

150. Crystallized cuprite — Moonta Mine : H. R. Hancock. 



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:222 SOUTH AUOTEALIA. 

151. CoreUite, coating chalcopyrite — Soath Australia : Adelaide Muiseimi. 

Bomite {Purple Copper Ore). 

15*2, Bomite and quartz — Lady Alice Mine : J. B. Austin. 

lo3, Bomite, with chalcopyrite — Moonta Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

154. Bomite, with chalcopyrite — Moonta Mine: Adelaide Museum. 

Chalcopyrite (Copper Pyrites,) 
155". Crystallized chalcopyrite, with quartz— Wallaroo Mine: "W. T. Bednall 

1 56. Chalcopyrite, with crystals of pyrite, near Montacutc Mine : J. B. Austin. 

157. Chalcopyrite — Moonta Mine: Adelaide Museum. 

158. Chalcopyrite, var. x)eacock oi-e — Moonta Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

159. Chalcopj'rite— Moonta Mine: Adelaide Museum. 

160. Ciystallized chalcopyrite, with quaxtz — "Wallaroo Mine: Adelaide 
Museum. 

Azurite {Blue Carbonate of Copper). 

161. Azurite — Biura Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 

102. Azurite, with malachite— Burra Biura Mine : J. B. Austin. 

163. Kodule of azurite, hroken in two — Burra Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 

164. Ay urite, with malachite— Kurilla Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

1 65. Azurite, near Franklin Harbor : Adelaide Museum. 

166. 2f odules of massive azurite, coated and cemented together by sHicious 
.matter : tlie latter has been partly removed— Burra Burra Mine : Adelaide 
Mupeum. 

167. Azurite on chrysocolk — Burra Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 

168. Azurite and malachite— Burra Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 

169. Azurite and malachite — Burra Burra Mine — J. B. Austin. 

170. Nodular azurite — Burra BuiTa Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

171. Broken nodule of azurite — Burra Burra Mine : Adelaide Museimi. 

172. Azurite on chrysocoUa - South Australia : J. Phillips. 

173. Massive azurite, with malachite — Eapunda Mine : J. B. Austin. 

174. Azurite— Burra Burra Mine • Adekide Museum. 

175. Azurite — South Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

Malaehite {Green Carbonate of Copper). 

176. Malachite — Burra Buna Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

177. Malachite — Burra Burra Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

178. Malachite— Burra Burra Mine : i\delaide Museum. 

179. Malachite — Burra Burra Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

180. Crystallized malachite on cellular limonite— New Cornwall Mine : J. B. 
Austin. 

181. Malachite— Burra Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 

182. Massive malachite, with azurite— Burra Burra Mine : J. B. Austin. 

183. Malachite, slightly coated with chrysocolla— Burra Burra Mine : J. B. 
Austin. 

184. Crystalline malachite in feiTuginous opal. Yudanamutana Mine : J. B. 
.Austin. 

185. Malachite— BuiTa Burra Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

186. Malachite — Burra Burra Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

187. Specimen of malachite, illustrating stalactitic mode of formation — Burra 
J3uiTa Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

188. Malachite — Burra Burra Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

189. Malachite— Burra Buira Mine: Adelaide Museum. 
100. Malachite — Burra Burra Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

191. Malachite — Binra Burra Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

192. Crystalline malachite — Burm Burra Mine: J. B. Austin. 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. 223 

193. Crystalline malachite, slightly coated with limonite — South Australia : 
J. B. Austin. 

194. Crystalline malachite— South Australia : J. B. Austin, 

ChryMcolla {ffydrwu Silicate of Copper). 

195. Chrysocolla, with crystallized malachite and azurite — Burra Burra 
Mine : J. B. Austin. 

196. Chrysocolla— Burra Burra Mine : J. Phillips. 

Jiaeamite {Hydtoua Oxi/chloride of C*^per), 

197. Atacamite — New Cornwall Mine : J. B. Austin. 

198. Atacamite — South Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

199. AtacamiteT-South Australia : Adelaide Museum. 

200 Crystal of Atacamite — New Cornwall Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

201. Atacamite — New Cornwall Mine: J. Phillips. 

2u2. Broken crystal of Atacamite— New Cornwall Mine : J. B. Austin. 

203. Atacamite — New Cornwall Mine : J. B. Austin. 

Gold, 

204. Native gold, in quai-tzose conglomerate — Barossa : Adelaide Museum. 
206. Native gold, in quartzose conglomerate— Barossa: Adelaide Museum. 

206. Native gold, in quartzose conglomerate — Barossa : Adelaide Museum. 

207. Native gold, in conglomerate — Barossa : Adelaide Museum. 

208. Native gold, in conglomerate— Barossa : Adelaide Museum. 

209. Auriferous quartz — German Reef: Adelaide Museum. 

210. Filamentous gold, on soft ferruginous sandstone : Adelaide Museum. 

211. Rolled quartz pebble, with native gold— Onkaparinga : Adelaide 
Museum. 

212. Quartz, cemented with brown iron ore, and containing native gold — 
Stirling Reef, Echunga : Adelaide Museum. 

213. Quartz, cemented with brown iron ore, and containing native gold— 
Stirling lleef, Echunga : Adelaide Museum. 

214. Native gold, in soft brown iron ore —Victoria Mine : Adelaide' Museum. 

215. Native gold, in soft brown iron ore — Victoria Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

216. Native gold, in soft brown iron ore — Victoria Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

217. Native gold in silicious brown iron ore — ^Victoria Mine : Adelaide 
Museum. 

218. Auriferous quartz, surface stone— Mount Pleasant : Adelaide Museiun* 

219. Auriferc'us brown iron ore, from surface— "Waukaringa : Adelaide 
Museum. 

220. Native gold, in bismuthinite— Balhannah Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

221. Native gold, in silicious brown iron ore, with azurite and malachite — 
Balhannah Mine : Adelaide Museum. 

2*22. Gold, in ferrugiaous quartz — Balhannah Mine : Adelaide Museum. 
22 -i. Auriferous quaitz -Lady Alice Mine: Adelaide Museum. 

224. Native gold, with bomite and quartz — Lady Alice Mine: Adelaide 
Museum. 

225. Native gold, with bomite and quartz —Lady Alice Mine : Adelaide 
Museum. 

226. Surface stone, composed of gold in ferniginous quartz — South Australia: 
Adelaide Museum. 

227. Auriferous quartz — Union Reef , Northern Territoiy : Adelaide Museum. 

228. Auriferous quartz — Union Reef, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

229. Gold, in ferruginous quartz — Westcott's Reef, Northern Tenitory : 
Adelaide Museum. 

230. Auriferous quartz— Westcott's Reef, Northern Territory: Adelaide 
Museum. 



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224 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

231. Aorifenms quartz — Sandy Greek, Xortheni T errit o ry ; Adelaide 
Museom. 

. 232. Gold, in gzeenstone and quartz — Bismarck fieef , Northeni Temtoiy v 
Adelaide Museum. 

233. Ferruginous quartz containing gold — Princess Louise Beef, Northern 
Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

234. Auriferous quartz — Xorthem Territory Beef, Xorthem Territory r 
Adelaide Museum. 

235. Auriferous quartz — Korthem Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

236. Auriferous quartz — Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 
237' Auriferous quartz — Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

238. Auriferous quartz — Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

239. Auiifen»us quartz — Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

240. Auriferous quartz— Northern Territory : Adelaide Mujwum. 

24 1 . Gold in quartz, with white clay— Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum, 

242. Auriferous quartz — Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

243. Auriferous quartz — Hongkong Claim, Northern Territory: Adelaide 
Museum. 

244. Specimens from the Extended Union Claim, Northern Territory, from 
below water level : Adelaide Museum. 

245. Auriferous quartz — New Era Mine, Spring Hill, Northern Territory : 
Adelaide Museum. 

246. Auriferous quartz — Union Reef, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

247. Nugget, weighing 1.5ozs. ledwts.— Watt Gully, Gumeracha: South 
Australian Commission. 

248. Nugget, weighing 3ozs. 9dwts. ISgrs. — Watt Gully, Gumeracha : 
South AusUalian Commission. 

249. Specimens of reef Rold — ^Woodside : A. Mitchell. 

250. Alluvial gold — Watt Gully, Gumeracha — South Australian Com- 
mission. 

251. Auriferous quartz — ^Para Wirra : South Australian Commission. 

252. Auriferous ferruginous quartz — Cing Que Beef, Margaret Biver, 
Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

253. Native gold, in rotten ferruginous quartz— Margaret Claim, Yam Creek- 
Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

254. Native gold, in rotten ferruginous quartz — ^Margaret Claim, Yam 
Creek, Northern Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

255. Auriferous quartz, with pyrite — Margaret Claim, Yam Creek, Northern 
Territory : Adelaide Museum* 

Copper Mines of SorxH Australia. 

The specimens comprised in the following collection are intended to illustrate 
the nature of the ores obtained from the various copper mines in the colony : — 
[Burra Burra Mine, situated about 100 miles north of Adelaide.] 

256. Copper ore, chiefly cuprite : W. West. 

257. Ore composed chiefly of malachite : W. West. 

258. Ore composed chiefly of malachite and azurite : W. West. 

259. Cuprite and native copper : W. West. 

260. Ore composed chiefly of ferruginous cuprite : W. West. 

261. Ore composed of cuprite and malachite : AY. West. 

262. Nodular azurite : W. West. 

263. Wad (oxide -of manganese), with malachite : W. West. 

264. Copper ore, composed of malachite, with wad (oxide of manganese) : 
W. West. 

265. Bomite, intermixed with silicious mineral. This specimen represents 
the class of ore found under the carbonates of copper at the above mine : 
W. West. 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. ^ 225 

[Balara Mine, situated about 100 nules east of Adelaide.] 

266. Ore coicposed of chalcopyrite and crystallized malachite : D. "W. Scott. 

267. Ore composed of chalcopyrite and crystallized malachite : D. W. Scott. 

268. Ore composed of chalcopyrite and malachite, with guartz : D. "W. Scott. 

269. Chalcopyrite, coated with crystallized malachite: D, "W. Scott. 

270. Ore composed chiefly of copper pyrites : J. B. Austin. 

[Wallaroo Mine, Yorke Peninsula.] 
The specimens from this mine are arranged to illustrate the mode of occur- 
rence of the various ores in depth ; and at the same time to indicate the petro- 
loffical character of the " coimtry " or ** bed rock " in which the lodes occur. 
After passing through the superposed recent limestone and clay beds, the 
« bed-rock," a talcose schist, is met with, and it is in this formation that the 
copper lodes occur. It will be observed, from examination of the specimens, 
that the character of this rock gradually changes in depth from a loose talcose 
schist into a compact silicious rock of considerable hardness. In reference to 
the ores, it may be noted that near the surface they are generally of the 
oxydised class, and that they pass gradually into copper pyrites as greater depths 
are attained. The specimens are arranged in thi-ee series : on one side the 
** bed-rock " ; on the other the minerals found in the lode with the ore, or 
** vein-stuff " ; and in the centre are the specimens of ore. 

271. SoU, average thickness about 1ft. 

272. Concretionary limestone, average thickness about ISin. 

273. Red clay, average thickness about 4ft. 

274. Compact limestone, average thickness about 18in. 

276. Top of *' bed rock," talcose schist, in a very friable condition. 

276. Cap of lode. 

277. Rock from a depth of five fathoms. 

278. Ore from a depth of five fathoms ; consists chiefly of atacamite, partially 
converted into green carbonate of copper, together with a little red oxide ; con- 
tains about 45 per cent, copper. 

279. Atacamite : J. B. Austin. 

280. Yein-stuff from a depth of ten fathoms. 

281. Bock, from a depth of ten fathoms. 

282. Ore, from a deptii of ten fathoms. This specimen is chiefly composed 
of ferruginous red oxide of copper, with some finely intermixed silicia ; con- 
tains about 30 per cent, copper. 

283. Ore, from a depth of ten fathoms, composed chiefly of grey sulphide of 
copper ; contains about 30 per cent, copper. 

284. Vein-stuff, from a depth of ten fathoms. 

285. Ore, from a depth of sixteen fathoms, composed chiefly of grey sulphide 
of copper ; contains about 75 per cent, copper. 

286a. Native copper ; contains about 88 per cent, pure copper. 

286. Ore, consisting chiefly of red oxide, with intermingled native copper ; 
contains about 60 per cent, copper. 

287. Ore, consisting chiefly of red oxide, with intermingled native copper ; 
contains about 63 per cent, copper. 

288. Native copper; J. B. Austin. 

289. Rock, from a depth of twenty fathoms. 

290. Ore, from a depth of twenty fathoms ; copper glance (grey sulphide of 
copper) ; contains about 77 per cent, copper. 

291. Ore, from a depth of twenty fathoms ; yellow copper ore, chiefly com- 
posed of copper pyrites ; contains about twenty per cent, copper. At the Wal- 
laroo Mines this class of ore always contains iron pyrites m combinatioti -Vrith 
the copper pyrites. 

292. Vein- stuff, from a depth of twenty fathoms. 

293. Rock, from a depth of thirty fathoms. 

294. Ore, from a depth of thirty fathoms ; contains about 20 per cent, copper. 



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226 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

295. Yein-stiiff from a depth of ibiitj fitlioiiis. 
295a. Bock, from a depth of iartj fathoms. 

296. Ore, from a depth of fortj fathoms ; contains about 16 per cent, eoppcr. 

297. Ore, from a depth of forty fithnms ; yeUov eopper ore widi qnaztx ; 
contains about 14 per cent, copper. 

298. Vein-staff, from a depth of forty fathoms. 

299. Bock, from a depth of fifty fsthoms. 

300. Ore, horn a depth of fifty fathoms ; contains shoot 15 per cent, copper. 

301. Ore from a de^ of fifty fathoms ; contains ahont 16 per cent. eoi^»er. 

302. Yein-atoff, from a depth of fifty fathoms. 

303. Bock, from a depth of sixty fathoms. 

304. Ore, from a depdi of sixty fathoms ; contains ahont 22 per eeni. eoppcr. 

305. Ore, from a de|ith of sixty fathoms ; contsins ahont 20 per cent, copper. 

306. Tein-stuff, from a depth of sixty fathoms. 

307. Bock, from a depth of aerenty fathoms. 

308. Ore, from a depth of serenty fathcmis ; yeiHov o^per ore, with qnaitx ; 
cortains aboot 16 per cent, copper. 

309. Yein-stuff, from a depth of seventy fathoms. 

310. Bock, from a depth Weighty fathcnns. 

311. Ore, from a depth of ei^^hty fathoms; ooniains about 15 per cent, 
copper. 

312. Ore, from a depth of eig^hty fathoms ; contains about 17 per cent, 
copper. 

313. Yein-staff from a depth of dghty fathoms. 

314. Bock, from a depth of ninety fathoms. 

315. Ore, from a depdi of ninety lathoms ; contains ahont 14 per cent, copper. 

316. Yein-staff, froni a depth of ninety fathoms. 

317. Bock, from a depth of one hundred frthoms. 

318. Ore, from a depth of one hundred fathoms ; contains ahout 17 per < 
copper. 

319. Ore, from a depth of one hundred fathoms ; contains ahont 24 per c 
copper, 

320. Yein-stnff, from a depth of one hundred fathoms. 

321. Bock, from a depth of one hundred and ten fathoms. 

322. Ore, from a depdi of one hundred and ten fathoms ; contains about 18 
per cent, copper. 

323. Ore, from a depth of one hundred and ten fathoms ; contains ahout 14 
per cent, copper. 

324. Yein-stuff, from a depth of one hundred and ten fathoms. 

325. Bock, from a depUi of one hundred and twenty fathoms. 

326. Ore, from a depth of one hundred and twenty fathoms ; yellow copper 
ore, with quartz ; contains about 15 per cent, copper. 

327. Ore, from a depth of one hundred and twenty fiithoms ; ydlow copper 
ore, with quartz, &c. ; contains about 10 per cent, copper. 

328. Yein-stuff, from a depth of one hundred and twenty fathoms. 

329. Zinc-blende, with calcite (carhonate of lime), from a depth of one 
hundred and twenty-five fathoms. 

330. Zine-hlende, with yellow copper ore and calcite, from a depth of one 
hundred and twenty -five nthoms. This mineral, yiz., zinc-hlende, is of very 
xare occurrence at this mine. 

331. Bock, from a depth of one hundred and thirty fathoms. 

332. Ore, from a depUi of one hundred and thirty fathoms ; contains about 
12 per cent, copper. 

333. Yein-stuff* from a depth of one hundred and thirty fathoms. 

334. Bock, from a depth of one hundred and forty fathoms. 

335. Ore, from a d^th of one hundred and forty fathoms ; contains ahout 
17 per cent, copper. 

336. Vein-sUiff, from a depth of one hundred and forty fathoms. 



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EXHIBITS-EASTERN ANNJIXE. 227 

337. Kock, from a depth of one hundred and fifty fathoms. 

338. Ore, from a depth of one hundred and fifty fathoms ; contains ahout 
12 per cent, copper. 

339. Ore, from a depth of one hundred and fifty fathoms ; yellow copper or© 
with intermixed hlack talc ; contains about 10 per cent, copper. 

340. Vein-stuff, from a depth of one hundred and fifty fathoms. 

341. Iron pyrites (mundic) found in various parts of the mines. 

342. Partially decomposed iron pyrites from upper part of a lode. 

343. Galena, with a Uttle yellow copper ore. 

344. Galena (sulphide of lead). 

346. Galena, with a little yellow copper ore. . 

A small vein of this mineral runs parallel with one of the copper lodes. 

This mine is now down to one hundred and ninety-two fathoms, but the 
character of the ore, country, &c., does not materially differ from that exhibited 
at one hundred and fifty fathoms. With a few exceptions, the above-mentioned 
specimens are contributed by the manager, H. £. Hancock, Esq., on behalf of 
the proprietors of the Wallaroo Mines. 

[Moonta Mine, situated about twelve miles south of the Wallaroo Mine.] 
The character of the ore deposits is very similar to that of the Wallaroo. 
The chief points of difference are that the countrjr is here a very hard and 
compact feldspathic rock, and that the ores are richer in copper, the grey 
sulphide and purple copper ore occurring in larger quantities than at the 
Wallaroo end of the district. 

346. SoU, average thickness about Sin. 

347. Concretionary limestone, average thickness about 2- 3ft. 

348. Compact limestone, average thickness about 2ft. 

349. Concretionary limestone, average thickness about 18in. 

350. Red clay, average thickness about 3ft. 

361. Limestone rock, locally called "conglomerate," average thickness 
about 9in. 

362. Bedrock. 

363. Gossan — orey matter very much decomposed, from the top of the lode. 
354. Ore, from a depth of six fathoms, composed of atacamite, with a little 

red oxide; contains about 40 percent, copper. 

366. Ore, chiefiy composed of grey sulphide of copper with native copper, 
from a depth of ten fathoms ; contains about 80 per cent, copper. 

366. Native copper ; contains about 90 per cent, copper. 

357. Vein-stuff, from a depth of ten fathoms. 

368. Black sulphide of copper. 

369. Black sulphide of copper. 

360. Copper glance (grey sulphide of copper), from a depth of fifteen 
fathoms ; contains about 70 per cent, copper. 

361. Bomite (purple copper ore), from a depth of fifty-five fathoms ; contains 
about 60 per cent, of copper. 

362. Ore, from a depth of seventy-five fathoms, copper pyrites with bomite ; 
contains about 34 per cent, copper. 

363. Vein-stuff, associated with bomite. 
364 .• Vein- stuff, quartz with bomite. 

366. Ore, close-grained, massive chalcopyrite, from a depth of ninety 
fathoms ; contains about 32 per cent, copper. 

366. Ore, massive chalcopyrite, from a depth of ninety fathoms ; contains 
about 32 per cent, copper. 

367. Massive chalcopyrite, var. peacock ore, found associated with the 
ordinary yellow ore ; contains about 32 per cent, copper. 

368. Massive chalcopyrite, associated with quartz, from a depth of ona 
hundred and forty-five fathoms. 

369. Chalcopyrite, var. peacock ore, associated with quartz. 



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228 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

370. Vein-stuff', from a depth of one hundred and sizty fathoms. 

371. Vein-stuff, composed of feldspathic rock, quarte, and yellow ore. 

372. Vein-stuff', from a depth of one hundred and eighty fathoms. 

373. Vein-stuff, from a depth of one hundred and ninety fathoms, composed 
of feldspathic rock and yellow ore. 

Note. — This mine is now worked down to a depth of 240 fathoms, hut there 
is no material chimee in the character of the lode, &c., from that which is 
indicated above. The above-named specimens are contributed by the Manager, 
H. B. Hancock, Esq., on behalf of the Moonta Mines Proprietors, Limited. 

[Various Northern Mines, i.e., mines situated in the country north and north- 
east of Port Augusta.] 
874. Copper ore, composed of red oxide and silicate of copper — Mount 
Coffin: D. W. Scott. 

375. Ore, composed of red oxide, with intermixed malachite — ^Mount Coffin : 
D. W. Scott. 

376. Ore, composed chiefly of copper glance — Mount Coffin : D. "W. Scott. 
877. Blue and green carbonate of copper, with earthy red oxide — Tudana- 

mutana Mine : J. B. Austin. 

378. Ferruginous red oxide of copper, with malachite — Tudanamutana 
Mine : J. B. Austin. 

879. Massive cuprite, with a little atacamite — Blinman Mine : J. B. Austin. 

380. Massive ferruginous cuprite, with intermixed chaloopyrite, &c. — Near 
Blinman Mine : J. B. Austin. 

381. Chrysocolla, on black oxide of copper — Nuccaleena Mine : J. B. Austin. 

382. Massive cuprite, partly coated with malachite— Nuccaleena Mine : J. 
B. Austin. 

883. Ore, composed of cuprite and atacamite — From near Woltana : Govern- 
ment Geologist. 

884. Ore, composed chiefly of copper glance with malachite— From near 
Wooltana : Adelaide Museum. 

885. Ore, composed chiefly of earthy red oxide — Copperfield Creek, Northern 
Territory : Adelaide Museum. 

181 The Moonta Copper Mines are situated at the northern portion of Yorke 
Peninsula. The specimens from these mines represent the principal descrip- 
tions of copper ores, and also the geological character of the district. Near the 
surface recent limestone and clay deposits are found; but the bedrock, in 
which the lodes occur, is felsite porphyry of a very hard and compact nature. 
The secondary series of rocks are entirely absent. The richer ores are only 
met with at comparatively shallow depths, with the exception of bomite— rich 
purple sulphide— which is occasionally found at the deepest parts of the mines 
yet explored. The bulk of the produce obtained consists of chalcopyrite, a 
large proportion of which is found in connection with quartz or other gangue, 
and which is extracted and brought up to an average of 20 per cent, of copper 
by means of crushing and jigging machinery. This kind of veinstone is repre* 
sented by Nos. 23 and 45. The various specimens are arranged to show as 
nearly as possible the order in which they occur from the surface downwards. 

1. Soil, varying in thickness from 6 inches to 1 foot. 

2. Concretionary limestone, from 6 inches to 2 feet in thickness. 

3. Compact limestone, average thickness about 2 feet. 

4. Concretionary limestone (second layer), from 1 to 2 feet in thickness. 

5. Red clay, varying from a few inches to 8 feet in thickness ; frequently 
about 3 feet. 

6. Compact limestone, locally termed conglomerate or cement, from a few 
inches to 2 feet in thickness. 

7. Gossan, from the top of the lode. 

8. Kaolin, sometimes found near the cap of the deposit of ore at a depth of 
from 30 to 40 feet 



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EXHIBITS— EASTERN ANNEXE. 229 

9. Oxychloride of copper from the depth of 30 feet. Estimated at 46 per 
cent, of copper. 

10. Native copper, nearly pure. 

11. Native copper, associated with rich ore. 

12. Crystallized cuprite, found at the depth of ahout 72 feet in a few places 
in the mine, where cross courses intersect the lode. 

13. Elack sulphide of copper from the depth of 60 feet. Estimated at 60 per 
cent, of copper. 

14. Copper glance. Estimated at 75 per cent, of copper. 

15. Bomite (purple sulphide of copper). Estimated at 60 per cent, of copper. 

16. Chalcopyiite (peacock ore) from me depth of 330 feet. Estimated at 
26 per cent, of copper. 

17. Bomite and chalcopyrite from 150 feet deep. Estimated at 48 per cent, 
of copper. 

IS. Chalcopyrite and bomite from the depth of 510 feet. Estimated at 35 
per cent, of copper. 

19. Chalcopyrite (peacock ore). Estimated at 28 per cent, of copper. 

20. Chalcopyrite. Estimated at 28 per cent, of copper. 

21. Chalcopyiite from the depth of 690 feet Estimated at 30 per cent, 
of copper. 

22. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 1,320ft. Estimated at 24 percent, of 
copper. 

23. Quartz and copper ore. These specimens, with those numbered 45, 
represent the bulk of the veinstone obtained in the mine. 

24. Bock with copper ore. 

25. Bedrock felsite poi-phyry, from alongside the lode at the depth of 90ft. 

26. Bedrock from the depth of 270ft. 

27. Bedrock from the depth of 6l0ft. 

28. Bedrock from the depth of 840ft. 

29. Bedrock from the depth of 1,110ft. 

30. Crystallized quartz and chalcopyrite from the depth of 690ft. 

31. Crystallized atacamite ; rarely met with. 

The above lot represents the various kinds of ores found throughout the mine. 

The following is a list of larger specimens, further illustrating the various 
kinds of veinstone : — 

32. Oxy chloride of copper from the depth of 90ft. Estimated at 45 per 
cent, of copper. 

33. Bich ore, associated with native copper. 

34. Black sulphide of copper from the depth of 60ft. Estimated at 50 per 
cent, of copper. 

35. Copper glance (grey sulphide of copper). Estimated at 70 per cent, of 
copper. 

36. Chalcopyrite and bomite from the depth of 390ft. Estimated at 35 p^ 
cent, of copper. 

37. Chalcopyrite (peacock ore) from the depth of 450ft. Estimated at 28 
per cent, of copper. 

38. Chalcopyrite and a little bomite from the depth of 540ft. Estimated 
at 32 per cent, of copper. 

39. Bomite (purple sulphide of copper). Estimated to contain 60 per cent, 
of copper. 

40. Bomite, with a little chalcopyrite. Estimated at 55 per cent, of copper. 

41. Chalcopyrite and iron pyrites. Estimated at 16 per cent, of copper. 

42. Bomite and chalcopyrite, with a little quartz, from the depth of 1,140ft. 
Estimated at 40 ^er cent, of copper. 

43. Chalcopyrite, with a little bomite and quartz, from the depth of 1,140ft. 

44. Bomite, chalcopyrite, and quartz, from the depth of 1,320ft. Estimated 
to contain 40 per cent, of copper. 



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230 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

45. Copper ore in combination with gangue. These specimenfi, with those 
numbered 23, represent the bulk of the veinstone obtained in the mines. 

46. Diamond-drill cores. 

182 The Wallaroo Copper Mines, Yorke's Peninsula— Specimens illus- 
trative of the mineralogical and geological features of the district. The formation 
below the alluvial soil is composed of recent limestone and clay, underneath 
which the bedrock, a non-fossiliferous talcose schist, is met wim. ^ The lodea 
exist in the older formation, and are sometimes discovered by costeening to the 
depth of the recent overlying deposits. The ores near the cap of the lode are 
generally of the oxidised class, and they pass gradually into chalcopyrite, as 
greater depths are attained. The lodes project above the bedrock into the 
calcareous deposits, but do not form an outcrop above the surface of liie ground. 

1. Soil, average thickness about 1 foot. 

2. Concretionary limestone, average thickness about 18 inches. 

3. Compact limestone, average thickness about 18 inches. 

4. Concretionary limestone, second layer; average thickness 16 inches. 

5. Red day, varying in thickness from 2 feet to 8 feet. 

6. Talcose schist in a friable condition ; top of bedrock. 

7. Gossan, from the "cap of lode." 

8. Oxychloride of copper. Estimated to contain 20 per cent, of copper. 

9. Carbonate of copper. Estimated at 16 per cent, of copper. 

10. Ore from the depth of 120 feet, consisting of oxychloride, cuprite, black 
ore, native copper, and gossan. Estimated at 45 per cent, of copper. 

11. Black sidphide of copper and iron pyrites from the depth of 120 feet. 

12. Peacock ore, eonsistiug of copper and iron pyrites. 

13. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 180 feet. Estimated at 18 per cent, of 
copper. 

14. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 240 feet. Estimated at 10 per cent of 
copper. 

16. Chalcopyrite and iron pyrites from the depth of 420 feet. Estimated to 
contain 20 per cent, of copper. 

16. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 600 feet. Estimated at 30 per cent, of 
copper. 

17. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 780 feet. 

18. Chalcopyrites. Estimated at 12 per cent of copper. 

19. Copper ore in combination with gangue. 

20. Bedrock ^talcose schist) from alongside the lode at a depth of 30 feet* 

21. Bedrock trom the depth of 60 feet. 

22. Bedrock from the depth of 120 feet. 

23. Bedrock from the depth of 180 feet. 

24. Bedrock from the depth of 780 feet. 
26. Bedrock from the depth of 840 feet. 

26. Cuprite and oxychloride of copper, associated with iron ore, from the 
depth of 60 feet. Estimated to contain 40 per cent, of copper ; from KuriUa. 

27. Cuprite and oxychloride of copper, associated with iron ore, from the 
deptii of 120 feet. Estimated to contain 40 per cent, of copper ; from Kurilla* 

28. Chalcopyrite, with a little iron pyrites, from the depth of 420 feet. 
Estimated to contain 22 per cent, of copper. 

29. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 480 feet. Estimated to contain 24 per 
cent, of copper ; from Kurilla. 

30. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 600 feet. Estimated at 28 per cent, of 
copper. 

31. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 840 feet. Estimated to contain 12 per 
cent, of copper. 

32. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 840 feet. Estimated to contain 12 per 
cent, of copper. 

33. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 840 feet. Estimated to contain 10 per 
cent, of copper. 



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EXHIBITS-EASTERN ANNEXE. 231 

34. Chalcopyrite from the depth of 930 feet. Estimated to contain 10 per 
cent, of copper 

35. Copper ore in combination with gangue. 

36. Copx>er ore in combination with gangue, from Kurilla. 

37. Diamond- drill cores. 

188 Captain Cowling — Specimens of copper ore from Hamley Mine, Yorke 
Peninsula. 

184 Wm. Patrick — Specimens of copper ore from Hillside Mine, Kapunda 

185 B. S. Crabb — Specimen of malachite from Burra Mine. 

186 D. W. Scott — Specimens of copper ore from Adelaide Mine, 12 miles 

N.E. by E. from Adelaide. 

187 Wallaroo Smelting Company — Trophy of copper ingots. 

188 W. E. Pascoe— Rock crystal from Davey's Claim, Teetulpa. 

189 Sir S. Davenport, K.C.M.6. — Blocks of iron ore from Caroona, west of 

Port Augusta. 

190 Hy. Kempson, Teatree Golly— Soapstone. 

191 M. Laycock, Waymouth-street — Two slabs of soapstone from Gumeracha. 

191 Capt. F. Prout— Two slabs of soapstone from Gumeracha. 

192 James Hawke, Teatree Gnlly— Sand, 4 varieties. 

198 James Marshall & Co., Bundle-street— Cone of silyer-lead ores from 
"Wheal Margaret Mine, near Mount Barker. 

194 0. F. Hancock — Specimens of silyer-lead ore from Almauda Mine, 18 

miles south-east of Adelaide. 

195 Arthur Hardy - Specimens of silver-lead ore from Glen Osmond Quarry 

Silver-lead Mine, 4 miles from Adelaide. 

196 Dr. Stephens — Specimens of silver-lead ore from Eukaby, 48 miles east 

of Hawker railway station. 

197 W. L. Dalwood — Specimens of asbestos from Arkaba, near Hawker. 

Shown in natural state and as disintegrated by application of water. 

198 J. Leaver, Bundle and King William streets — Hats, sunshades, 

pullovers, military hats and caps, collegiate caps» &c. 

199 0. ft W. Shierlaw, Hindley-street, Adelaide— Men' sand boys' clothing, 

hats, shirts, &o. 

200 T. A. Westwood, 64, Bundle-street, Adelaide— Ladies* and children's 

outfits. 

201 Lobethal Tweed Factory, D. Bobin, Sec., Gawler-place, Adelaide^ 

Tweeds, flannels, wools, &c., made at the factory, Lobethal. 

202 B. S. Bothe, Sedan— Collection of insects, numbering 2,000, and com- 

prised of 700 dift'erent species, of which part was collected by Mr. 
T. Heuzenroder, of Tanunda. 

203 F. Brookes, Finniss-street, Lower North Adelaide -Yenetian blinds. 

204 6. P. Doolette ft Co., King William-street, Adelaide— Large assort* 

ment of gentlemen's sbirts. 

205 H. J. Bailey ft Co., Bundle-street, Adelaide— 

1 Children's fancy and embroidered dresses. 

2 Ladies' evening costumes. 

206 A. Simpson ft Son, Gawler-place, Adelaide ~ Burglar and fire-proof 

safe, lent to Govt. Geologist for protection of exhibits. 

207 D. Tregillas, Belair— Specimens of malachite. 

208 Conservator of Water (J. W. Jones), Govt. Offices, Adelaide— Well- 

boring appliances, models of boring machines and diamond drills, 
samples of strata from bores undertaken: MilendiUa bore, 231ft; 
Tintinarra bore, 2o3ft., artesian water, 4,300 gallons per day; 
Eoberts' Well, Nullabor Plains, 777ft. ; Cold-and-Wet bore, 830ft., 
abandoned; Mungamurtiemurtie bore, 272ft., 52,800 gallons per 
day; Hergott, No. 2, ?60ft., 100,000 gallons per day; Strangways, 
365ft., 1,200,000 gallons per day; Cowards, 308ft., 1,200,000 
gallons per day. 



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232 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

SOO Q. E. Fulton 4 Cp., XUkenny— Verandah castmgs, centre-pieces for 

rooms, gateways and palisading, cast-iron baths, staircases, and 

garden seats, &c. 
810 J. P. Everett, Bimdle-Btreet, Adelaide— Gentlemen's and ladies' bearer 

hats, military cockades and caps, servants' livery hats, &c. 
211 Qeo. Walker, Birkenhead— Oil painting of McLaren Wharf, Port 

Adelaide. 
812 F. H. Bchlork ft Co., Oawler-plaoe, Adelaide— Samples of dyed wools, 

feathers, and cloth. 
218 Hiss Margaret Kelly, Etterick Farm, Biverton— Silk patchwork quilt. 

214 Mrs. A. Adamson, College Park— Tea cosy, and other articles made 

from the feathers of birds frequenting the River Murray. 

215 A. Dowie, Bundle-street, Adelaide — Boots and shoes of all descriptions. 

216 A. Dowie, Bowden Tannery, Bowden — Sides of sole leather, split kip, 

waxed calf, waxed kip, wallaby, waxed kaogaroo, harness bacK, 
bridle, &c. 

217 The Adelaide Boot Factory, Waymouth-street, Adelaide— Boots and 

shoes of various descriptions. 

218 J. J. Careen & Son, Hindley-street, Adelaide -Leather, boot and shoe 

uppers, grindery, Ac. 

219 J. Bmnell, Semaphore-road, Exeter - Embossed glass showcase, showing 

specimens of graining, etching, painting, and house decorations. 

220 H. L. Vosz, Bnndle-street, Adelaide— A splendid exhibit, representing 

on one side a front door of a mansion with raised panels, grained in 
bastard pollard, the stiles and rails in Spanish walnut, relieved in 
plain oak mouldings and ebony chamfers. The fan and side lights 
of polished plate, embossed with elaborate scroll patterns. The 
west side represents the interior of hall door, neatly decorated, 
having in the panels and fanlight embossed plateglass of another 
process. 

221 Hammer & Co., Bundle-street, Adelaide— Photographs, cabinet and 

panel, and painted photographs. 

222 * * Kapunda Herald ' '—Heading stand. 

223 Surveyor-OeneraPs Departments— Statistical map and enquiry office 

for supplying infoimation relative to land regulation?, &c. 

224 "Advertiser," "Express," and "Chronicle"— Enquiry office, with 

daily papers for free use of the public. 
226 £. F. Troy, Freeman-street, Adelaide^Specimens of graining and 

marbling for house decorations. 
226 F. £. Erichauff, Government Offices, Victoria-square, Adelaide — 

Amateur photographs of colonial scenery. 
237 Wm. Carruthers, Melbourne-street — wallaroo Bay and 

Works (Loan— Artist not known.) 



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EXHIBITS—FINE ARTS, &c. 233 



FINE ARTS, ETC. 

(In the Main Building.-— Western Court.) 

4 CATTTHOBini & Co. — Qond-paiiited plaques, poonali painting, &c. 
J- 15 Mi88 L. FiBLD, AND OTHBK La.dib8 -^ Decorations, Australian Flora, 
on walls. 
15a Miss E. F. Bboad — Hand-painted mirror, bird and water-lilies. 
32 Old Colonists' Coubt — Various oil paintings and water-color drawings, 

39 J. W. £ABNBft — Plaster cast, Tribute to Apollo, yase, pedestel. 

drawings, &o. 

40 P. N. £iBCHBLL (Drpabtmekt op the Conservatob op Watbb), 

Public Oppiceb — System of Canalisation and Irrigation, adapted to 
the Biver Murray and the lands contiguous thereto. 

SKETCHES IN BLACK AND WHITE. 
fin the Concert Hall.) 

W. E. Fbbnelby, Maby-stbeet, Unley — 

1 Horse. (Loan.) 

2 Group of Horses. (Loan.) 

A. Scott Bboad, Hanson-stbbet, Adelaidb — 

3 A Gippsland Back Track. 

4 Gorge in the Valley of the Sturt. 

6 T. Adoocx, Port-boad, Hindmabsh — Portrait of the late Dean Russell. 

6 T. C. Dalwood, Halipax-stkket. Adelaide — Portrait of the High 

Worshipful the Mayor of Adelaide (Mr. E. T. Smith). 

7 Miss E. Bailey, Commebcial-boad, Pobt — Bavaria. 

Mbs. Bandall, Stbangways-tebbace — 

8 Group of trees (loan). 

9 Copy portrait of Mozart (loan). 

(In the Art Gallery.) 
A. Savpb, Modelleb, Nelson -stbeet, Stepney — 

116 Bust of Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G., LL.D., modelled from life. 

117 Bust of E. T. Smith, Esq., M-P. 

Hbnby Clayton, Abtist to His Eicellbncy the Govbbnob — 

118 Portrait of Sir Samuel Davenport, K. C . M . G., painted full length in oils. 
118a Portrait of Sir W. C. P. Eobinson, G.C.M.G. 

A. MacCoBMAC, B4BT0N-TBBBACE— 

1 19 Portrait of Sir Geo. Kingston, late speaker of the House of Assembly, S. A. 

120 Portrait of Sir R. E. Torrens, G.C.M.G. 

.121 H. P. Gill, principal— Collection of exhibits by artists and students of 
the School of Design. 

(In the Eastern Annexe.) 
227 Wm. Cabbuthbbs (Loan), Abtist not known — ^Wallaroo Bay and 

Smelting Works. 
211 Geo. Walkbb, Bibbenhbad— View of Port Adelaide. 

fin the Main Building, Eastern Court.) 
68 J; Hood — Oil painting of church. 



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234 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

OIL PAINTINGS. 
(In the Concert Hall.) 

1 Gbobgb E. W. Bouknb, Semaphobb — Rescue of the Crew of the 

Eblana by the Grew of the Decapolis during a Gale in the Bay 
of Biscay. 

2 Chas. Hill, South-tbbaacb, ADBLAiDE—Georgetown, S.A., in 1876. 

3 Alf. Scott Broad, Hanson-strebt, Adblaidb—t Duck-shooting on 

the Murray. 

4 E. Goldsmith— Shipping on the Port River. 

5 J. Shakbsfeabe, Cabbington-stkeet — The Girl at the Brook. 

6 John White, Rvndlb-stbeet, Kent Town — ^Witchelena, S.A. 

7 G. W. BiscHOFP, Gawleb— The Old Shepherd. 

A. MacCobbiac, Barton- terbace — 

8 Portrait of Hon. A. B. Murray. 

9 A Bushman. 

10 The Rock : near Morialta. 

11 Jas. Shakesfeabe, Cabbington-8Tbef.t - Scene in Hyde Park. 

12 Miss Fiveash, Nobth Adelaide — A Study of Fruit, in oil. 

13 J. Irving, 117, Rundle-stbbet, Adelaide — Knocked up. 

14 Chas. Hill, South-terbacb, Abelaidb - The Plains of Gulnare. 

15 J. Shakesfbabe, Carrington -street— a Bend on the Acrow, Vic. 

16 Chas. Hill, South-terrace, Adelaide — Portrait of Sir R. R. Torrens. 

17 H. Clayton (Artist to His Excellency Sir W. C. F, Robinson, 

G.C.M.G.), 1, Albert-terrace, Carrington-strbet — Portrait of 
A. Abrahams. 
17a "William Carruthers, Melbourne-street, N.A. — Two stags* heads 
(loan). 

18 John White, Rundle-strbet, Kent Town — View of Mount Lofty 

from the Torrens. 

19 Louis Tannert, South Australian Institute — Good Friends. 

20 Mrs. Miller, Beaumont — Morning Scene on the Onkaparinga. 

21 Miss Ann E. Billiatt, Government Cottage, Glenelg — ^View on 

Onkaparinga River. 

22 J. Ashton, Town Hall, Norwood — The Avenue. 

23 L. Tannert— The Roses. 

24 G. "W. BiscHOFF, Gawler — Battle Scene: Back from the Valley of 

Death. 

25 Miss Emily Anson, Penny-street, Exeter — View near ITnley Park. 

26 Mrs. R. K. Smart. Norwood— Hawk Rending its Prey. 

27 H. Clayton, Artist to His Excellency Sir W. C. F. Robinson,. 

G.C.M.G., Albert-terrace, Carrington-strbet — View on New 
Zealand Coast. 

28 R. H. Shaw, Hanson- place — Blacks preparing for a Corroberee. See 

Armament Hall. 

29 H. Clayton, Artist to His Excellency Sir W. C. F. Robinson, 

G.C.M.G., Albert-terrace, Cabrington-btbeet — The Dell^ 
Botanic Gardens. 

30 J. Ashton, Town Hall, Nobwood — In the Sweetness. of an Autumn 

Day. 

31 Miss Annie M. Benham, Nobth Adelaide— Flower in Vase. 

32 Mbs. K. St. B. Milleb, Uffeb KENsmoTON—Evening Scene on the 

Onkaparinga. 

33 Miss Emily Anson, Penny-stbeet, Exeteb— View on the Murray. 

34 Miss Annie M. Benham, North Adelaide — Flowers in a Mug. 

35 Miss Sarah A. Ragless, Enfield — The Old Farm House (copy). 



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EXHIBITS— FINE ARTS, &c. 235 

36 J. A. Upton— Portrait of Chaa. Todd, Esq., M.A., C.M.G. 

37 Miss A. Raoless, Enpibld— View of the Mount Wells, near Farina. 

40 Miss A. Benham, North Adelaide — Two Kingfishers (laughiag: 

jackass) in Tree. 

41 J. Johnston, Gobdon-hoad, F&ospect Hill— The Smugglers' Retreat 

on the Scottish Coast. 

42 J. AsHTON, Town Hall, Norwood — Old Age : a Beech Tree. 

44 H. CiiATfTON, Artist to His Excellency Sir W. C. F. Robinson^ 

G.C.M.G.— Portrait of Sir Hemry Loch. 

45 W. FsRNELBY, Mary-street, Unlby — (Loan) — Racehorse. 

G. Williams, 25, Lbfevre-terrace, North Adelaide — (Loan) — 

47 Portrait, Old Lady, after Rembrandt. 

48 \ Specimens of the art of inlaying marble, portrait of a man, portrait of 

49 / a woman. 

50 George Williams, Lefeyre-terracb, N.A. — Portrait old man, after 

Rembrandt. 

51 Loan by S. Brown, Esq., N. Adelaide — Two Musicians. 

52 John Pettib, lent by Rev. A. Honner, Woodfordb, Magill — 

The Prisoner's Pet. 

53 . F. Benda, Copy prom old Master (Loan)— The Card Players. 

55 J. Ashton, Parade, Norwood— Cleaning up after a Storm, off Glenelg 

56 Miss Elise Ttjrck (Loan)— The White Plume. 

57 Artist Unknown (loan by Mr. A. Sims, Sussex-street, Glenelg) 

—Love and Harmony, supposed to be 200 years old. 
59 L. Droit (loan by Mr. A. Sims) — The Cottage Maid. 

67 Miss E. F. Broad, King William-road, Unlby— Cards, Christmas, 

Easter, and Birthday, hand painted. 

68 M. E. Drewitt — Garden Reach, Brisbane. 

71 E. Goldsmith — Morning Kcene on the Onkaparinga. 
81 Chas. Hill, South- terrace, Adelaide — Reading the Proclamation 
of the Colony of South Australia, 1837. 

101 Miss E. Turck (Loan)— Old Letters. 

102 Jas. Brunell, Exeter, Semaphore— Illuminated picture. Under the 

Greenwood. 

103 J. A. Upton— Portrait of G. W. Goyder, Esq., Surveyor- General. 

104 Miss E. Bailey, Commercial-road, Port Adelaide — Penmaenpool 

Ferry. 

Executors late F. C. Singleton (Loan) — 
106 Portrait of a Lady, by Vanderback. 

106 Entrance to Dunein Harbor, by John Gipp, N.Z. 

107 Miss E. Rake, Enfield — Oil painting on satin, &c. 

108 Miss S. A. Ragless, Enfield— Oil painting on satin. 

Miss Hilfers, Gawlbr — 

109 Simply to Thy Cross I Cling (loan). 

110 English Winter Scene (loan). 

111 Swiss Scene (loan). 

112 Yacht in full sail (loan). 
Miss Billiatt, Glenelg— 

« I q (On the Onkaparinga (loan). 
^*'*\MoonKght(loan). 

115 to 122 Miss Hilfers, GAWLER—Painted plaques, various subjects (not 
for competition). 

123 W. Phillips, Port Adelaide— Welsh Valley (loan). 

Mrs. Randall, Strangways-terrace, N.A. — 

124 St. Bernard Dogs (painted on silk). 

125 Officer's Farewell do. 



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236 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

BoBBiK, "William, Mount Gaubisb — 

126 Blue Lake, Mount Oambier. 

127 Leg of Miitton and Valley Lake, Mount Gambler. 

WATER-COLOR DRAWINGS. 
fin fhe Concert Hall.) 
A. EsAM, Pbince Alprbd Hotel, Adelaide — 
33 The Gold Escort — Troopers escorting Cobb's coach. 
39 One of Cobb's Coaches changing Horses. 
43 W. K. Gold, 25, LEPEvaB-TBEBACE, N.A. — The Sunbeam^ Lord 

Brassey's yacht. 
46 Mrs. Walcot — Fish caught at Kangaroo Island. 

Miss E. Tubck (loan) — 

64 The Lover, from Shakespeare's **A8 you like it." 
58 Nydia, from ** The last days of Pompeii.*' 

62 W . K. Gold, 25, Lefevre-terkace, N.A. — Obelisk erected on 
Stamford Point, Port Lincoln, in memory of Capt. Flinders, R.N. 
63, 64 Rev. A. Sells, Mitcham — Sketches in South Australia. 

65 W. K. Gold, 25, Lefevhe-terraoe, N.A. — Panorama of Adelaide 

Hills. 

66 H. Clayton (Artist to His Excellency the Governor, &c.) — ^The 

Bride. 

69 Rev. A. Sells, Mitcham— Sketches in South Australia. 

70 E. Goldsmith— King William-street, Adelaide. 

72 Rev. A. Sells, Mitcham— Sketches in South Australia. 

73 Thomas Adcock, Port- no ad, Hindmarsh - Listening to a Tale. 

74 A. Scott Broad, Hanson -street, Adelaide- View near Bumside. 

75 A. J. Murray, Morialta Chambers — Sketches of Port Lincoln 

and Normanville. 

76 E. Goldsmith — ^View of Adelaide. 

77 W. K. Gold, 25, Lepevre -terra CE-Glenelg in Winter — Coast View. 
79 John Gow, 63, Lefbvre-tbrracb, N.A.— Landscape at Gumeracha. 

81 A. EsAM, Prince Alfred Hotel, Adelaide— -One of Cobb's coaches 

crossing a flooded creek. 

82 Mrs. Widoery (Loan), Magill-road —Basket of flowers. 

A. Scott Broad, Hanson-street, Adelaide— 

83 Coast view near Mordialloc. 

84 Bates' Hut, Kangaroo Island. 

A. J. Murray, Morialta Chambebs^— 

85 Coast view near Normanville. 

86 Do. do. 

John Gow, 53, Lefevre-terrace, N.A. — 

87 View of Brighton Beach, Victoria. 

88 Do. do. 

89 South Australian Bank. 

90 Onkaparinga River. 

91 A. Scott Broad, Hanson- street, Adelaide — ^A Nook in Waterfall 

Gully. 

92 A. EsAM, Prince Alfred Hotel, Adelaide— Designs for Chiistmas 

Cards. 
93, 94 Henderson & Marryat, Kino William-steeet, Adelaide — Cottages. 



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EXHIBITS— FINE ARTS, &c. 237 

A. Scxnr Broad, Hanson-strebt, Adblaide — 

96 The Haunt of the Dingo. 

96 Her last Harbor. 

97 On the Patawalonga Creek. 

98 W. Austin— Arrival of the First Gold Escort. 

99 E. Goldsmith— Rundle-street, Adelaide, looking west. 
100 Miss E. Tubck — Lucia, in the Bride of Lammermoor. 

105 Miss E. Bailby, Comhercial-boad, Port — At Sunset. 

106 Mrs. Strawbridgb— "Wild Flowers. 

107 Mrs. Randall, Strangways-tbrracb — Group of flowers (loan). 

108 Mrs. WiDGBBY, Magill-road- Lighthouse (loan). 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS. 
Hn the Concert Hail.) 
D. Gablick, Rbqister Chambers, Grbnfbll-strbbt, Adelaide— 

1 Premises in King "William-street for Colonial Mutual Life Association. 

2 Premises in Rundle-street for Mrs. Homabrook. 

3 Design for AngUcan church. 

4 R. G. HoLWELL, 4, Old Exchange, Adelaide— St. John's Church* 
D. Garlick, Register Chambers, Grbnfbll-strbet, Adelaide — 

6 Interior of Examination Hall, St. Peter's College. 

6 Messrs. Donaldson, Andrews, & Sharland's "Warehouse, Rundle-street. 

7 E. SuMMERHAYES, DuLwiCH, ADELAIDE— The Kremlin, Moscow (not for 

competition). 
D. Garlick, Register Chambebs, Gbenfell-stbbbt, Adelaide — 

8 St, Barnabas Theological College, North Adelaide. 

9 Perspective of a Competitive Design for a "Wesleyan Church for 

Brisbane. 

10 National Bank of Australasia, North Adelaide. 

11 Southern Cross Hotel, King William- street, Adelaide. 

12 Prince Alfred College, Kent Town. 

13 First premiated Design for Lecture Hall at St. Peter's Collegiate 

School, Adelaide. 

14 A. J. MtJBRAY, Mobialta— Design for Cathedral. 

16 A. G. Salmon— Memorial to the late E. M. Bagot, in North Adelaide 

Cemetery. 
16 D. Garlick, Registeb Chambebs, Gbenfell-stbbbt, Adelaide — 

Marine residence at Brighton, for T. Bickford, Esq. 

TAPESTRY AND NEEDLEWORK. 
f/n the Concert HalLJ 
X Miss M. Solomon, Buckhubst House, 167, Goveb-stbbbt, N.A. — 
Battle of Langside. 

2 Miss S. A. Ragless— Flower on satin. 

3 Miss E. F. Bboad, King William-road, ITnlby— Panel for screen. 

Oil. 

4 Miss M. Brazill, Chapel-street, Norwood — Australia's Coat of 

* Arms. 
b Mrs. 8. Dobell — The Seraphim touching Isaiah's lips with a coal 
from the altar. 

6 Miss A . P. Chvrchett, Regent-street, Adelaide — Arriv6e de Rebecca* 

Miss Matthews — 

7 English Coat of Arms. 

8 The Minotaur Ironclad. 

9 Miss Sarah Welch, care of W. H. Charlton, Sotjth-terracb— 

Crochet work toilet set. 



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238 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

10 Miss M. Solomon, Buckhvbst Hovsb, 167, Goybr-strbbt, NA. — 

Raised bird in wool. 

11 Mbs. J. Melloil, Holinpohth, Fulham — ^Madonna and Child. 

12 Miss M. Solomon, Buckhubst Housb, 167, Govbb-strbbt, N.A.— 

Crewel work on paper. 
18 Mas. J. Mrllob, Holinpobth, Fulham — ^Eagle and its Prey. 
14 Miss W. Febneley — Toilet set, eleven pieces. 
16 Miss Rounsevell, Hutt-stbeet— Christ blessing little Children. 
Miss R. King — 

16 Mantle Drapery, Poonah Painting. 

17 Poonah Painting. 

18 Miss M. Solomon, BucKHrnsT Housb, 167, Govbb-stbbbt, N.A.— 

Joseph presenting his Father to Pharoah. 

19 Mbs. J. Mbllob, Holinfobth, Fulham— Napoleon Crossing the Alps. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

(In the Concert Hall.J 

1 to 3 Mbs. Nbedham, Pobt MacDonnell— Photo, frames, with seaweed 

design. 
4 to 7 Miss Dbnino, Bobdebtown— Pictures in seaweed. 
1 to 14 R. Rbdwick — Decorative panelling. 

MEDALLIONS AND CASTS IN PLASTER. 
(In the Concert Hall.J 
A. Saupe, Nblson-stbeet, Stepney — 

1 Profile head of C. Reimers 

2 Chas. Gosse, Esq., M.D. 

3 Rev. James Way. 

Maxwell, — , New Pabliambnt Houses — 

4 Original model of the Nativity 
6 Cupids 

6 ThePeata. 

SCULPTURE IN SLATE AND STONE AND OTHER 
MATERIAL. 

"W. Kennedy, Noablunoa— 
9 Picture from nature (slate), on view in Eastern Annexe. 
9 Pastoral scene (stone), " " 

9 Picture from nature (slate), ** Main Building, "West, S.A. Court. 

W. H. Hbddlb, Thbbabton — 
13, 14 Carved marble picture frames, . ** ** 

R. Walsh, Woodvillb— 

20 Fire screens carved in wood with pocket-knife, on view in Main 

Building, West, S.A. Court. 

A. Saupe, Nblson-stbbbt, Stbpney — 

Bust, Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G., Art Gallery, Main Building. 
Bust, E. T. Smith, Esq., M.P., and Vice-Preadent of Adehude 
Jubilee International Exhibition, Art Gallery, Main Building. 

Eablb, Bbos., Tonoala — 

Carving in bone, &c.. Eastern Annexe, S.A. Court. 
Mb. Fitzpatbick, Nobth-tbbbace- Bridal bouquet, carved in cuttle- 
fish, S.A. Court, Main Building, next Wax Models of Fruit. 



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EXHIBITS— FINE ARTS, &c. 239 

64 Hameb, T. H.y Gbenfbll-stmet — 

Envying on brass salver, original design by Mr. Hamer, S A. Court, 

Main Building, near Models of Wax Fruit. 
12 Miss £. B. Anto— Manteldrape, figures painted in oils on porcelain 

PHOTOGRAPHS. 

fin the Eastern Annexe.) 
F. C. Kbichaupp, Angas-strbbt— Collection of photos, of scenery. 

(In the Main Building, Western Court.) 
Hammer & Co., Bundle-stkbet — Collection of photos. 

(In the Main Building, Eastern Court.) 
John Hood— Collection of photos. 
67 Ang ASTON AND DISTRICT— Augastou Court. 
18 Cr. "Watson— Views of Mount Gambier. 

(In the Concert Hall.) 
EvGiNBBR-iN- Chief. S.A., Yictobia-bquare, Adelaide— 

1 Soath Australian Railways —Northern System. 

2 South Australian Railways— Miscellaneous. 

3 South Australian Railways — Southern System. 

4 South Australian Railways— Miscellaneous. 
W. Dxtppield, Sea Wall, Glbnblg— 

5 Yiew^ on the Onkaparinga River. 

6 Evening Shadows, Patawalonga Creek. 

7 At Pam Para. 

8 Hammer ft Co., Rundlb-street — Trees in the Botanic Gardens, 

AdeMde. 

9 Capt. Sweet, Arcade, Adelaide — Capt. Sweet's Photographs of 

Adelaide. 

10 G. F. Jekkinson, Laura— A Glance at our Northern Areas. 

11 J. Beythibn, Commercial-road, Poet Adelaide — South Australian 

Views. 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 Areas Photographic Company, Laura — Specimens of up-country 

Photography, taken in a travelling studio. 
18a ) 
18b I ^•^* Amateur Photographic Society — Various scenes. 

(fn the Armament Hall.) 
Royal Commissionbr9 for South Australia — 
2 Views near Angaston. 
4 Lighthouse Map of South Australia. 
6 Plan of Port Adelaide Harbor. 

6 Chart of the Port River. 

7 Clarendon Vineyard, near Ailelaide. 

8 Reaping Machine at work. 

9 View from Morialta, near Adei^aide. 

10 Black Hill, Mount Lofty Ran^v. 

11 Auldana Vineyard, near Adelaid«.\ 

12 West Auldana Vineyard. 

13 Botanic Gardens, colored. 



W. DUFPIEZ.D, Sea Wall, Glbnblg — Instantaneous Views at Para 
Para. 

J. W. Elliot, Strathalbyn — Strathalbyn and its neighborhood. 



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240 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

14 Palm House, Botanic Gardens, Adelaide. 

16 Botanic Gardens, Adelaide. 

16 Palm House, Botanic Gardens, Adelaide. 

17 Botanic Gardens, Adelaide. 

18 Gum Trees, Torrens Park. 

19 Bridge over Torrens, Adelaide. 

20 Olive Trees, Adelaide. 

21 Gum Tree, Adelaide. 

22 A Public School. 

28 Grenf ell -street, Adelaide. 

24 Gum Tree, near Adelaide. 

25 Town Hall, Port Adelaide. 

26 Institute and Museum, Port Adelaide. 

27 Public School, Norwood. 

28 The Bank of Adelaide, Adelaide. 

29 Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum, at Btighton, near Adelaide. 
80 Town Hall, Adelaide. 

31 Circulating Library, Adelaide. 

32 Bundle-street, Adelaide. 

33 Stud Merino Sheep, South Australia. 

34 Proposed Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery, Adelaide. Left 

wing erected. 
H. Y. L. Bbowk, F.G.S., Gotsrnment Gbolooist — 

41 Photographs illustrative of the geological features of South Australia. 

42 The Hon. G. C. Hawker's Bungaree Station. 

43 Photographs illustrating traces of glacial action at HaUetl^ Gove, South 

AustraHa. 

Mas. SwBET, Adblaidh — 

44 Capt. Sweet's photos, of Adelaide. 

45 Capt. Sweet's photos, of Adelaide. 

46 Capt. Sweet's photos, of Adelaide. 

47 Capt. Sweet's photos, of Adelaide. 

Royal CoMMissiomins — 

48 Aboriginal throwing Boomerang. 

49 Aboriginal throwing Spear. 

50 Aboriginal, South Australia. 

51 Stump-jumping ^ough, J. W. Stott & Sons. 

52 Scrub roller, J. Wn Stott & Sons. 

53 Mallee and bush cutter, Stott & Sons. 
64 Mallee and bush cutter, Stott & Bona, 

55 Stump-jumping scarifier, Stott ft Sons. 

56 Earth-scoop, J. W. Stott & Sons. 

57 Scrub roller, J. W. Stott & Sons. 

58 Stump-jumping plough, Stott & Sons. 

59 B. Lindsay, Port Adblaids—A pair (ji compound maxine engines, 

for steam launch. 

Royal Commissionhbs — 

60 Aboriginal throwing Spear with Wom^irah. 

61 Bo^s of the Mission School, Point Macleay. 

62 Pomt Macleay Mission Station. 

63 Point Macleay Mission Station. 

64 Chambbb of MANVFACTunEs— Diustrations to Brown's Tree Culture, 

drawn on stone at the Grovemrient Printing Office, Adelaide. 

65 Royal Commissioneus — Dredgf ir on the Port River. 
68 Mabine Boamd— The Ladi/ Ifi^ana steam-launch. 

T. DXJBYEA, RXJNDLB-STKBBT. — CoUoction of photOS. 

Hammek & Co., RuiCDLB-STjiBBT — CoUectiou of photos. 



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EXHIBITS— BASEMENT. 241 



BASEMENT. 

:227 Industrial School for the Blind, North Adelaide— A large collection of 
brushware, mats, basketware, &c. ; also, blind people at work, 
showing l^e process of manufacturing the Bame. 

J^28 John Reid & Sons, Hindmarsh— Leather of all descriptions — sole, har- 
ness, &c. 

.229 Scriven Bros., ////7<//wa/»A— Collection of dressed leathers. 

230 David Reid, HindmarshSole, dressing, and harness leather. 

231 Adelaide Co-operative Cooperage Co. f Henderson, Manager), Currie- 

street, Adelaide — Wine casks, hogsheads, barrels, half-barrds, kegs, 

beef tierces, cheese vats, butter tubs, barrel chums, &c. 
.232 J. F. Qemer & Co., Currie- street, Adelaide — Casks, barrels, &c., of aU 

descriptions used by winegrowers. Cooperage of all other kinds. 
.233 E. A. Adams, Jan., Hind marsh- square east, Adelaide — Fancy cooperage 

in models of all kinds ; also, general cooperage, commercial size. 
234 Peters d Fuller, Pirie-street, Adelaide — Spider buggy. 
^55 Cox d Wiiherick, Way mouth- street, Adelaide — Hooded buggy. 
^36 . Duncan & Fraser, Franklin- street, Adelaide — ^Adelaide phaeton or hooded 

buggy, 5 -glass landau with spring head. 
.237 T. Barlow d Son, Hindmarsh-square, Adelaide — Landau with iron 

skeleton front, lever brakes to work by hand or foot, double self- 
acting step, &c. ; also, family wagonette with movable head and 

partition. These carriages are fitted and trimmed with all the latest 

improvements. 
-238 W. H. Ray. O'Connell-street, North Adelaide— Buckhoaxd buggy and 

carriage. 
J^39 Clarke Bros., Franklin-street, Adelaide— lAndau, brougham, victoria, 

pony cart, express wagon, and hooded buggy. 
J^40 Barlow Bros., Flinders-street, Adelaide — ^Wagonette and buggy. 
241 Duncan d Fraser, Franklin-street, Adelaide-^Show desk and album 

stand, made of colonial blackwood. 
^42 Qoodier d Co., Marion-street, 0/a/iK/V/e— Bottled ale and porter. 
243 Carstairs d Coxell, Currie-Street, Adelaide— A display of aerated waters, 

cordials, liqueurs, bitters, &c. 
.244 D, d R.^J. Fotheringham, Qawler—Aera.ted waters, liqueurs, bitters, 

cordials, bottled ale and porter. 
-245 F, Pffaum d Co., Blumberg—Mxmoso. bark in its various states, and 

manufactured for tanning purposes and export. 
246 Pearce, Wincey, d Co. , Qawler^Wattle bark, ground and powdered. 
.247 J. Cornish d Co., yVorma/iK/V/c— Mimosa bark, ground, feggot, and cut 

bark. 
248 Borrow d Haycraft, Echunga—MimoM tannage fix)m the mimosa or 

golden wattle; specimens of leather tamied, and specimens of the 

wattle from which the extract is made. 
J^49 Mount Gambler Produce Company (A. IV. Sand ford d Co.) — Cheese, 

butter, bacon, eggs, &c. 
.250 8. Tapscott, Mount Pleasant— Cheeee. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN WINES. 
For Competition. 
^SJ Auldana Vineyard fW. P, Auld, Proprietor), Auldana — Light, dry, full 
bodied, 1881 ; light dry, 1883 ; full bodied, fruity, 1882 ; light 
ruby, 1883 ; light dry, 1881 ; full bodied, dry ruby, 1884 ; full 
bodied sweet, 1885 ; full bodied, 1884. 
Q 



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242 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

252 Sir Samuel Davenport, Beaumont— White wine, full bodied, dry, 1883 ; 

white wine of light character, 1884, 1887 ; Yermouth, cognac wine. 
1885; red wine of light character, 1887; red wiae, full bodied, 
fruity, 1883 ; sparkling wine of champagne character, 1835 ; white 
wine, full bodied, fruity, 188^. 

253 W. F, Thompson, Happy Valley— YuO. sherry, 1869 and 1880 ; full 

bodied, tart, 1880 ; fruity, 1883 ; claret, light, 1884. 

254 W. F. Thompson, Happy Valley— lAght muscatel, 1884, claret, mataro,. 

1884 ; sherry and mataro, fruity, 1883. 

255 W. Salter d Sons, Saltram Vineyard, Angaston — Bed, sweet, full bodied,. 

fruity, 1868, 1879, 1883, 1884, 1877 ; red, full bodied, fruity, 1877 ; 
red, full bodied, dry, 1875, 1878, 1879 ; white, full bodied, fruity, 1876,. 
1878, 1881 ; white wine, full bodied, dry, 1876, 1878, 1883. 

256 J, UK. Richman, JVofe/va/e— White wine of light character, 1880, 1881,. 

1882, 1887 ; white wine, full bodied, dry, 1876, 1870 ; white wine, 
full bodied, fruity, 1878, 1880, 1883 ; red wine of a light character, 
1878, 1882, 1883 ; red wine, full bodied, dry, 1879, 1880 ; red wine,, 
sweet, full bodied, fruity, 1879, 1880. 

257 Thos. Hardy, 78, Currie- street, Adelaide — White, light character, 1884,. 

1885, 1883 ; red, light, dry charat ter, 1876, 1882, 1883, 1884 ; white,, 
full bodied, dry, 1875, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1883, 1884; red, full 
bodied, dry, 1883 ; red, fruity, 1880 ; white, sweet, 1882, 1884, 1885 ; 
red, sweet, 1880, 1884, 1885. 

258 B. Seppelt, Seppelts field, P.O., Qreenock—Vorty full bodied, sweet, 1880, 

1881, 1882, 1883, 1884; sherry, fuU bodied, sweet, 1879, 1880, 1881, 
1882 ; riesliug, Ught, 1883, 1884 ; claret, light, 1882, 1883, 1884 ; 
banquette, light, 1877, 1882, 1883, 1885; frontignac, full bodied,, 
sweet, 1882 ; tokay, Jight, 1882 ; dry sherry, Ught, 1885. 

259 Wm. Jacob, Moorooroo, P.O., Rowland's Flat— Light dry riesliiig, 1881 ; 

light, dry, sweet yerdeilho, 1884 ; light sweet frontignac, 1885 ; light 
dry carbonet and shiraz, 1880. 

260 Pen fold d Co., Grange Vineyard, Magi I I—light white wine, 1884,. 

1885 ; light, medium strength, white, 1884, 1886 ; white, full bodied,, 
medium, 1884, 1886 ; white, light, dry, sherry character, 1883 ; white,, 
sweet, full bodied, dessert, 1883, 1884 ; light red, claret, type, 1886 ; 
light red, medium, 1884, 1885 ; red, full bodied, medium, sweet, 

1883, 1884 ; red, full bodied, 1883, 1884 ; port, full bodied, medium^ 
sweet, 1879 ; red, full bodied, sweet, 1883, 1884 ; sweet, foil Ijodied,. 
1876 ; tokay imperial, fruity wine, 1884 ; muscatel, sweet, dessert, 
1882. 

261 N. E. T. Kaines, 15, Ourne-street, Adelaide— Vort, 1883; sherry, 1870;. 

reisling, 1881 ; burgundy, 1880. 

262 J. H. Foureur, Brompton Park — Champagne, for report, 1882. 

263 E. W. Wright, Home Park Vineyard, Magill—S.A.. Wines— Muscatel, 

sweet, full-bodied, 1886 ; claret, malard, dry, 1885 ; constantia,. 
sweet, full bodied, 1884, shiraz, and others ; port, sweet, full bodied,. 
1885. 

284 Wm. Gilbert, Pewsey Vale, Lyndoch-^'Reia^iig, white, light, dry, 1885 ; 
sherry, carbonet, light, dry, red, 1882; carbonet, red, full bodied, 
1882; shiraz, light, dry, red, 1885. 

265 S. Smith & Sons, Yalumba Vineyard, Angaston— light reisling, 1880; 
frontignac, light, 1884; sherry, light, 1884; sherry, white, full 
bodied, diy, 1870 ; frontignac, white, full bodied, dry, 1883 ; 
muscatel, white, full bodied, fruity, 1884 ; frontignac, white, full 
bodied, fruity, 1885; verdeilho, white, full bodied, fruity, 1883, 
1885; ruschette, white, full bodied, fruity, 1886; peyan, white, 
full bodied, fruity, 1884; mataro, red wine, 1886; shiraz, red, full 
bodied, dry, 1885 ; dolcetto, red, fiUl bodied, fruity, 1881 ; shiraz, red, 
full bodied, fruity, 1880, 1882, 1833 ; reisling, 1881. 



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EXHIBITS— BASEMENT. 145 

266 E, B. Young d Co,, Holmadah Vinoyard, Kanmantoo^Sbdxea, mataro, 

and grenache, 1883 ; shiraz, grenache, and mataro, 1884 : shiraz- 
and grenache, 1868 ; shiraz and greoache, full bodied, sweet, 1886 : 
ahinus, mataro, and grenache, claret, 1884; shiraz, mataro, and 
grenache, light red, 1883. 

267 f. IV. Schroeder, Rebensberg, Hahndorf^'hULdjdii&, light dry wines, 

1881 ; malfasir, light dry wines, 1884. 

268 8. d W. Sage, Angaaton—UeAsUng, ]ightf 1883-1886; frontignac^ 

fruity, 1883-1886; shiraz, full bodied, sweet, 1882-1885; puican» 
and sweet water, full bodied, light, 1883, 1884 ; shiraz, sweet, un- 
fermented, non-alcoholic, 1886. 

269 Wilkinson d Mason, 71, King WiUiam-atreei, AdefaideShinz and 

frontignac, red port, full bodied, 1881 ; trontignac, full bodied, red,. 
1883 ; madeira, full bodied, white, 1884 ; shiraz and frontignac, full 
bodied, red, sweet, 1881. 

270 8ir R. D. Ross, Highercombe — Light shiraz, carbonet, 1884; light 

reisling, madeira, 1884 ; tokay and Spanish, fruity, 1884. 

271 Hon. John Crozier, Oakiands, Marion — Grenache, full bodied, sweety 

1884; pedro, full bodied, dry, white, 1883; shiraz and grenache, 
light-red white, 1884 ; shiraz, full bodied, red, 1883. 

272 8ir Thomas Elder, Birksgate, Glen Osmond — Shiraz, red, sweet, full 

bodied, fruity, 1880 ; imiraz, red, full bodied, dry, 1880 ; frontignac, 
sweet, white, 1881; madeira, white, full bodied, fruity, 1879; red 
wine, full bodied, dry, shiraz, 1884 ; white wine, fidl bodied, dry, 1880. 

SPIRITS. 
For Competition, 

278 Thos, Hardy, 78, Currie-street, ^</«/a/(/e— Brandy. 

274 Wm. Gilbert, Pewsey Vale — Spirits of wine, about 18 per cent, of proof 

spirit. 

275 B. Sep pelt Seppeltsffeld, P.O., Greenock — Spirits of wine, brandy, pale, 

ginger wine, ginger brandy, cherry brandy, rum punch. 

276 Carstairs d Coxell, Currie- street, Adelaide — Rum punch, ginger brandy, 

ginger wine. 

277 Ryan d Co., Gray- street, Adelaide — Ginger brandy, ginger wine. 

278 Hall d Son, Norwood — Ginger wine, ginger brandy, rum punch. 

279 Crowder d Co., Franklin-street, Adelaide — Rum punch, ginger brandy, 

ginger wine. 

280 Stephens d Co., Way mouth- street, Adelaide — Ginger brandy, cherry 

brandy, ginger wine, rum punch. 

281 D. d R. J. Fotheringham, Gawler — Ginger wine, ginger brandy. 

282 A. M. Sick ford d Son, Currie-street, Adelaide — Ginger wine, ginger 

brandy, cherry brandy. 
288 Adelaide Aerated Water and Brewing Company, Limited, Angas-atreetr 
Adelaide — Ginger wine, ginger brandy, rum punch. 

LIQUEURS. 

For Competition, 

284 Thos. Hardy, 78, Currie-street, Adelaide^JAqaexm, tonic wine, and 

Vermouth wine. 
286 W. Salter d Son, Angaston—IAqxieuTB. 

286 B. Seppelt, Seppeltsfield, P.O., Greenock --Kummel liqueurs, cura^oa 

liqueur, maraschino liqueur, vanilla, roeoly, and par£ut amour. , 

287 Geo. Hail d Sons, /Vo/vooc/— Cura^oa, kummel. 

288 W. N. Crowder d Co., Franklin-street, Adelaide— KnmmeL 

289 Stephens d Co., Waymouth-street >1(/e/a/</«— Kummel and cura<;oar 



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244 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

200 A. Hi, Bickford d Son, Oume-atreef, Adelaide — Cura^oa, maraschiiib, 

and kumxnel. 

201 Adelaide Aerated Water and Brewing Co., Limited, Currie-atreef, 

Adelaide-^Ahan^tif benedictine, cura^oa, kummel, maraschino, 
noyeaUy and chartreuse. 
J?P5 Smith d Sons, Angaston — Frontignaeliqueur. 

BEERS. 
For Competition, 
203 6, £. Qra/, Hyde Park Brewery — Bottled ale, bottled stout, draught ale. 
-2P4 A. W, d T. L. Ware, Torrenside Brewery, ////K//war«A-— Colonial bottled 

lager, malt ale, colonial bottled colonial ale, XX .and XXX colonial 

bottled stout, XX and XXX colonial bulk ale, colonial bulk stout, 

XX and XXX. 
J?P5 Chambers & Blades, Dragon Brewery-^MQy porter, malt. 
206 Robt. Til ley. Lion Bottling Company, North Adelaide — Pale ale, lager 

beer, porter. 
Ji07 W, Knap man. Cannon Brewery, Port Adelaide— Botdedale, bottled porter, 

bulk ale. 
^08 W, Qoodier d Co., Marion- street, QIanville — Bottled beer, bottled porter, 

bulk beer. 
S!00 Stephens d Co., Way mouth-street, Adelaide— Boiled ale and porta:, bulk 

ale and porter. 

300 Chas. Shand, Eastwood — Bulk ale, bottled ale and porter, bulk porter. 

301 Ryan d Co., Q ray-street, Adelaide — Porter. 

302 W. d Q. Dancker, Macclesfield— Br&v^ht pale ale, draught ale, XX 

bottled ale. 

CORDIALS. 

For Competition, 

308 B, Seppelt, Seppelts field, P.O. Qreenock — Quinine wine, peppermint, 
lemon syrup, cloves, limejmce cordial, raspberry vinegar, gmgerette. 

304 Carstairs d Coxell, Currie-street, Adelaide—rep^^rmiaty limejuice 

cordial, raspberry balm, sarsaparilla, pine apple cordia]. 

305 Qeo, Hall d Son, Norwood — ^Limejuice cordial, peppermint, raspbeiTy 

balm, raspberry vinegar, sarsaparilla, cloves, lemon syrup. 

306 Ryan d Co., Q ray-street, Adelaide — Sarsaparilla, limejuice cordial, 

peppermint, lemon syrup, raspberry vinegar, cloves. 

307 Crowderd Co., Franklin-street, Adelaide — Limejuice cordial, raspberry 

vinegar, raspberry balm, cloves, peppermint, lemon syrup, sarsaparilla. 

308 Stephens d Co., Way mouth- street, Adelaide — Peppermint, lemon syrup, 

cloves, limejuice, raspberry vinegar, sarsaparilla. 
300 D. d R. J. Fotheringham, Qawler — Cloves, peppermint, raspberry balm, 
raspberry vinegar, sanaparilla, lemon syrup, mnejuice cordial. 

310 A. M. Bickford d Son, Currie-street, Adelaide — Peppermint, cloves, 

raspberry, sarsaparilla, lemon syrup. 

311 Adelaide Aerated Water and Brewing Company, Limited, Ang^s-street, 

Adelaide — Sarsaparilla, peppermint, limejuice cordial,' pure lime- 
juice, raspberry balm, doves, raspberry vinegar, rum shrub, lemon 
syrup shrub, vanilla, pine apple. 

AERATED WATERS. 

For Competition, 

312 Adelaide Aerated Water and Brewing Co., Limited, An gas-street, Ade- 

laide — Ginger ale, champagne ginger beer, carrara water, soda water, 
tonic water, seltzer water, potash water, lithia water, magnesia water, 
ginger beer, fermented sarBaparilla, and lemonade. 



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EXHIBITS— BASEMENT. 245 

313 George Hall A Son, Norwood— Lemontidef soda water, ginger ale, sar- 

saparilla, seltzer -water, and tonio water. 

314 Ryan A Co., Q ray- street, Adelaide — Soda water, lemonade, sarsaparilla, 

ginger ale, and tonic water. 

575 Crowder & Co., Franklin-street, City — Soda water, lithia, seltzer, mag- 
nesia, and potash waters, lemonade, ginger ale, champagne ginger 
beer, and sarsaparilla. ^^ 

310 D, A R. J. Fotheringham, Qawlei^—lsmoiMdef ginger ale, soda water, 
sarsaparilla, and champagne ginger beer. 

317 A. M. Bickford & Son, Carrie- street, Adela/de^Sod& water, eau de 

seltzer, tonic, potash, and lithia waters, ginger ale, ginger beer, 
lemonade, splash, and sarsaparilla. 

318 Q. d W. Dancker, Macclesfield— Soda water, lemonade, ginger ale, and! 

sarsaparilla. 

BITTERS. 

For Competition, 

319 B. Seppelt, Seppelts field, P.O., Oreenock— Orange bitters. Vermouth of 

Turin, excelsior bitters, Angostura, stomach, doctor, boonekamp, white 
cross, and hop bitters. 

320 Carstairs A Coxell, Carrie- street, Adelaide — Orange bitters, doctor, 

quinine, and Kent hop. 

321 Qeo. Hall & Son, Norwood— Kent hop bitters, orange, doctor, stomach, 

boonekamp. Vermouth, and quinine. 

322 Ryan & Co., Q ray- street, Adelaide — Quinine, Kent hops, and orange 

bitters. 

323 Crowder & Co., Franklin-street, Adelaide— Kent hop, Kent, eucalyptus, 

boonekamp, doctor, Australian hop tonic, quinine wine bitters. 

324 Stephens & Co., Way mouth- street, Adelaide— Kent hop, jubilee, orange, 

stomach, doctor, Canadian, and quinine bitters. 

325 D. & R. J. Fotheringham, Gawler— Doctor, hop, orange, and quinine 

wine bitters, quinine wine, stomach and Stoughton bitters. 

326 A. M. Bickford d Son, Carrie- street, Adelaide — Orange, Kent, hop, 

stomach, doctor, and quinine wine bitters. 

327 Aerated Water and Brewing Company, Limited, Angas-street, Adelaide — 

Hop, Kent hop, quinine wine bitters, orange, stomach. Vermouth, 
doctor, Angostura, hot Tom bitters. 

CIDEK. 
J^or Competition, 
828 Crowder d Co., Franklin-street, Adelaide — Champagne cider. 

329 Adelaide Aerated Water and Brewing Co., Limited, Angas-street, Ade- 

laide— CHer. 

VINEGAR. 

For Competition. 

330 B. Seppelt, Seppeltsfield, P.O., Qreenook—Widte wine Tinegar and 

brown "vinegar. 

FLUID MAGNESIA. 

For Competition, 

331 Qeo. Hall & Sons, Norwood — Fluid magnesia. 

832 Crowder & Co., Franklin-street, Adelaide — Fluid magnesia. 

SAUCES. 

For Competition. 

333 Ryan d Co., Q ray-street, Adelaide^Worewteir sauce and tomato sauce. 

334 D. d R, J. Fotheringham, Qawler—Briof^ and tomato sauce. 



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246 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



NORTHERN ANNEXE. 

2Z6 £. S. Wioo & Son, Rundlb-stsbbt, Adblaidb — Statioiiieiy, account 

books, &c., bookbindings and printing of yarious descriptions. 
4186 Sands & McDouoall, 64, Kino Williaic-btiieet, Adelaide — Account 

books, ruled, ruled and printed, in yarious bindings, styles, &c. 
887 T. S. Cabst & Co., Waymouth-street, Adelaidb - Showcase of 

printed samples, showcards, bills, books, &o. 
:888 R. HoNET, Lion Timber Tajeld, Port Adelaide — Case with samples 

of mouldings, turnery, Ac, used in building trade. 
889 McDouoALL & Gow, Eopeb-street, Adelaidb— Door and frame 

complete. 
840 Waltbb & MoBBis, Sabnia Timber Yard, Port Adelaide — 

Timber, mouldings, turnery, &c. 
^1 T. K. Stubbins, Timber Merchant, Pirib-strebt, Adelaide — 

Timber, and specimens of timber bent for various purposes, mouldings, 

mantels, &c. 
■84S Cawthornb & Co., T.M.C.A. Buildings, Gawlbr-place, Adelaide 

— Collection of musical compositions. 
^48 J. B.. Sherrino & Co., Currie-street, Adelaide — Collection of 

printed matter of all kinds, account books, bookbinding, &c. 
544 Fred. Herring, "West-terrace, Adelaide — Monumental work. 
.846 "W. H. Martin, King William-strebt south, Adblaide — Enamelled 

slate mantelpieces. 

546 Mellor Brothers, Franklin- stbbbt, Adelaide — Stripper, stump- 

jumping ploughs, &c. ; also models of stump-jumping ploughs, 
scarifiers, and other agricultural machinery, in motion. 

547 "W. K. Thomas & Co., ** Register" Opfice, Grenfell- street, 

Adelaide— The first printing press used in the colony. 

548 T. F. Mellor, Exchange, Adelaide — The jubilee gold-washing 

cradle, patented December 2nd, 1886. 

549 Gray Bros., Leadenhall- Street, Port Adelaide — ^Railway axles, 

wheels, and buffer-heads, and all kinds of heavy iron forgings. 

850 FoRwooD, Down & Co., Hindley-strebt west, Adelaide— Ornamental 
ironwork, wine-press, pumps, pulley-wheels, &c. 

551 Hydraulic Engineer, Hydraulic Engineer's Department, 
Goybbnment Offices, Yictoria-squarb, Adelaide — General 
appliances used by Hydraulic Engineer's Department in connection 
with the water supply in South Australia and the Adelaide sewers, 
colonial made. 

853 Union Engineering Company, North-tebrace, Adelaide — Castings, 
consisting of pumps and detail parts of machinery. 

558 Geo. Fothebingham, Gbrmbin- street. Semaphore — Portable com- 
bination boiler. 

554 A. 0. Chambebs, Flinders-street, Adelaide —Washing machines, 

chums, reading-stand, verandah chairs, steps, garden seats, butter 
workers, moulds, and folding hammocks. 

555 H. J. Kbipbrt, Crown Foundry, Laura — Ploughshares, scarifier- 

shares, umbrella stands, door-scrapers, wheel pinions, and sundry 
castings. 

556 T. S. Bagshaw k Son, Elizabeth-street, Adelaide— Agricultural 

machinery, winnowing-machines, horsepower, chaffcutter, comcrusher, 
&c. 

557 Carl Barto, Nblson-strbbt, STSPNEY^Bird cages, wire baskets, 

faney goods, utensils, sand sieves and screens, &e. 



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EXHIBITS— NOl^THERN ANNEXE. 247 

358 J. Gabdiner, Port-hoad, Hindmab8H->A11 kindB of compositionBy 
pastes, and liquids for polishing plate, plate glass, metals, furniture, 
and harness. 

^9 EoBT. Harris & Co., Blyth- street, Adelaide — Brushware, house- 
hold, stable, toilet, fancy, machine, and all other kinds. 

360 Adelaide Broom MANUFACTURiNa Co., Franklin-stebet, Adelaide 

— Carpet brooms and wisks. 

361 J. R. B. Poole, & Co., Bowbn-street, Adelaide ^ Tomato, 

Worcester, and other sauces. 

362 Harrold Bros., Hindlby-street, Adelaide — Gold cradle. 

363 "Wm. Burton, c/o Mr. Wilkes, Currie-street, Adelaide — Horse- 

shoes, two collections, one finished and one off the hammer ; all hand 
made. 

364 H. J, MosBLET, Pink Lakes, Torkbtown — Butchers* salt, table, 

rock, and salt of all kinds. 

365 J. Bennett, Nile-street, Port Adelaide — Bolts and nuts, dog- 

spikes, and cart axles. 

366 L. Conrad, Hindlby-street, Adelaide — Preserved meats, mutton 

hams, fritz sausages, butchers' small goods, dripping, bacon, ham, &c. 
•67 Mount Gambier. Produce (A. W. Sandford & Co., Agents) — 

J. McArthur — ^Wheat, oats, and potatoes. J. Paris — Cheese. Arch. 
Smith — Peas. R. Brougham — Hops. D. Norman — Hops. J. Dyke 
—Wheat. C. Englebrecht— Spirits. J. Kilsby— Hops. T. Kelly 
— Stone. J. Medhurst — Wheat. Gallard Barrett— Two bags 
potatoes. Jas. Smith— Three bags rye. T. H. Williams — ^Two 
Fv bags flour. H. £. Norman— Hops. 

368 A. W. DoBEiE & Co., Gawler- place, Adelaide — Sewing machine 

and samples of goods electro-plated. 

369 Geo. P. Harris, Scarpe, & Co., Gawler-place, Adelaide — 

Ferrier's patent lever wool press, with the newly-improved traversing 
boxes, as invented and used by A. McFarlane, Esq., Wellington, 
South Australia ; American chums, Adelaide box chums, wood, sack, 
and store tmcks, garden seats, ice chests, James's patent portable 
washing boiler, galvanized gutter, ridging, pipe, &c. 

370 LoBETHAL Woollen Factory (D. Robin, Secretary, Gawler- 

place, Adelaide), LoBETHAL--Maohine at work making cloth, &c. 

371 F. H. Clark & Co., North-terrace, Adelaide — Eorting Bros', gas 

engine ; band saw. 

373 Henderson ft Co. Bundle-street, Adelaide — Confectionery, steam 

revolving pan in operation, and apparatus used for melting by steam. 
878 W. H. BuRFORD & Son, Sturt-strebt, Adelaide — Soap stamping 
machine and candle-making appliance. 

374 Macklin, Hall, & Co., Franklin -street, Adelaide — ^^Inseet- 

destroying powder. 

375 E. Cole, Rundlv-strbbt, Adelaidb — Modelling of figures, brackets, 

&c., in plaster of Paris, and showing the process of manufacture. 

376 Clark Bros., Franklin-street, Adelaide— Hooded Abbott buggy. 

377 Truslove & Addison, Orroboo — Flour. 
378^ Deland & Co., Haxley Bridge — Flour. 

379 C. FmcK, Greenock — Flour, roller process. 

380 Chas. Eimbbr & Son, Clare— Flour, pea meal, and split peas. 

381 G. HiLFERS & Co., Gawler — Flour. 

388 Knbese ft Son, Crystal Brook and Port Pirie — Roller flour. 
388 W. Thomas & Co., Leadenhall-strbbt, Port Adelaide — Wheat 

and flour, roller made. . 
384 Adelaide Milling and Mercantile Co. (Limited), Yictoria^squabb, 

Adelaide— Wheat and flour, ito ae diei i id «nd veHer. 



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248 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

886 "W. C. Habrison & Co., Pobt Adelaide — EoHer flour and wheat.. 

886 J. Dunn & Co., Pobt Adelaide — Flour, Eclipse roUer ; and biscuits^ 

and bread made from it ; also photographs of tneir mills. 

887 J. & C. Haoe, Gbbxnock — Dietetic coffee, caraccas cocoa, and conditioi^ 

powders. 

888 H. B. Hawke & Co., Kapunda - Steam en^e. 

889 M. DoNAO&Y & Sons, Queenstown - Manila, coir, and all kinds of 
, rope, lines, &c. 

890 L. Mehbtens, Gilles-stbeet, Adelaide — Bonedust, sulphur .phosphate,. 

bone meal, animal charcoal, boneash, &c. 

891 Adelaide Chemical AVobks Co., New Thebabton— Mineral acids,. 

sulphates, chemicals, and chemical manures. 

892 Tamlin & Coombe, Cabbondotvn — Bopes, lines, hayties, &c. 

898 C. Wilcox, Nobth Adelaide— Chaffed hay, sheafed hay, ^heat, oats,, 
barley, crushed and whole, bran, pollard, &c. 

894 BvBFOBD & Son, Stubt^stbeet, Adelaide — Two showcases, con- 
taining soap, &c., of different kinds. 

896 T. Magabey, Nabacoobte — Four wool fleeces. 

896 J. MuBBAY (EzECUTOBS of), Mount Cbawfobd— Photographs, medals,. 

diplomas, fleeces, &c. 

897 J. H. Angas, Collingbove, Anoaston — Wool, wheat, and other - 

natural products, paintings and photographs of cattle, farm, andv 
stock, scenery, &c. 

898 6. C. Hawkeb, Bunoabee — Four wool fleeces. 

899 J. MuBBAY (ExEcuTOBS op), MouNT Cbawfobd — Four wool fleeces. 

400 F. H. DuTTON, Anlaby — Four wool fleeces. 

401 Smith & Swann, Fo-wleb Bat — Four wool fleeces. 

408 £. C. & J. L. Stiblino, Nalpa and Highland Yallby— Four wooib 

fleeces. 
408 Hon. A. B. Mubbay, Wib&ababa — Four wool fleeces. 
404 John Bounseybll, Cobbyton PABX-^Ten wool fleeces. 

406 OSTEBMEYEB, DeWEZ, & Co., CUBBIB-STBBET, ADELAIDE — CoUcCtion* 

of economic processes through which wool passes from the sheep's- 
back to the carding mills. 

406 AOBICULTUBAL PbODUCTS, EXHIBITED BY THE FOLLOWING 

A. & J. McCoU, wheat; T. Ashby, wheat; 0. Badass, sheaved', 
hay, &c. ; G. W. Steinwedel, wheat ; E. & W. fiackett, oats, 
barley, and wheat ; Jas. Hart, sorghum ; T. Carling, peas, oats,, 
wheat, and barley ; — Dunn, field peas ; Hon. D. Murray, hops ; 
Norman & Co., l>arley ; — Medland, scotch barley ; W. M. Beasley,. 
vegetables and fruit ; A. Molineaux, wheat ; J. Bobertson, wheat 
and Cape barley; B. Smith, wheaten hay; W. Brook, malting 
barley ; A. B. Smclair, potatoes ; — MiUaquin, malting barley. 

407 DxTNCAN & Fbaqbb, Fbanklin-stbeet, Adelaide— Tram car, same aa« 

used in Adelaide, also buckboard buggy. 

408 Bbaglehole & Johnston, Nobth Adblaidb — Malt of three diffei^nt 

varieties. 

409 Sewage Fabm, Islington — Mangel wurzels grown at the Sewage- 

Farm, Islington. 

410 May Bbos. & Co , Gawleb — ^Machinery, stripper, chaffputters, pumps,. 

vices, &o. 

411 South Austbalian Gas Company, Gbenpell-stbbet, Adelaide — . 

Gas stoves, gas fittings, &c. 

412 J. G. Bamsay & Co., Mount Babkbb — Stripper, model of stripper and; 

sheafer, and agricultural machinery. 
418 W. H. Bay, O'Connbll-stbeet, Nobth Adblaidb — Buckboard buggy. 
414 W. F. Gbay & Co., Gawleb-place, Adelaide — Collection of 

galvanized-iron work, ventilators, air coolers, Arc. 



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EXHIBITS— AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT HALL. 249- 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT HALL. 

415 J. W. Stott & Son, Alma — Stripper; etump-jump scarifier; the^ 

** Little "Wonder" grubbing machine; stump-jump three-furrow 
plough, with improved draught and lock; mallee cutter, will cut 
mallee trees from one to five years old, and takes a cut of 4ft. 6in. 
to 5ft. in diameter ; improved earth scoop ; three-furrow ordinary 
plough. 

416 J. Whsatley, Kapunoa—Two winnowing machines. 

417 Walter Blake, Balaklava — Damp-weather stripping machine,. 

for stripping and, threshing standing com in damp or ordinary- 
weather ; also wagon, as used for agricultural purposes. 

418 Jos. Blake, Smithfield — ^English wagon. 

419 Jab. A. Lawton, Nobth-terracb, Adelaide — Spring van and trolly. 

420 H. B. Hawke & Co., Kapunda — Horse power, castings, seed eowers.- 

421 A. Dawson, Balaklava — English wagon. 

422 Heithersay Bbos., Petersbubg — Ordinary three-furrow plough 

and three-furrow stump -jumping plough, each having patent 
reversible ploughshares. 

423 J. G. Bamsay & Co., Mount Babkeb — Stripper and sheaf er. 

424 J. Maxwell, Manooka — Two three-furrow stu mp- jumping ploughs. 
42ff Mellor Bros., Franklin- street, Adelaide— Wagon, ploughshares,. 

and mould boards. 
426 Wiesner & HiLBEO, Eudvnda-- Stripper, stump-jumping double- 
furrow plough, stump-jumping scarifier, one leeu of stump- 
Smping harrow, German wagon. 
. May, Wallaroo— May's patent "Eureka" automatic relief 
plough. 
428 R. Cameron k Sons, Kapunda — Adelaide stripper for ordinary^ 
weather, also Adelaide stripper for damp weather. 



OUTSIDE. 

429 J. H. Trewenack, Maoill — Terra-cotta fountain in centre of prome- 
nade. 

480 A. Simpson & Son, Gawlbr-placb — Garden-seats placed around the- 

grounds. 

481 Royal Commissioners fob S.A., Adelaide — Model of blackfellow in* 

canoe spearing fish. 

482 C. E. Dutch, Mount Babkeb — Combined wheat thrashing machine,. 

with straw elevator and wheat-cleaning attachment. 

483 T. H. Tbbwenack, Maoill — A collection of the following goods, viz. : 

— Drain tiles and pipes, terra-cotta ware, fireclay goods, chemical 
stoneware, tiles for pavements, &c., earthenware and stoneware. 

484 Stiblino Distbict Council, Stirling— Blocks of freestone. 

486 . Kapunda Marble and Building Co., Kapi^^a — Marble monument 
and collection of marble, manufactured and ia the rough. 

486 Hanson & Evans — ^Marble and granite monuments and headstones of 
various designs. 



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260 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

487 A. Simpson & Son, GAWLBR-PLACB-Galyanized ironware, sheep aad 

cattle trough, iron gates, well buckets, &c. 
48S John Allen, Willt7noa— Slates and flagging. 

439 Mount Gambibb Goubt — Blocks of stone. 

440 Mbllob Bbos., Fbanklin-stbeet, Adelaidb — ^Agricultural imple- 

ments, fences, gates, windmills, pumps, &c. 

441 Harris, Scarfb, & Co., Gawler-placb — ^Windmills, pumps, &c. 

44t E. J. Patebnostbb, Salisbury — Patent all iron windmill, myented and 
made at Salisbury, S.A., erected with pump, &c., and self regu- 
lating appliances. 

448 J. H. HoBwooD & Co., Cubrie-stbbet— The Adelaide windmill, and 
all iron Australian windmill, pumps, boring tools, &c. 

444 J. Hooker, Kilkenny — Portable steam pump. 

445 J. Martin & Co., Gawleb- Special shed built, containing the display of 

their engineering and agricultural machinery. 

446 G. £. Fulton & Co., Kilkenny — Trophy of cast-iron pipes and water- 

works fittings, from their foundry, Kilkenny. 

447 Feed. F. Bassett, Exchange, City — Slates and flagging. 

448 Charlb9 Grant, Mubray Bridge — One building stone, partly dressed 

and partly rough. 
448 Thos. Kelly, Mount GAMSiEB^Dressed stone. 

450 Thos. Martcn, Willunga — Flagging and roofing slates. 

451 Gawlbr Lime and Produce Co., Gawleb, and 86, Waymouth-stbebt, 

City — Specimens of lime and limestone ; burnt at Gawler from stone 
very plentiful to the north of Gawler, and only from Sin. to 24in. 
from the surface. 



MACHINERY HALL 

452 E. Lindsay, Carbon Iron Works, Pobt Adelaidb— Pair of com- 
pound surface-condensing engines, with llin. by 21ui. cylinders, 
12in. stroke ; also steel return-tube boiler, 8'ft. long, 6ft. 9m. drain, 
with two furnaces, each 6ft. b^ 2ft. 2in. 

458 Ja8. Hooker, Kilkenny — Cold-iron saw, drilling, squaring, and 
boring machine. 

454 F. H. Clark & Sons— Collection of well boring tools, &c. 



ARMAMENT HALL 

455 Pbotectob op Abobioinbb, £. L. Hamilton, Adelaidb — Collection 

of natiye weapons. 

456 Inspectob Besley, Pobt AuGusTA-CollectionofnatiTe weapons. 

457 Point McLeay Mission Station — Collection of native weapons. 

458 W. B. Wilkinson, Pirie-stbbet, Adelaide — Collection of natiTB 

weapons. 

459 Hon. J. L. Pabsons, Goyebnicent Residbnt, NoRtmsBK Tbbbitoby — 

Collection of native weapons. 

480 David Lindsay, North Adelaidb — Collection of native weapons. 

461 J. W. Jones, Consbbvator op Water -Collection of native weapon^. 

468 Adelaide Public Libbary and Musevm, North-tebbace^ Full- 
sized model of blackfellow. 



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EXHIBITS— ARMAMENT HALL. 251 

463 Bby. Gio. Taplin, Point McLbat Mission Station— Three pho* 

tographs of aboriginals. 

464 Si& Samubl Baybnpokt, K.C.M.G'.y Bbaumont— Oil painting (coiro- 

boree). 
466 Botal Commission for South Australia, Adblaidb — Collection of 
Photographs. 

466 •Marinb Board of South Australu and H.M. Dockyard, Glan- 

TiLLB— Castings; patterns in wood for castings ; plans and photo- 
graphs connected with deepening and lighthouse operations ; screw 
moorings and models of same ; propellers, &c. 

467 LocoMOTiYB Enoinbbr, Loco. Workshops, Adblaidb — Stamped 

forgings of vaiious descriptions, railway cfiuriage made in the Loco, 
workshops. 
466 W. J. Nott, Blanchbtown, Biter Murray — Model of windmill and 
pump. 

469 Jas. Millbr, Wbst-tbrracb north —Working model of apparatus for 

preventing collision between vessels at sea during tae darkness 
between sunset and sunrise ; also a very small model of shaft 
coupling. 

470 Hugh Albxander, Birkenhbad— Model of s.s. Adelaide. 

471 A. Stidston, Woodvillb— Patent Marker Safety Signal. 

472 M* Wiohtman, H.M. Dockyard, Glanvillb - Model of sloop, showing 

safety steering apparatus. 

473 J. Frasbr, Hbath-strbbt, Bqucbnhbad— Three models of yachts. 

474 G. H. Walkbr, BiRKBNHBAD—Half model of f uU-rigged ship. 

47ff GoTBRNMBNT OF SouTH AUSTRALIA — Collcction of economic products 
from India. 

476 A. Simpson & Son, GAWLER-PLACB^Submarine torpedo, made in the 

colony. 

477 Hon. D. Murray, Mbdindib — Four shields of arms. 

478 C. E. 0. Smyth, Superintbndbnt of Public Buildings — Collec- 

tion of weapons. 



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252 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



NORTHERN TERRITORY COURT. 

I HJC. Government— Minister for the Northern Territory, 600 ounces 

gold. 

8 Olaf Jeneen, J:F. — Specimens of auriferous quartz from the Eleanor 
reef, corering 20 acres; the Kohinoor reef, 13 acres; and the Tele- 
graph reef, 20 acres. Crushing plant, a 20-head battery. Yield of 
gold up to date equal to £33,000. 

8 Pert Darwin Gold ICning Company (Limited), per Mr. Albert 
Hanns, Manager— Specimens of aurtferous pyrites from the Howley 
Mine. 

4 W. K. Griffiths— Specimens of auriferous quartz from No. 3 South 
Union, No. 2 South Union, No. 2 North Union, No. 12 North Union ; 

?»ecimens from Princess Louise, Yam Creek, and from Pioneer claim,, 
am Creek. 
ff Grove Hill Gold Mining Co.— Specimens of auriferous quartz. 

6 George L. Barrett — Specimens of silver ore from claim near Mount 

Shoobridge. 

7 Eveleen Silver Mining Company (Limited) — Specimens of silver ore 

from the company's mine near ** Hauschildf s rug^ ; " also samples of 
" bullion," reduced from tifcie crude ore. 

8 Adam Johns — Specimens of galena from the McEinlay, south of Flora 

Bell mine. 

9 Littlefield and Clarke— Specimens of galena and carbonate of silver,. 

newly discovered at Selwyn, near the township of Burrundie : — 

1 Ore from lode 8 feet wide. 

2 *< " 20 " 

3 « "3 " 

10 James Bex^amin Bobinson— Specimens of galena and carbonate of 
silver, from the " Flora Bell " claun, 480 acres, near the " Twelve 
Mile," on the McKinlay river. 

II V. L. Solomon — Specimens of silver ore from claim, 160 acres, on the 

Union. 
12 George L. Barrett— Large block of tin ore from Mount Shoobridge. 
18 Cmikshank and Barrett — Specimens of tin ore from Mount Shoobridge. 
14 Adam Johns — Specimens of tin ore irom Mount Shoobridge. 
16 Kingston and Christoe— Specimens of tin ore from claims on Finniss 

river (644 acres.) 

16 Monnt Wells K.t. Tin Mining Company (Limited), Adelaide, per 

Mr. George Deane, Manager — Specimens of tin ore from No. 1 
shaft, 26ft. level, width of lode 3ft. 6in., together with specimens- 
from six other portions of the company's land. 

17 Port Darwin Tin Company (Limited), Meant Wells —Specimens of 

tin ore. 

18 V. L. Solomon — Specimens of tin ore from Mount Shoobridge. Area of 

claim, 480 acres. 

19 Baly Biver Copper Company (Limited) — Specimens of copper ore from 

the company^s claim on the Daly river. Area of claim, 320 acres. 

20 V, L. Solomon — Specimens of copper, grey ore, and carbonate, from the- 

Wheal Banks Mine, Daly Biver. Main shaft at 120ft. level, lode Oft. 
wide. Area of claim, 960 acres. 
81 V. L. Solomon — Specimens of copper ore from Howley Mine, depth 
20ft.) lode 2ft. wide. Area, 80 acres. 



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EXHIBITS-NORTHERN TERRITORY COURT. 253 



82 A. S. Hawion, T. C. WoIlMton, and B. Peanon.— Gem stones from the 

Ulterior of the Territory. 
28 ^rederiek £. Beeker— Specimens of coral from Fannie Bay. (These 

were all broken to pieces on the voyage.) 
24 W. T. Bednall, Aduaide— North Australian shells, collected by the 

exhibitor at Port Darwin and its vicinity. 
26 Paul Foelsohe— 

Forty-eight photographic views of scenery and buildings in the 

Nortbem Territory. 
A collection of native weapons and handiwork, native canoe, &c, 
26 Uanriee Holtze, Curator of the Government Gardens— Samples of 
agricultural produce from the Government Experimental Gardens, 
near Palmerston : — 

1 Maize, caragua. 29 

" Blount's prolific. 30 

" yellow horsetooth. 31 
" golden drop. 32 

" Blown King Phillip. 
Papagay. 



2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 



33 
34 

Rice. 86 

Millet. 36 

Sorghum. 37 

Horse gram. 38 

Dhol. . 39 

Rice. 40 

Bearded millet. 41 

Sorghum. 42 

Teosinte. 43 

Arrowroot tubers. 44 

Cassava tubers. 45 

Tams. 46 

Tams, Bioscorea species. 47 

Sweet potatoes. 48 

Amorphophallum roots. 49 

Tacca roots. 50 

Ganna esculenta roots 51 

Caladium esculentum. 52 

Ginger. W 

Tobacco leaf. 54 

Ginger, dry. 65 
Turmeric. 



Peanuts. 
Teal seed. 
Sunflower seed. 
Castor oil beans. 
Jatropha curcas seeds. 
Calophyllum nuts. 
Arrowroot. 
Tam starch. 
Sweet potato starch. 
Tous le mois. 
Mandiaco Janipha. 
Mandiaco Aipi. 
Tapioca. 

Sugarcane, " Creole." 
Peanut oil. 
Sesame oil. 
Castor oil. 
Cotton oil. 
Egyptian cotton. 
Upland cotton. 
Sea Island cotton. 
Manila hemp. 
Banana fibre. 
Pineapple fibre. 
Sun hemp plants., 
Babool bark. 
Mangrove bark. 



27 



Uaoriee Holtze, Cnrator of the Government Gardens— A collection of 
indigenous woods of the Northern Territory, obtained from the neigh- 
borhood of Palmerston :- 



1 Erytbrophoanem Labou- 14 

cheri. 15 

2 Acacia auriculiformis. 16 

3 Melaluca leucadendron, 17 

4 Mimusops parviflora. 18 

5 Carapa Molucensis. 19 

6 Avicenia officinalis. 20 

7 ^giceras majus. 21 

8 Metrosideros paradoia. 22 

9 Terminalia species. 23 

10 Adenanthera pavonia. 24 

11 Eucalyptus tetrodonta. 25 

12 Bombax Malabaricum. 26 
18 Canarium Australasicum. 27 



Zanthozyllum parviflorum. 
Alstonia vertioillosa. 
Peltophorum ferrugineum. 
Undefined. 
Albizzia procera. 
Eugenia fspe&w, 
Polyalthia Holtzeana. 
Ficus glomerata. 
Tristania Holtzeana. 
Undefined. 
Elaeocarpus species. 
Eucalyptus miniata. 
Careya Australis. 
Buchanania augustif olia. 



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264 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

28 Casuarina et^uisetifolia. 40 Undefined. 

29 Siderozylon species. 41 Ficus species. 

30 Undefined. 42 Calophyllum species, 

31 Saccopetulum species. 43 Sarcocephalus cordatns. 

32 Myristica insipida. 44 Eugenia Holtzeana 

33 Fienela intratropica. 45 Gmelina macrophylla. 

34 Bandia densiflora. 46 Eugenia species. 
36 Oreivia multiflora. 47 Eudoia ramiflora. 

36 Sideroxylon species. 48 TenninaUa platyphylla. 

37 Tenninalia species. 49 Timonius Bumphii. 

38 Calophyllum species. 60 Tenninalia microcarpa. 

39 Sterculia quadiifida. 

28 Xrs. U. Holtie— Preserved fruits, &o. :— 

1 Preserved ginger. 

2 ** bananas. 

3 " papaws. 

4 '* pineapples. 

5 Pickled ginger. 

6 *^ capsicums. 

7 Tomato sauce. 

29 Sev. H. Kempe — Samples of produce grown at Mission Station, Her* 

mansbuTg, on the Finke River : — 
Potatoes. 
Maize. 
Imphee. 

Sorghum vulgare. 
White French millet. 
Kaffircom. 

Spelt (German wheat.) 
Cyperus esculentus. 

&*.• 

White mustard. 
Leindotter (gold of pleasure.) 
80 John Gtoorge Knight— Specimens of rocks and building material: — 

1 Ferruginous earth, usually the top soil about Palmerston. 

2 Conglomerate, generally about 2ft. under top soil, but often 

cropping out of the surface. 

3 Stone from Palmerston. 

4 Stone, similar but softer than No. 3, often eaten by the abori- 

gines to allay their hunger. 
6 Stone from Fannie Bay, tour miles from Palmerston, used for 
building purposes. 

6 Micaceous clay slate, imderlying all the above. 

7 White clay from Fannie Bay. 

8 Brick clay from Fannie Bay. 

9 Sample of shells used for making lime, found in mounds on 

dryland. 

10 Sample of lime produced from the above shell. 

11 Sample of bricks made fifty years ago by the first military 

settlers at Port Essington. 

12 Sample of concrete used in building Mr. Knight's house —See 

photograph. 

31 Kaorioe Holtze— 

1 Samples of agricultural soil from Daly River. 

2 Samples of agricultural soil from Adelaide River. 

3 Samples of agricultural soil from Shoal Bay, twelve miles from 

Palmerston. 



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EXHIBITS— NORTHERN TERRITORY COURT. 255 

4 Samples of agricultural soil from Goyenmient Oardens, two 

axid a-half miles from Palmerstou. 

5 Samples of agricultural soU from The Jungle, eight miles from 

Palmerston. 

32 John Ctoorge Knight— Samples of grasses growing in the neighborhood 

of Palmerston : — 

1 Acclimatised grass, spreading rapidly. 

2 " good fodder. 

3 Couch grass, which springs up wheroyer land is cleared, and is 

rapidly spreading oyer the country. A wild Buffalo grass 
usually accompanies the ** couch," and the struggle for 
masterjr is yet undecided. 

4 ** Wire weed,'' belieyed to be adapted for the manufacture of 

paper. 

5 Samples of rice (Paddy) grown near Palmerston. 

6 Sample of dress^ rice. 

Memo.— The cultiyation of rice is just being started by the 
Chinese, and is likely to be carried out on a large scale. 

33 Xrs. Kelsey — Two cases of butterflies and insects. 

34 Landa Department, Palmerston — Maps and nlans explanatory of the 

settlement of the Northern Territory, including geological sketch 
section and report by the Key. J. Tenison Woods, F.G.S. 
36 Xrs. T. Kennedy Pater— Two cases of butterflies, moths, &c. 

36 Xrs. T. Ward, Adelaide— Two cases of butterflies, moths, &c. 

37 Oaear 7. C. Belehardt, Land Sorreyor, Palmeriton— Plan showing all 

the^ mineral coimtry at present prospected, and the sites of the 
yarious mineral workings, prepared expressly for this Exhibition. 
33 Gtoorge Byland— Specimen of sweet potato, originally lOlbs. in weight, 
grown at Rum Jungle. 

39 Alfred Searcy — 

Samples of red and black trepang, used by the Chinese as an 

article of luxury. 
Sample of tortoiseshell, from the sea coast. 

40 Alfired Searcy, Sub-Collector of CnstomB, Palmerston— Statistics of 

imports and exports. Customs reyenue, &c. 

41 B. H. Pnlleine — A collection of skins of birds belonging to the Northern 

Territory. 

42 J. O. Knight — Ball showing the quantity of gold obtained in the Nor- 

thern Territory, computed at 8 tons, forming a sphere 36*6 inches 
in diameter, measuring 14*855 cubic feet, and yalued at £1,012,666 
13s. 4d. 

43 V. L. Solomon — Show case containing specimens of pearl and other 

shells, coraline, and other marine curiosities. 

44 Dayid Lindsay— A collection of natiye weapons, &c. 

45 Eveleen Silver Mining Company, Limited— One hundred bars of bullion 

weighing 3 tons 13cwt. 2qr8., and block of silyer ore, weighing 5 cwt. 

46 Olaf Jensen— Cake of retorted gold weighing 1 , 652ozs . 1 Odwts. , obtained 

from crushing 783 tons stone from Eleanor Reef, Pine Creek. 

47 B. D. Beresford- Tortoiseshell. 

Large bean, similar to that of Queensland, used for matchboxes. 



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■256 SOUTH AUSTRALIA— EXHIBITS. 

CONCERT HALL 

The following architectural drawings have been added to the exhibits ainoe 
the compilation of the catalogue : — 

7a. Congre^tional Church, Glenelg, by Garlick & Son 

17. Figure in niche, St Biunabas Theological College, by Garlick & Son. 

18. West facade of design, cathedral, by A. J. Murray. 

19. Original design of Exhibition, Pubhc Works Department 

20. Premises of E. S. Wijg & Son, by A. J. Murray. 

21. Flan of farm, by A. J. Murray. 

22. St. John's, Adelaide, by Mr. Garlick Holwell. 

. 2Z, Second premiated design, church, Marden, by Henderson & Marryat 
24. Executed design, church, Marden, by Henderson & Marryat. 



A Leatherwork cornice, Mrs. Bower, Woodville. 
h Leatherwork cornice, Mrs. Bower, Woodville. 



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ADELAIDE 
JUBILEE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 



PATRONS. . 



His Bojal Highness the Prince of Wtdes, K.G. 

His Roynl Highness Prince Albert Victor Christian Edward of Wales, K.G. 

His Royal Highness Prince George Frederick Ernest Albert of Wales, K.G. 



VICE-PATRONS. 

Sir W. C. F. Robinson, G.O.M.G., Governor of South Australia. 

Right Hon. Oharles Robert, Baron Carrington, G.C.M.G., Governor of l^ew 

South Wales. 
Sir H. B. Loch, K.G.B., Governor of Yictoiia. 
Lieutenant-General Sir W. F. D. Jervois, R.E., G.C.M.G., C.B., Governor of 

New Zealand. 
Sir F. N. Broome, K.C.M.G., Governor of Western Australia. 
Sir A. H. Palmer, K.G.M.G., Acting Governor of Queendand. 



PRESIDENT. 

His Excellency the Governor (Sir W. C. F. Robinson, G.C.M.G.) 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 
E. T. Smith, Esq., M.P. 

EXECUTIVE COMMISSIONER. 

Sir Samuel Davenport, K.O.M.G. 



TRUSTEES. 



Sir Samuel Davenport, E.G.M.G. 
Hon. J. C. Bray, M.P. 
E. T. Smith, Esq., M.P. 



Hon. J. H. Angas, M.L.C. 
F. Rymill, Esq. 



PROMOTERS AND GUARANTORS. 

£. T. Smith, Esq., M.P., Chairman. 
Sir Samuel Davenport, E.C.M.G. 

Sir Thomas Elder, G.C.M.G. 

The Honorable J; C. Bray, M.P. 

The Honorable Sh: R. D. Ross, M.P. (Speaker of the House of Assembly.) 

The Honorable T. PJayford, M.P. 

The Honorable J. Martin, M.L.C. 

The Honorable W. Wadham, M.L.C. 

The Honorable A. M. Simpson, M.L.C. 

The Honorable J. H. Angas, M.L.C. 



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282 SOUTH AUSTRALIA— PROMOTERS, &c. 

PROMOTERS AND GUARANTORS-«:<;»/i««*r^. 

The Honoiable J. C. F. Johiuon, M.P. 

The Honorable C. C. Kingston, M.P. 

G. D. Green, Esq., M.P. 

Lord Brassey. 

A. A. Fox, Esq., J.P. 

D. Bower, Esq., J.P. 

W. Bundey, Esq., J.P. 

A. Adamson, Esq., J.P. 

J. Bounseyell, Esq., J.P. 

F. J. Botting, Esq., J.P. 

J. M. Anderson, Esq., J.P. 

F. Hagedom, Esq., J.P. 

L. A. Jessop, Esq., J.P. 

John Hodffkiss, Esq., J.P. 

Charles Willooz, Esq., J.P. 

B. Searle, Esq., J.P. 

Wm. Haines, Esq., J.P. 

A. L. Hanold, Esq., J.P. 

F; Rymill, Esq. 

E. Spicer, Esq. 

G. G. Mayo, Esq. 

G. F. Ind, Esq. 

Messrs. G. & W. Shierlaw. 

Messrs. Mayfield & Sons. 

Messrs. John Martin & Co. 

Messrs. Gibbs, Bright, & Co. 

Messrs. C. Jacobs & Son. 

C. Sabine, Esq. 

R. B. Eraser, Esq. 

Messrs. W. ft T. Rhodes. 

F. D. Beach, Esq. 

A. W, Dobbie, Esq. 

Thomas Hardy, Esq. 

Messrs. A. E. ft F. ToUey. 

Messrs. Milne & Co. 

A. W. Marshall, Esq. 

Messrs. Chambers ft Blades. 

Messrs. Hammer. & Co. 

J. J. Green, Esq. 

D. W. Melvin, Esq. 

S. Talbot Smith, Esq., B.A., LL.B. 

Edwin Smith, Esq. 

Henry Sewell, Esq. 

R. A. Stock, Esq. 

SUPERINTENDENT OP JURIES. 
Professor E. H. Rennie, M.A., D.Sc. 

SECRETARY. 

Jno. Fairfax Conigraye, Esq., J.P. 



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